Munbro Kerman

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About Munbro Kerman

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    NSAU Aeronautical Engineer

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  • Location Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

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  1. June 1958: Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III A successor to the Vought F-8 and competitor to the F-4 Phantom II, Chance Vought looked to create an aircraft that was larger yet had a better performance. The jet would use similar technology as the F-8U Crusader used: a variable incidence wing. A more powerful Pratt & Whitney engine would be used along with a liquid-fueled rocket engine to increase performance. The plane was designed to surpass Mach 2, so vertical fins were implemented to combat the rough flight conditions. The fins were able to rotate to a horizontal position during landing. The XF8U-3 reached a top speed of Mach 2.39. Three years prior, the US Navy created a competition for Mach 2+ aircraft that would start fly-offs between the XF8U-3 and the future F-4 Phantom. The aircraft had advantages in maneuverability but the pilot would be overwhelmed due to the workload created after firing missiles. The F-4 Phantom did not have this problem and had a larger payload capacity, which would end the XF8U-3 and the F-8U. The program was scrapped and the planes were given to NASA, where they would do routine mock dogfights with Navy Phantoms until complaints stopped the harassment. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @Servo's X-15
  2. No, it doesn't snag on release. It used to, but after adjusting the fairing again and again it finally worked.
  3. Did some work on the Saturn V for the 1.3 update. All that was done was rebuilding the command module and the LES cover, along with reshaping the service module's engine using a fairing. Part count is now just over 1,000. With LES cover, it does separate cleanly. Thoughts? CM looks too dark, or just right?
  4. November 1955: Bell X-2 "Starbuster" Development beginning in 1945, the Bell X-2 was built by Bell Aircraft to test flight characteristics beyond Mach 1 and 2. Built to exceed the speed limits of the X-1 and D-558-II, and the temperature and altitude limits of any other plane. The X-2 had the first engines of its kind in U.S. aircraft: throttleable rocket motors. The copper-nickel alloy and stainless steel construction were to combat the intense heating at Mach 3 caused by friction. The X-2 program was years behind schedule, and during the time the F-104 was conducting tests in a fighter configuration. Data from tests concluded that the aircraft would experience extreme stability problems at around Mach 3. Two pilots, Ivan Kincheloe and "Mel" Apt, were assigned to put the craft to the test. Kincheloe became the first pilot to exceed 100,000 feet, topping out at 126,000 feet. Three weeks later Apt would become the first man to exceed Mach 3, at an altitude of 65,000 feet. After achieving the highest speed, Apt banked the aircraft where it lost control from inertia coupling, the same problem Yeager faced with the X-1A. Apt tried to gain control again, but could not and was forced to ditch. Unfortunately, Apt was crippled from the severe ejection forces, and could not open his main parachute, which ultimately killed him. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @qzgy's X-13 Vertijet
  5. @EpicSpaceTroll139 Possibly use radiators to shape the bell, while fitting the mainsail in?
  6. June 1949: Lockheed XF-90 A 1945 US Amy request to produce an advanced fighter birthed Lockheed's proposal: the XF-90. Data showed that a delta wing with the current design would not work, so swept wings were used instead of delta. The final design had a similar layout as the P-80 Shooting Star, but with a sharper nose and two turbojet engines. The structure, using a heavier and sturdier aluminum, made the aircraft heavier than its competitors. Thus resulting it to be underpowered. An improved version would use afterburners, but still would be underpowered. The XF-90 was Lockheed's first aircraft to go supersonic but in a dive. The design was placed second to McDonnell's XF-88 before it was cancelled. After Lockheed lost the contract, one of the two testbeds were sent to Nevada, where it would survive three atomic blasts. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @NotAnAimbot's XB-51
  7. December 1948: Northrop X-4 Bantam Tailless Aircraft The X-4, not using any horizontal stabilizers, was a twin-engine experimental jet to test how an aircraft can perform at Mach 1 without any horizontal tail surfaces. Flight control systems at the time did not help the X-4's situation when the tailless craft was deemed unsuitable for supersonic flight. This increased the speed from 614 mph to 700 mph, improving the overall performance of the aircraft. The XF-88 was chosen over the XF-90 and YF-93 to be built as a "penetration fighter" to escort bombers. Shortly after the Air Force changed plans before production started, and the project was cancelled. Years later the XF-88's design would be enlarged to be developed into the F-101, where the F-101 would be used in the Korean war and Vietnam war. Two aircraft were built, with the first craft flown for only 10 flights before it was said to be "mechanically unreliable." The second craft would be flown 20 times, being tested by Chuck Yeager, Scott Crossfield, and others. Crossfield noted that as the X-4 gained speed, the nose would pitch down, which also happened to the Me-163 Komet; a German version of a tailless craft. Balsa wood strips would be added and removed over time to see if it would improve the craft's stability, in which it did. Fuel leakages in the wings caused the aircraft to be grounded for five months, and another three months after one of the engines were damaged during landing. Both aircraft survived the testing, and are now on display. The X-4's main goal was to show that a tailless craft could be flown above Mach 1, and it failed to reach that goal. Years later, however, the F7U-Cutlass would prove that a tailless craft can fly stably above Mach 1. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @Servo's XF-91
  8. October 1948: McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo The XF-88 started from a request from the USAF to create a long-range fighter to escort bombers. It was also to be a replacement for the P-51 Mustang, which was a WWII bomber escort. The Voodoo had a thirty-five degree swept wing, and two engines that were housed in the lower fuselage. The engines proved to be underpowered and were replaced with more powerful engines that included afterburners. This increased the speed from 614 mph to 700 mph, improving the overall performance of the aircraft. The XF-88 was chosen over the XF-90 and YF-93 to be built as a "penetration fighter" to escort bombers. Shortly after the Air Force changed plans before production started, and the project was cancelled. Years later the XF-88's design would be enlarged to be developed into the F-101, where the F-101 would be used in the Korean war and Vietnam war. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @Munbro Kerman's Northrop X-4 Bantam Tailless Aircraft
  9. September 1948: Convair XF-92 A design that was used for experimental purposes only, the XF-92's delta-wing design would go on to be used in aircraft such as the F-102 Dagger, F-106 Dart, and the US Navy F2Y Sea Dart. The US Air Force requested a supersonic interceptor that was able to reach 50,000 feet in under four minutes. Multiple companies put forth their design, including Consolidated Vultee (later known as Convair). Their design, which included swept wings, showed multiple problems during testing in wind tunnels. German scientists from Operation Paperclip were doing research on delta-wing designs, which Convair considered. They modified their design and included delta-wings. When they presented their improved design, the Air Force approved, giving birth to the XF-92. During testing, Chuck Yeager was assigned to the XF-92, where he discovered that he was able to pull his nose up to a 45-degree angle without stalling during landing. After a new engine was implemented to the craft, Yeager noted that there was very little improvement to the handling of the craft: everyone commented that it was severely underpowered. Scott Crossfield noted that "no one wanted to fly that was a miserable flying beast." Though the craft had its cons, it also had its upsides. The large surface area of the delta-wing design gave the craft a very good low-speed performance. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @Munbro Kerman's McDonnell Douglas XF-88 Voodoo
  10. October 1947: Northrop YB-49 A prototype jet-powered bomber derived from the earlier Northrop YB-35, the YB-49 included the flying wing design. Although the YB-49 never entered service for the US Air Force, its design proved to be valid and would be incorporated with the much later B-2 Stealth Bomber. In 1944, Northrop's XB-35 program was behind schedule immensely, and the Air Force cancelled the contract. But, the flying wing design proved to interest the Air Force and they continued to test a single XB-35 prototype. Two air frames built for the supposed XB-35 program, the Air Force ordered for them to be fitted with jet engines; thus giving birth to the YB-49. Testing proved to even more promising than the XB-35. The later B-2 bomber would have the same wingspan of the YB-49: 172 feet. Flight data recorded from the YB-49 would be used to help design the B-2 Spirit in the 1990's. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @NorthAmericanAviation's D-558-II
  11. April 1947: Douglas D-558-I "Skystreak" Along with the X-1, the D-558-1 served top collect research data at transonic speeds. it was given a real elevator surface thinner than the wing to mitigate transonic shockwave collisions between the two surfaces. The aircraft were light, carrying a J-35 engine and 230 gallons of fuel. there were no protruding surfaces on the plane; the pre- area-rule thinking of slick, bullet shaped lines is very present. The Skystreak was part of a three-step program from the U.S. Navy and Douglas. The second stage would be the D-558-II, and the third stage never came through to fruition. One of the main focuses of the first stage was to gain data on pressure distribution and transonic buffeting. This aircraft, along with the X-1, were the only way to gather data for aircraft traveling at the speed of sound until NACA was able to develop more powerful wind tunnels. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @NotAnAimbot's XB-46 Info Sources: Crossfield, A. Scott, and Clay Blair. Always Another Dawn. Salem, NH: Ayer Pub., 1990. Print.Dunbar, Brian. "NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - D-558-I." NASA. NASA, 01 Apr. 2015. Web.
  12. I fixed up the window on the X-1, looks much better now don't you think?
  13. I just thought of another material for the window, those blue little Gravioli detectors. I might be able to put more detail into the window with those.
  14. It's going to be a pleasure working with everyone on the XoTD team. Here's a small slice of my contribution. January 1946: Bell X-1 The iconic first aircraft to break the “sound barrier” On October 14, 1947, The X-1 was piloted to Mach 1 by Charles Yeager. This was the first time man had officially reached transonic speeds. The X-1 was a bullet-shaped aircraft powered by a cluster of four alcohol-oxygen reaction chambers ganged together. This engine was called the XLR-11, produced by Reaction Motors, Incorporated. The same engine would be used on the D-558-II, XF-91 Thunderceptor, and as an interim engine on the X-15 until the XLR-99 was complete. It produced 6,000 lb/ft (27 Kn) of thrust. The X-1 was launched from a B-29 and later B-50, essentially an engine-uprated B-29. Aerodynamically speaking, the X-1 is clean, solely for the purpose of flying fast, but did not employ a swept wing. It would be proven throughout the program that the conventional way of aerodynamic thinking and the accumulated knowledge associated to it would be totally inadequate for aircraft that continued to push speed faster than Mach 1. The X-1 would be the first definitive milestone in gathering supersonic flight data. Pushing Mach 2: After Scott Crossfield reached and exceeded Mach 2 in the Navy’s Douglas D-558-II “Skyrocket,” Yeager fired back by pushing the X-1A to Mach 2.42 twenty-two days later, but not without dire consequence; the straight-winged, pre-area-rule aircraft became unstable and unresponsive above Mach 2.3. More specifically, the aircraft began to yaw and pitch up, then rolling inverted. Yeager blacked out. The X-1 fell 51,000 feet until Yeager regained consciousness, transferred the aircraft from an inverted spin into a normal spin, and recovered into a normal flight attitude at about 25,000 feet. The flight ended in the normal dead-stick landing, but the X-1’s design had now been obsolesced. Download Link: Tomorrows' Craft: @Servo's XB-43
  15. No I have not, I just incorporated some. And some control surfaces, responds very well to pitch and roll.