RuBisCO

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About RuBisCO

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    Rocket Scientist
  1. I was wondering about the secret feature, and I had a hopeful idea so I went to tracking station and zoomed out...
  2. Ok here are some ideas 1. Add a button to download all crafts in a hanger simultaneously. 2. Make hanger pages such that pictures, videos and detailed descriptions can be made describing the hanger of crafts. Consider the problem this guy has, in which he wants to share 3 sub-assembly boosters simultaneously, his solutions is kind of innovative: https://kerbalx.com/Rune/General-Lifters I would like to share these as a pack, at best I can make a hanger but I can't make much describing them in the hanger, at best I could make each page nearly identical linking to each other.
  3. Suggestion: It would be nice if we could post more than one craft per page, for example this guy had to put 3 rockets together in one craft file: https://kerbalx.com/Rune/General-Lifters Either that or increase the description options for hangers. Besides that I love KerbalX and I addictively post my craft and I would take a bullet for you.
  4. Well their planets rotate, just as the same speed as they go around the sun, hence tidal-locked. If they live near the terminator, depends on a whole lot of unknowns unknowns, how well their atmosphere moves heat, what is the tectonic activity? how much surface water do they have? If their world has up-welled continents and volcanic islands on near side and subduction on the far side then our kerbals might come about near the center of the near side assuming they have a super-rotor atmosphere and not a turbulent-convecting atmosphere that would put a perpetual hurricane at the center of the near side. Worlds like Tb and Tc are likely venus like hells, Td perhaps habitable along the terminator if its atmosphere is think enough and it retained enough water, Te more so towards the center, Tf and Tg would need thick high green-house gas atmospheres to prevent all their water from freezing up on the far side leaving the near side and even terminator a desert. As for earth examples of animals that sleep: google, but alas no life on earth evolves in a world with perpetual day light.
  5. Stars... OH DAM STARS! Inhabitants on these worlds might not even know of stars! Their worlds are tidal-locked so they have no day or night (they probably don't sleep either!), only unless they travel to the dark side of their world would they see stars. Atmospherics scattering of light on their day side would cover up any star even a bright one like Iota Piscium. The other planets being definite worlds in their sky would likely give the inhabitants an edge over us that their world is one of several, but the discovery that their sun is only one of trillions upon trillions would come later then it did for us in their civilization's development.
  6. Not a Kerbals as I though So I calculated the orbital velocity of each of the TRAPIST planets, subtracted the difference and assume 75% of that to guess at how much delta-v would be needed to go from low orbit of one world up to a transfer orbit to the next world. Venus Earth Mars Tb Tc Td Te Tf Tg Th r (m) 1.08E+11 1.50E+11 2.28E+11 1.66E+09 2.28E+09 3.14E+09 4.19E+09 5.54E+09 6.73E+09 9.40E+09 v (m/s) 35017 29781 24127 79964 68231 58141 50332 43772 39714 33604 v diff. 5236 655 11733 10090 7809 6560 4058 6110 est. dv needed 3927 4241 8800 7567 5857 4920 3043 4583 So for a civilization on say Te to go to Td would take ~6 km/s of delta-v, from Te to Tf would take ~5 km/s, from Tf to Tg would be ~3 km/s, etc. For comparison from Earth to Mars is typically 4.2 km/s. So it is going to take equal or greater amounts of rocket fuel to hop planets here, even though travel times will be a few days rather than many months. With such short orbital periods gravity assists would make huge amounts of sense as when hoping two or more planets up or down.
  7. Sweet!, who going to announce in a week?
  8. No, sulfur is energetically easier to use then oxygen at the sacrifice that it is rarer, is a solid that can't support complex life, etc. Yes if we have not heard signals from the system probably no sentient life or even animals life, although SETI only looks at a narrow radio band range and only for high power signals.
  9. YNM, I agree totally. Between 800-1200 nm water has an average absorption coefficient of 0.4 that means the first 10 cm of water absorbs 98% of this light, and every 10 cm low is another ~1/100 reduction! None the less Purple Sulfur Bacteria managed for billions of years taking in light between 800-1050 nm, they simply swim up to the top centimeters of water.
  10. Last I check that was the minimum age of the system, it could be much older. Again it is not the amount of photons that is the problem it is their low quality of energy, again photons of wavelength beyond 830 nm CAN'T crack water. Already Light-harvesting complex in plants do a very good job of capturing light, even under low light conditions. Chlorosome of deep-sea green sulfur bacteria are the biggest photon collecting and shuttling structures in biology and they are only 200 nm big and yet can operate in nearly complete darkness 100 m below the black sea. If biology can find a way in the TRAPPIST system to take two NIR photons and directly combine their energy to crack water it would not require a very big light antenna to do so considering TRAPPIST NIR flux is so strong. And yes the TRAPPIST system does appear to have a higher metal content then our solar system, which mean that perhaps (but unlikely) life could utilize more rare earth elements.
  11. Well light catching antenna can be many times smaller than the light wavelength, so the cells don't need to be larger. Rather a whole new kind of biochemistry would be needed for oxygen producing photosynthesis with light >800 nm. I don't know of any sodium based phosphor. It should be noted that there is photosynthesis here on earth that can use NIR light but again it does so by cracking hydrogen sulfide instead of water, these are known as purple sulfur bacteria and they ruled the earth for billions of years before oxygen producing green bacteria came about. The lack of complex life during the purple bacteria eons may be added evidence that sulfur powered life will simply be too sluggish to every become complex. Looking into it though and bacteriochlorophyll b can utilize light as high as 1050 nm. So perhaps the TRAPPIST system would have purple bacteria and nothing complex.
  12. Probably, but the end result of water cracking is going to be necessary for complex life. Other potential eco-chemical cycles such as hydrogen sulfide cracking and oxidation with sulfur would result in much more sluggish organisms as the amount of energy they could extract per mole of sulfur compound would be less than per mol of oxygen, worse many sulfur compounds are not even gaseous, so no land life, and are also very reactive/corrosive like H2SO4. More important a thick oxygen atmosphere with ozone is going to be vital to an ecosystem to survive the occasion solar flares red dwarfs are known to give off. These flares can double the solar output of a red dwarf star for a few days and much of that output would be in UV light. http://astrobiology.com/2017/02/uv-surface-habitability-of-the-trappist-1-system.html Certainly the biochemistry of utilizing NIR to water cracking would be very different from the plant photosystems life on earth uses. One idea as I stated above is to collect one NIR photon, store it and combine with with a second to get the needed energy. Here is a paper that did it by taking chlorphyll and replacing the manganese light absorbing center with a Yttrium-Ytterbium-Erbium complex that when hit by NIR photons of ~1000 nm can store that energy for many milliseconds (compared to normal chlorophyll which can store that energy for only a few billionths of a second), enough time to catch a second, even third and forth NIR photon and spite out that energy as a much higher energy red, green and even blue photon. Obviously that Ytterbium and Erbium are going to be too rare for life to use, but perhaps life can find another up-converting phosphor. Another way would be to capture the NIR energy directly into a chemical compound, for example many primitive algae here on earth use Bacteriorhodopsin which takes light of ~550 nm (green) and uses it to pump a proton, which needs only 35-40 kj/mol (obviously it is not very efficient, hence why more advanced algae and plants dominate the planet) Perhaps another system could evolve that does the same with NIR. So NIR absorbing protons pumps would make a proton gradient, which would store energy in ATP (or equivalent 35-40 kj/mol energy carrier) that energy would then have to be convert into an electron carrier like NADH and finally be used to dump the electron in cracking of water through some kind of biochemical chain. All of that would likely be very inefficient.
  13. Problem: Such a dim Red Dwarfs gives off most of it light as near infrared radiation. You can go to any only "black body calculator" put the surface temperature of TRAPPIST-1 in (2550 K) and get out 1136 nm light is its spectral peak. Compared to the sun which gives off 502 nm light as its spectral peak (bluish-green, but looks yellow-white to us going through atmosphere and because emission from blue to red add up to white). Another way of looking at it is dividing the total luminosity of TRAPPIST-1 by its visible luminosity (0.000525 / 0.00000373) = 140, this means that for a human standing on a world that gets the same amount of total light energy flux as here on the earth (a theoretical point between TRAPPIST-1d and TRAPPIST-1e) would only see 1/140 as much light. Summary: these would be very dim worlds to us, full day light there would be the same a twilight to us and even more reddish. Inhabitants of the TRAPPIST-1 system would likely see into the IR, red light would likely be the furthest in visible light they could see or they would likely perceive all the colors we do simply as their hues of "blue" and the other colors they would perceive would be in the NIR. Biochemically it would not be too hard for life to detect NIR, terrestrial life here on earth didn't probably because water absorbs NIR really well so aquatic life can't utilize it and because visible light is plentiful and stronger so why bother? Obviously that means aquatic life on TRAPPIST-1 is not going to see very well beyond 950 nm, this may hamper the chances there land life would see in NIR. Here on earth the mantis shrimps see 16 colors, many of which far into the UV, but it also sees further into the NIR, but only up to 750 nm. So either the land life of TRAPPIST system make do with seeing what they can off red light with big eyes that have little color distinction (like nocturnal life here on earth, or like the ancestors of mammals hence why most mammals only see 2 colors, red and blue and yellow sensitive rod cells only give them perception of light intensity rather than color), or they have evolved the ability to see deeper into the NIR unlike their aquatic ancestors. The Bigger problem is plants: Can photosynthesis utilize NIR? The short answer is that in theory yes, but the efficiency of which would likely be much poorer. Here on earth water cracking, oxygen producing photosynthesis is what makes complex animal-intelligent life possible. Cracking water requires ~143 kj/mol to get 1/2 O2 and 2 H+ and 2 e- this converts to any photon of light below 837 nm has enough energy to crack water. In theory though it is perfectly possible to couple two photons of light of weaker energies to make up the difference (1674 nm), the problem is storing and adding up that photonic energy efficiently. We have done it artificially, but apparently no life on earth has evolved such a thing either because it is too hard biochemically or because visible light is plentiful enough or both. If using only the visible light an ecosystem in the TRAPPIST system would be 1/140th the size of our ecosystem per light input. If using NIR light as well the ecosystem potential is as high as earth life assuming the same photosynthetic efficiency, even a tenth the efficiency of earth life it would still be advantages to use NIR light compared to 0.7% efficiency of using only visible light from TRAPPIST-1. Again aquatic plants are not going to utilize NIR unless they are living in less than ~10 cm of water depth! Only land life would be most prone to evolve NIR photosynthesis.
  14. TRAPPIST-1 system would be a very kerbal solar system. With such short distances between the planets traveling from one planet to the next would be as easy as us going to the moon, it is just the trips would be one way until a big enough rocket could be made to take off from one planet, land on the next and fly all the way back. So for any inhabitants living there could have a solar empire.