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Found 16 results

  1. This is now a thread for myself and others to post about making our own telescopes. I was working on a 6" Newtonian but the mirror and polishing lap have become stuck together and might never separate. You can read about how that was going below. I'm working on a project to make a 6" f/6.5 Dobsonian telescope. This is a Newtonian reflector on a Dobsonian alt-azimuth mount. I've chosen to grind my own mirror for the telescope. While making my own mirror at this size saves zero money and my beginner skills won't result in a better mirror than a mass-produced one, there is a certain satisfaction in making the mirror myself. I'm going to use wood and parts that I already have to save money (I'm a broke high school student, because I spent all of my money on my other telescopes!). It'll probably be a relatively simple Stellafane-style Dob. I am using a 1968 Edmund Scientific mirror kit, which has a nice Pyrex blank and a plate glass tool. The tool will be used again for something. I will be posting more detailed updates on the astronomy forum Cloudy Nights (my username is the same except for no underscores) if you really want to read the technical stuff. Grinding of the mirror is now finished, with the final focal length being about 39", making this an f/6.5. Polishing is in progress. Figuring probably won't happen until the end of June as I'm going away for a couple of weeks and my Foucault tester won't arrive before I leave. This is likely the first of many mirrors that I will make for myself, and, eventually, for customers. I am now planning on making a larger mirror. Despite the failure of my last project, I did learn pretty much the whole process except for figuring the mirror into a parabola, so a larger mirror is possible.
  2. Ages ago i saw a mod, allowing to see trajectory's prediction in flight scene. But it has been lost. Now - it back. Just displays trajectory predictions. Partless, ON/OFF and nothing more. (adds itself with the help of MM-patch to each unit with ModuleCommand). This mod is designed to help with a more accurate landing. If activated in the flight scene, it will draw the trajectory and predict the point of contact. short review full review from Kottabos Download from Spacedock DONATE Source installation: remove previous version and just extract an archive into Gamedata. requirements: ModuleManager
  3. Welcome to the Add-on Development Mod Library On 1 July 2017, I will update the status of all Dev mods to reflect their compatibility to the new 1.3 update. *I ask that the community mod users do not deliberately necro old mods listed here for update requests. If we can use this thread for those purposes, it will help the community as a whole avoid unnecessary cluttering of the main Development pages. This library is an easily accessible and organized listing of mods currently in development or were in development. Hopefully, from this point forward, mods will no longer be buried in the forum pages and forgotten. In addition, anybody looking for a potential project for updating or modifying can look here instead of trying to 'mine' for mods. Many of the older mods listed here, in all probability, are still compatible for use with the current KSP v1.2.2. However, use with caution to prevent game braking glitches or bugs. For Modders (please read for any questions you have): I am very confident that I have included 95% of all mods from the Add-on Development pages that have not been officially 'released'. However, I am human and I may unintentionally included mods that can not be updated for whatever reason or may be obsolete due to KSP updates. In addition, I may have missed mods or have mistakenly excluded others from the list. Any modder who does not want their mod listed here can request for its removal, it will be removed in a timely manner. Any modder can request they want their mod relocated to a different section of the library and it will be done in a timely manner. I politely request that any modder who finds or knows about a mod in any of the sections that is updated, misplaced, obsolete or has been re-released, please inform me so we can keep the list cleaned up and streamlined. Mod Placement Requests: Any community member can request a mod for placement on this list so long as it meets a few requirements. First requirement is that mod has a file for the community to use. I will make an exception to concept mods so long as the mod author posts pictures of their progress so the community can see that work is actually being done. Those mods will be posted in the Developer Diaries. Second requirement is that it has not been completed and release to the Add-on Release pages. I do not wish to double up on mod links to create any confusion. Vetting Standards for Mods: No mods without working plugins or parts. No mods that had been adopted, updated or re-released in the Community Library. No mods that were left in a incomplete or non functional state are included. No mods that the creator expressly requested not be included. Mod Patch Notification: Any community member who know of a mod that is out-dated but has a 'unofficial' patch located with in the mod thread can assist us in making that clear to the community. Please provide the mod name and a link in this thread or PM @CarnageINC. Please ensure the link you provide is still a live valid link for the mod. Wanted to give a thanks to @Gaarst for letting me assist him in the updating and organizing the Community Library. That work is the basis of this library, the format and style are based off his work. Additionally, I wanted to give a special thanks to @paulprogart, @linuxgurugamer and @magico13 for their advice and assistance given to help make this library better, thank you guys! Last UPDATE: 2 June 2017 ____________________________________________________________________ Mods in green are compatible with the current version (1.2.2) either from testing or simply from their release thread. These are also in the Community Library. Mods in light green are compatible with the current version (1.2.2) but have not been recompiled for 1.2 so they will appear outdated. These are/will be also in the Community Library. Mods in yellow are the ones dated from older versions whose compatibility are not yet established. These are also in the Community Library. Mods in orange are inactive or discontinued development mods located in the Add-on Development pages. Mods in red are dated from older versions and have been shown not to be compatible with the latest version. These are also in the Community Library. Mods in blue are located in the Add-on Development pages and are also found in the Community Library. Mods in purple are abandoned by author. (This is going to change soon to match Community Library) Mods in black are mods in development or older released mods which haven't been complied or labeled for the current version. Mods marked with * are quite reference system used by the Librarian and are awaiting attention or relocation. Tool Library for Modders New to modding? Look here for starting out. All tools used by mod creators are to be located here. I would greatly appreciate advice for links for this section. Mod Development Tool Library: These tools are for assisting content creators in their projects. [1.2.x] Amazing Curve Editor, by sarbian - This mod allows you to edit and see the shape of a KSP FloatCurve and copy the config to your cfg. Only useful to modders and those who edit cfg files. [x.x.x] AssemblyReloader, by xEvilReeperx - It'd be pretty neato if you could just press a button and see your current version running in a few seconds, wouldn't it? [1.2.0] DebugStuff, by sarbian - Debug stuff is a simple plugin that allows you to display the transform & colliders of a part in wireframe and display the part Hierarchy in a window. [1.1.x] HeightmapExtractor/HeightmapManager, by stupid_chris - Basically what this does is try to create an image of the land above the sea level for Kerbin. [0.2.4] JSIPartUtilities, by Mahara - A collection of PartModules for solving problems posed by alexustas, these will eventually be bundled and published separately for general use. Patch by linuxgurugamer [1.2.0] Kerbal Object Inspector Continued, by linuxgurugamer - This plugin allows mod developers to see exactly what's going on in the background of any game scene by listing every game object and their properties. [1.2.2] NodeHelper, by Felbourn - A useful tool if you're designing your own parts mod, that allows part nodes editing in game. [x.x.x] Parts Shaders Replacement - PBR, by Lilleman - This plugin, mostly intended to part modders at the moment, will replace all common KSP part shaders by customized Unity Standard shaders. [x.x.x] 0.23 PartTools, by Mu - This is a tool provided by Squad to help the community create parts for KSP. Framework mods: These are literally the foundations that other modders use to create mods for the community. [1.2.x] ASET Avionics Pack, by alexustas - This pack is for the modders who create IVA for the spacecraft, this pack adds a lot of classic analog props for the planes. [1.2.x] ASET Props Pack, by alexustas - This pack is for the modders who create IVA for the spacecraft with set of almost 600 different devices and decoration elements for creation of interiors of space ships. [1.2.2] B9PartSwitch, by blowfish - Similar to Firespitter and Interstellar Fuel Switcher, this mod doesn't do anything by itself, but provides a way for other mods to enable part switching. [1.2.x] Community Resource Pack, by RoverDude - Creates a generic basis for new resources to be used commonly by other mods. [1.2.x] Contract Configurator, by nightingale - Allows mods to edit stock contracts and adds in new types of contracts, while providing a common framework for integration with other mods. [1.2.2] Custom Barn Kit, by sarbian - A small plugin to change a bunch of parameters related to career, science, the buildings upgrade cost and when various features are unlocked. [1.2.2] Firespitter dll, by Snjo - The firespitter plugin file allows for modders to include rotating parts on their models. *As far as we know, this link is always up to date. [x.x.x] HotRockets! Particle FX Replacement, by Nazari1382 - A replacement for stock engine particle FX. If you are tired of seeing the same old effects, HotRockets is for you! [1.2.x] Kerbal Konstructs, by Ger_space - Provides the foundation to add new static objects or building to the game. [1.2.0] KittopiaTech - A Kopernicus Visual Editor, by Thomas P. - This Plugin is a continuation of KCreators "KittopaTech Ingame Terraforming" plugin, that can edit the stats of planets at runtime, via. a Graphical Interface. [1.2.2] MOARdV's Avionics Systems, by MOARdV - MAS is a replacement for RasterPropMonitor. The goal of MAS is to provide an updated flexible toolkit for creating interactive IVA experiences. [1.2.x] ModularFlightIntegrator, by sarbian - Allows some mods to edit aerodynamic and thermal properties of some parts without breaking everything. [1.2.1] Module Manager, by sarbian - This mod lets you write patch files that edit other parts at load time without overwriting anything. [1.2.2] Principia, by eggrobin - This mod aims to replace KSP's unstable physics integration with a higher-order symplectic integrator, adding N-body Newtonian gravitation in the process. [1.2.2] RasterPropMonitor, by MOARdV - Overhauls the stock IVA system by adding many functionalities and information, to be able to control an entire mission from IVA. [1.2.0] RetractableLiftingSurface, by linuxgurugamer - This is a small module which allows you to have a folding wing or other retractable lifting surface. It allows for an integrated control surface. [1.2.2] SelectableDataTransmitter, by linuxgurugamer - This is a module which is used to allow an antenna be switchable between DIRECT mode and RELAY mode. [1.2.2] Sigma Binary, by Sigma88 - Enables easy integration of binary body systems for planet packs. [1.2.2] Sigma Dimensions, by Sigma88 - This mod is to be an "universal rescale mod", the only thing you'll need to do is set the rescale factor you want in the settings. [1.2.2] SmokeScreen, by sarbian - Allows other mods to edit the particle FX, useful for mods that change effects such as engines plumes, etc... [1.2.2] SolverEngines, by NathanKell - Does some engines config magic for other mods to use. [x.x.x] Stellarator - A Proof of Concept Solar System Generator, by Thomas P. - Stellarator is a software that can generate random solar systems for KSP / Kopernicus. [1.2.2] To Boldly Go, by daniel l. - An external application designed to procedurally generate an entire galaxy for KSP. [1.2.0] Toolbar, by blizzy78 - This mod provides an API for third-party plugins to provide GUI buttons to a toolbar. Video or Streaming mods: Looking to make a movie or do some cool fly by shots, these mods will help. [1.2.0] Ambient Light Adjustment, by timmers_uk - Adds a slider to modify the luminosity of the game at night. Useful for video-makers/streamers tired of filming a black screen half of the time. [1.2.x] Draft Twitch Viewers, by IRnifty - Draft Twitch Viewers (DTV) uses web requests to connect to Twitch, and can pick a random user from any channel, and create a Kerbal in-game with that viewer's name. [1.2.x] Kerbal Animation Suite Continued, by linuxgurugamer - For modders or video makers who want to animate their Kerbals. This mod has 2 components: the animator, and the API. [1.2.2] Kerbal Chroma, by JoePatrick1 -This is a chroma/greenscreen mod for KSP. It has distance and RGB settings so it can be used for various uses. [0.2.3] KerbCam, by huin - This is a tool for those video makers who want just a bit more camera movement and orientation control. Patch by cartman [1.2.x] KSPLogger released, by linuxgurugamer - This mod is created to expose some internal data for external use is for streamers who would like to display some values on screen in some manner. [1.2.x] Minimum Ambient Lighting, by Red3Tango - A small plugin that will set a minimum ambient lighting level based on percentage. Percentage is modified by using the toolbar icon (or though config file)! [1.2.0] WASD Editor Camera Continued, by linuxgurugamer - This mod allows you to move your camera angle around with WASD keys, hold right mouse to look around. ____________________________________________________________________ Mods Currently in Development Mods in development within the last year are located in this section. For any mod "Released", look in the Community Library for that mod's updates and support. Developer Diaries: These are threads created by modders to show case their current works in progress or to help support their mods. [1.2.2] C.A.L.++ (Community Ammunition Library for BDArmory), by Acea - This is a shared resource for BDArmory addons, containing a common ammunition definition file and ammo boxes for the added ammunition types. [1.2.x] DMagic Module Science Animate, by DMagic - This is post is Dmagic's workshop for his SCANSAT mods. [1.2.2] KPBS/MKS Integration Pack, by DStaal - This mod is to help integrate UKS with KPBS. [1.0.4] Kramax Plugin Reload, by Kramer - Development post for Kramax Autopilot mod. [1.2.2] KSP Interstellar Extended, by FreeThinker - This is the development thread of KSP Interstellar Extended where new development can be discussed or requests can be made. [1.2.1] LLL Continued Dev Thread, by linuxgurugamer - This is a development thread for the updating of LLL to 1.2.1. [x.x.x] Mining and Processing Extension resumed, by riocrokite - This post is to provide ideas for interesting and challenging setup for resources mining and processing on orbital bodies. [x.x.x] Mother Development Thread, by Bonus Eventus - This is the development thread for Mother, a parts pack for making motherships. [x.x.x] MSI's Infernal Robotics model rework, by ZodiusInfuser - This project aims to provide players with a variety of robotic, structural, and utility parts to enhance their unmanned (or manned) space missions in KSP! [x.x.x] Nert's Dev Thread, by Nertea - This thread is for what Nertea is working on right now. [x.x.x] RCS size variants and new options, by TiktaalikDreaming - This mod will be a collection of RCS and hypergolic engines. [x.x.x] Real ISRU Development Thread, by regex - This thread is mainly intended to move discussion of ISRU topics out of the Real Fuels thread while serving as a working document for a realistic ISRU mod. [x.x.x] Sigma Mod Expansions, by Sigma88 - This thread is a collection of all of Sigma88's mods. [x.x.x] Tokamak Industries Refurbished Parts Dev Thread, by Tokamak - This post is to provide a place for Tokamak showcase work in progress and for mod support. [x.x.x] TweakScale - Development Thread, by pellinor - TweakScale lets you change the size of a part. This thread is devoted to assist in development of the mod. [x.x.x] Umbra Space Industries, by RoverDude - This thread is to serve as the master thread for all things USI and also a place to discuss the WIP bits for all of the mods that RoverDude works on. Language mods: Looking to get KSP in your native language? This is the place, if you don't see your language maybe you could help the community out and translate yours for KSP! [1.3.0] Community Localization Project, by Olympic1 - This is a mod to assist others to translate KSP into their native language. Olympic1 has setup a spreadsheet to help in this endeavor. [x.x.x] Free Mod Translator for Spanish, by Deltathiago98 - This community member willing to help mod makers translate their mods into Spanish. [1.3.0] Polish Translation, by Moskit - Early alpha stage, however most of the game is localized in Polish. VAB/SPH mods: Like to tinker in the VAB a lot? These mods help players with their creations in the editor. [1.2.2] Ext-Seat Dummy, by Skalou - This mod adds a Fake Kerbonaut part made of a cutting-edge material (probably from UK). With some accurate physics properties, it can aid design or balance crafts. [x.x.x] Tweak Scale Limited, by eberkain - A new intermediate size is placed between each of the stock sizes on the size scale. Crew Utility mods: Want to keep track of your Kerbal's achievements? Need help recruiting new test subjects...uhhh....I mean Kerbalnauts? [1.3.0] AirlockPlus: EVA to/from any airlock, by cakepie - AirlockPlus allows the use of any airlock on a vessel in conjunction with any crew part on the vessel. [1.1.3] Roster Manager, by Papa_Joe - From the Roster list, you can select the Kerbal to manage, attributes, records, training, recruitment, termination, scheduling, etc. Efficiency mods: Want a transfer window to another planet? Need help finding a certain ship? These mods help streamline your gaming experience. [1.2.2] Ascent StartTime, by okder - Ascent StartTime provides interface between mechjeb and plad's flyby finder, or allows you to plan your interplanetary transfer before you leave the ground. [1.1.3] Flight Operations, by Heed - Flight Operations has a vessel naming function and the Space Centre has a Flight History window of your completed flights that have been recovered, destroyed, or terminated. [1.2.2] SupplyChain, by Visionary - A mod designed to automate resource shuttling (and maybe other things). In Game Utility mods: Look here for mods that make small changes to improve your 'quality of game experience'. [] Part Utility mods: Looking for something to help you find or control your parts on your vessels? You can find those mods right here. [1.2.2] Antenna Helper, by Li0n - This WIP mod assists players in antenna selection for distant missions. [1.2.2] IR Sequencer, by Ziw - This is an almost an essential add-on for Infernal Robotics (IR is not updated to 1.2.2 yet). You can create and play sequences of servo movement commands and special commands. In-flight Information mods: Looking for a mod to make data/information access easier on your missions? Here you go. [1.2.x] GPWS - Warning System for Planes, by bssthu - This adds warning sounds for a "ground proximity warning system", a terrain awareness and alerting system. Also adds a "traffic collision avoidance system". [1.2.0] PAPIPPlugin Continued, by bssthu - PAPI (precision approach path indicator) is a light array helping pilots approaching to the runway. [1.2.x] SpeedUnitDisplay, by ThirdOfSeven - What it does: noting complicated. No configuration, no buttons, it just changes your Surface speed indicator. [1.2.x] VOID Continued - Vessel Orbital Information Display, by linuxgurugamer - Adds several in-flight windows containing detailed information on your orbit, trajectory, vessel. Autopilot mods: Have trouble flying your rockets into orbit? Keep crashing into the ground? Here is a helping hand to assist you on your journeys. [1.2.0] SolarSailNavigator, by mrsolarsail - SolarSailNavigator is a new plugin (ALPHA: you have been warned) to navigate continuous thrust spacecraft with solar sails, ion engines, and similar propulsion systems. Career, Credits and Contract mods: For those who don't want to grind the same contracts or experiments over and over again and want something new for their space program. [1.2.2] Career Evolution Contract Pack, by pap1723 - This contract pack changes many of the issues in stock career mission progression. It adds in a more realistic progression of contract chains. Science Related mods: Tired of putting the same old experiments on your probes or need help collecting science? Look here for all things science related! [x.x.x] Gameslinx Planet Pack PUBLIC Community Science Definitions, by Gameslinx - Submit, edit and produce science definitions for each biome and science experiment for Gameslinx's Planet Overhaul. [1.2.2] SCANsat [v17.5] Dev Version, by DMagic - This add-on allows you to scan the surfaces of planetary bodies to produce various kinds of maps and mine relatively small amounts science (in career mode). [1.2.2] Sigma SciDefRenamer, by Sigma88 - This mod will let you change the name of the target planet in the science definitions. Technology mods: Want to unlock a different tech tree for a change of pace? Here are a few to choose from. [1.2.x] Cold War Progression, by minepagan - This tech tree that is balanced between historical and technological progression, with a catch. You need to pick which side of the iron curtain your space program will be on! Themed Multi-Pack Parts mods: For those who want new parts but not a lot of mods to keep updated, try out these themed mods. [1.2.x] Coyote Space Industries, by dboi88 - This mod is cargo freighter system being developed to be compatible with RoverDude's MKS mods. Spacecraft and Station Parts mods: Need parts for your exploration needs? Look here to see if any catch your eye. [1.2.2] ALCOR, "Advanced Landing Capsule for Orbital Rendezvous", by alexustas - Adds a new modern orbital capsule fitted with advanced IVA. [1.2.x] Coatl Aerospace ProbePlus, by akron - This is a comprehensive stock-alike (ish) probe expansion pack inspired by real missions from the mid-1960s to now. [1.2.0] DarkSide Technology (Beta), by Badsector - Parts to help build ships for long voyages, includes 2.5m foldable centrifuge, 2.5m and 3.75m hubs and inline 3.75m solar panels. [x.x.x] IXS Warship Original Series, by Denko666 - This is an update/expansion of the IXS Enterprise, adding futuristic functionality while maintaining good integration with stock parts and creating new gameplay options. [x.x.x] Konstellation HLV, by DocBones - A streamline concept for a Mars Horizontal Landing Vehicle with integrated MAV and Cargo section. [1.1.2] KOSMOS Updates, by Bezzier - This is an update to the old KOSMOS Spacecraft Design Bureau mod, which was Soviet styled Kerbalized parts mod. [x.x.x] KSS Asimov, by v1per - This is a small parts pack to create a unique looking spacecraft. [1.2.1] LLL Continued, by linuxgurugamer - This is a development mod to update the Lack Luster Labs mod listed below. [1.2.x] NSS/OctoSat - SOAR Continued, by linuxgurugamer - This is a modular probe parts pack with a large number of different parts. [1.2.2] SSTULabs - Low Part Count Solutions, by Shadowmage - Adds various new parts with a focus on reducing part counts by using parts with multiple functionalities. [1.2.0] STS - AVALON, by RaendyLeBeau - This mods objective is to provide a space transport system with a direct approach, to closer planets within the solar system, similar to NASA's Mars Transfer Vehicle. [x.x.x] TD Industries Orion bits, by TiktaalikDreaming - Releasing parts for the 10m Orion craft from the early 60's. Primarily the upper craft components designed by General Atomics for NASA use. [1.2.2] Tundra Exploration, by tygoo7 - This is a mod that will include various stuff from SpaceX and other cool stuff that is stockalike. [x.x.x] Version2.0 Industries, by MichaelV2.0 - This mod parts pack seeks to fill a void in your intergalactic Kerbal empire. By adding parts for space habitation, exploration and transport. [1.x.x] Warpship Original Series, by Denko666 - WarpShip is an update and expansion of the IXS Enterprise, adding some futuristic functionality while maintaining good integration with stock parts. [1.1.3] XKOM - Interceptors, by njmksr - The Skyranger from XCOM: Enemy Unknown is the first installment of the XKOM Ships Pack, a pack to bring XCOM into KSP. [x.x.x] Yeti Space Program, by LukeTheYeti - This is a series of modular hull sections, command pods, engines, and adapters designed to be fit together to make big blocky sci-fi spacecraft. Spaceplanes and Aircraft Parts mods: Want your Kerbals to feel the wind beneath their wings? Feel the need for a SSTO?!? These are the right mods for you. [1.2.2] AoA Technologies, by Wolfair corp. - This mod adds in several new cockpits, nose drones and engines for your aircraft needs. [x.x.x] Deltaglider XR-1, by Redneck - This is a single part complete space plane concept. [1.x.x] D12 Aerotech - A B9 Aerospace Expansion, by PolecatEZ - This is a parts pack to expand the B9 Aerospace mod. [1.2.2] Mil Mi-24 Hind Cockpit, by StereotypicalBrit - This is (currently) a single-part mod that adds (as the name suggests) a command pod in the form of the Mi-24 Hind cockpit. [1.2.x] Mk3 Expansion (Dev), by SuicidalInsanity - This is a parts pack intended to flesh out the stock mk3 parts lineup with new engines, cockpits, fuselage parts and more. [1.2.0] OPT Space Plane, by K.Yeon - This is a massive parts pack that contains more than 60 space plane dedicated parts. [1.2.0] SRS: Small Cockpits, by Konnor - A small parts mod of 1.25 m cockpits with custom IVA layouts for each. [1.2.0] Zombie = One more B9 Inspired Expansion, by Konnor - This tiny part pack adds a few things that Konner found missing in B9 Aerospace. Jump Drives, Engines and Tanks mods: Want bigger rockets? Smaller rockets? Moar boosters? Look no further. [1.2.2] Black Hole Tanks, by DarknessHasLost - This mod allows 2 tanks (One LFO and the other Ore) to hold larger amounts of material (such as Ore) in a smaller package than would normally be required. [x.x.x] Chopper Parts, by frizzank - An experiment to see if frizzank could create helicopter parts that do not require a plugin like firespliter. [1.1.2] DIRECT - Super Heavy Launchers Revamp, by benjee10 - DIRECT is a parts pack designed to emulate primarily the Jupiter launch vehicles proposed by the DIRECT team. [1.2.0] ESLD Jump Beacons Revived, by Booots - The ESLD Beacon network will get your Kerbals from point A to points B through Z in no time at all, presuming you've positioned and fueled them. [1.2.2] Explodium Breathing Engines, by Gordon Fecyk - "Jet" engines that (actually!) use Eve's atmosphere and Oxidizer. [1.2.2] Interstellar Warp Drive, by RealGecko - Interstellar is complex, USI Warp Drive does not allow you to time warp. Here's the solution: ISWD - almost the same mechanics as in Interstellar, but in vanilla KSP. [1.0.5] Jool DIRECT, by Daelkyr - This is a collection of parts in 3.75 m and 5 m to help you realize your heavy lifting dreams. It is a Kerbalized version of NASA's DIRECT program and their Jupiter rocket family. [1.2.2] Justin Kerman's Tank & Engine Salvage, by Verran - This is a WIP and is the culmination of several months of work designing internal fuel cells that would fit within the models of the stock fuel tanks. [1.2.2] Ludicrous Propulsion Systems, by Benjamin Kerman - LPS adds taller fuel tanks in all stock sizes and new throttleable hybrid engines burning solid fuel and oxidizer. [x.x.x] Methane Rocket!, by Joco223 - This mod adds fuel tanks, engines, and a lot of other thing that work with methane! [x.x.x] Moar Mk1, by passinglurker - Just a quick little part mod made because the rocket revamp was pushed back to 1.2 and didn't match the old fuel tanks with porkjet's new parts any longer. *Different post title *[x.x.x] Orion aka 'Ol' Boom-boom', by nyrath - A totally insane propulsion system. It is based on the old "firecracker under a tin can" principle. Except the tin can is a spacecraft and the firecracker is a nuclear bomb. Ground and Naval Parts mods: Do you want to go on a Sunday drive with your Kerbals? Do your Kerbals need a yacht to sail on? Maybe these will help. [1.0.2] Exploration Rover System by ASET, by alexustas - Modular rover parts pack in developement. *It is still labled 1.0.2, its not a typo. [1.2.2] Netherdyne Mass Driver Mod, by Northstar1989 - This mod puts in a mass drive system to magnetically shoot your vessels into orbit. [x.x.x] Real Ships, by Azimech - This mod is aimed at creating realistic sea vessels, docks and buildings. [1.2.0] Stockalike Mining Extension, by SuicidalInsanity - SME adds a number of mining and ISRU-related parts in a variety of form factors. Currently a Work-In-Progress. General Part mods: Looking for a particular part to meet that particular need? Look through these mods to find that special part you need. [x.x.x] Add on Airlocks, by TiktaalikDreaming - This mod will be a few add on airlocks, mostly as surface attachable parts. [1.1.3] Dr. Kermanassus' Parts Emporium, by nili2work - An ongoing thread for random parts made for the fun of it. All will work with vanilla KSP. [1.3.0] JunkCo: MaErDa's JunkYard, by Warsoul - MaErDa's JunkYard provide obsolete and failed prototypes from MaErDa Corp for modders looking for free mesh and models. [1.0.5] Kerbal Tubes, by Sticky32 - A small parts pack that adds stock-alike, hollow structural parts to the game, designed to be EVA'd through or for storing things. [1.2.0] KerBalloons, by JoePatrick1 - This mod brings balloons into KSP, allowing you to gather atmosphere science without launching a rocket or plane. [x.x.x] Mouse's project thread, by SpaceMouse - Random part mod for learning purposes. [x.x.x] My Coming up KSP Mod, by Kerbal Nerd123 - An assortment of WW2 fighters for KSP. [1.1.3] Old School Fairings, by Felbourn - Greetings, Kerbanauts! Do you play with Stock aero? Do you like old school fairings? [1.2.0] Rockolight and Rockopanel Adapters, by SpannerMonkey(smce) - A new take on adapters, this mod has adapters with animated openings. [1.2.2] Simple Adjustable Fairings, by blowfish - Single part fairings with a simple length adjustment and fairings are transparent in the editor so that you can build your payload easily. [1.2.2] Smashing Industries, by SmashingKirby148 - This is a thread for a WIP pac. [1.1.3] Stock Part Revamp, by Ven - This part pack replaces several of the stock textures and models, hopefully making them more beautiful in the process. [1.x.x] Tokamak Industries Refurbished, by Tokamak - This pack has parts that cover all aspects of your mission. It also includes Porkjet's Hab Pack parts. Weapon mods: For when your Kerbals need to use some heavy firepower to blow up the KSC. [1.1.3] BDArmory FPS, by V8jester - When it positively absolutely must be destroyed overnight! BD FPS is dependent on BD Armory, KIS and Module Manager to function. [x.x.x] Blue Hawk Industries, by TMasterson5 - This is a pack for 1970's era weapons and is a finalized mod. It will no longer be added to, but will be maintained for functionality. Dropbox link [x.x.x] Master Tech Weapons, by TMasterson5 - Master Tech Weapons is a weapons expansion pack for BD Armory. It is now finalized and will not be added to, but will be maintained for functionality. [1.1.2] MalFunc Weaponry, by Themorris - Naval weapons add on for BDArmory. [1.2.x] NAS - Naval Artillery System, by Acea - (NAS) is an expansion of the BahamutoD's BDArmory, providing a set of naval weapon replicas and weapons used to attack naval ships from both side in WWII. [1.2.x] North Kerbin Dyanamics - Nuclear Bomb and Heavy Ordnance Pack, by harpwner - The definitive BDArmory Nuclear Weaponry (and other things) Pack! [1.1.2] Star Wars Mod, by KSP Bros KS - Just a little BD addon with red, green, blue, and orange lasers from Star Wars, using tibanna gas. [1.0.5] Tycho Orbital Shipyards Weaponry, by sashan - This mod is a Point Defense Cannon as seen on MCRN Tachi space corvette in The Expanse TV series. [x.x.x] Wraithforge (BD Armory addon), by Wraith977 - Addon for BD Armory currently containing several weapons made by various divisions of Denel in South Africa. Construction mods: Want to build stuff outside of the VAB or SPH? These are the mods to get the job done! *[1.2.2] Firma - Permanent Base Structures, by Sassenach - A means of building away from the KSC (Ground Construction/Extraplanetary Launchpads) is recommended but not strictly required. [1.0.5] KAS Assembled Aerobraking Shield, by AlbertKermin - This is a 2.5 m heat shield, to which can be fitted with (through KAS, KIS, or in the VAB) eight additional panels that expand it to a 5-meter radius. [1.x.x] Kerbal Construction Time, by magico13 - This mod is designed to make vessels take time to build rather than being able to constantly launch new vessels one after another. [1.2.2] Keridian Dynamics, by Eleusis La Arwall - This pack contains converters like Furnaces, 3D-Printers and a Chemical Reactor to produce RocketParts from Ore or MetalOre. Replica Spacecraft and Launcher mods: Because reproducing Vostok 1 without these conical boosters isn't really reproducing. Mods that bring real rockets to KSP are located here. [1.0.x] Boeing X37, by Tristonwilson12 - This is a Boeing X37 replica. [1.1.x] Chinese Pack Continued, by Wavechaser - This is a Chinese rocket replica parts pack. [1.x.x] German WWII rockets, by TiktaalikDreaming - This adds in some German rocket designs, incluing the A-12 orbiter rocket. It was never built, but was a fairly well sketched out idea. [1.1.2] ISS Dev Thread, by Mike-NZ - This is a mod to replicate all the ISS parts. [1.2.0] Lionhead ESA Launchers Continued, by MacLuky - This pack includes ATV and Ariane 5 launcher, Ariane 4, Vega, Diamant A and Europa 1. [1.x.x] North American Rockwell Mars Excursion Module, by TiktaalikDreaming - This is a replica for a design of a manned Mars Excursion Module (MEM) that has in the years since become somewhat iconic. [x.x.x] Saturn V (Reincarnation), by DECQ - This is a revised mod by DECQ of the Saturn 1C, Apollo block III. [1.2.2] Soviet Probes & Soviet Rockets, by raidernick - Adds replicas of well-known Soviet launchers (R7 family, UR-500 Proton and Zenit) and probes. [x.x.x] Space Shuttle, by Mike-NZ - This is a space shuttle replica mod that was in development. Dropbox link, Mike-NZ has 2 shuttle links, not sure which is useful. Other Shuttle mod. [x.x.x] SpaceLaunchSystem, by DECQ - This is a parts pack for NASA's SLS currently in development. [1.1.3] SpaceX Interplanetary Spaceship, by CMDR Flexo - This is a WIP for a 1:1 scale SpaceX ITS for Kerbal Space Program. Replica Parts mods: Need a few real world parts for your Space Shuttle? See if we have what you need. [x.x.x] FASTCORP Autogarage, by fast_de_la_speed - The Autogarage is a compilation of real-life vehicles converted for use in KSP! [1.1.3] Forgotten Real Engines, by Zarbizaure - This pack is intended to fill the engine gap within RO. Tired of unrealistic models? Want moar engines? Or just a specific engine forgotten by the modding community? [1.x.x] NK-33 Engine, by Mad Rocket Scientist - Replica of a Soviet era rocket engine. [x.x.x] PEBKAC Saturn parts, by Kurld - This is a version of the Saturn S-IC thrust structure for mounting 5 engines under a stack. [1.2.0] Shuttle Payload Technologies, by MrMeeb - Small parts pack that adds in payloads for your Space Shuttle missions. Star System Pack mods: These packs are literally out of this world. Venture forth to these new and exotic stars to discover their secrets. [1.x.x] Alien Space Programs, by GregroxMun - Take KSC And Push It Somewhere Else! (Duna, Laythe, or Eve). [1.1.3] Gargantua Black Hole, by KerbalMan23 - What this mod does is add a black hole to your game! (Warp drive HIGHLY recommended). [1.1.3] KASE, by KillAshley - A complete re-work of the stock planets, KASE aims to bring out the native beauty of the stock worlds, without taking away from what made them great in the first place! [x.x.x] Larinax Solar System, by RA3236 - This is the first planet pack to include a developing protostar system. It is currently WIP and contains Larinax, the main star, and Laephus, a terrestrial planet. [1.2.0] Revamped Stock Solar System, by GregroxMun - Revamped Stock Solar System is a mod that takes the stock Kerbol system and makes it look quite a bit cooler. [1.2.2] SASSx, by Sigma88 - Like SASS, this expansion will include stockalike analogues of bodies found in the solar system. [1.2.2] Seven Worlds around SLIPPIST-1, by GregroxMun - Rendered in a stockalike art style, SLIPPIST-1 is a Kerbalized rendition of the TRAPPIST-1 star system. [1.2.1] Stockalike Solar System, by Sigma88 - This mod rearranges bodies from other mods to reproduce the Solar System but with a Kerbal style. [1.2.x] Total Rebuild, by The White Guardian - This mod destroys every stock KSP body save for Kerbin and the Sun, before adding a completely new planetary system. [x.x.x] Traveller's Dream Planet Pack, by TheSealBrigade - Tech De Ra is a pleasant, always-90 degrees paradise. You better bring your lawn chair, because lying in the sand is an extremely bad idea! [1.1.3] Universe: Star System, by Daeridanii - Universe is the same size as the Toy Solar System mod, except, instead of just downscaling existing planets, Universe replaces and adds more. [x.x.x] Upsilon Kandromedae System, by ProtoJeb21 - UPSILON KANDROMEDAE is a Kerbalized version of the real-life Upsilon Andromedae system. [1.2.2] 34Tauri; Firefly's The Verse, by Pretorian28715 - For all those Browncoats (Firefly Fans) out there that like to Travel, this is the mod for you! Planet Pack mods: If you're tired of going to Jool over and over again, these mods are happy to provide new lands to explore. [1.2.1] Arkas, by The White Guardian - This Mod adds a single planet to the Kerbol system between the orbits of Moho and Eve. [1.1.3] Copied Planetoid Mod, by AlbertKermin - This adds and modifies a few bodies in the Kerbol system. [x.x.x] Dres is a Harsh Mistress, by BigFatStupidHead - Dres, with it's low gravity and no atmosphere, gives you a great leg up on an interplanetary space program. [1.1.3] Farlo Planetary Pack, by StickyScissors - This planet pack adds a few new planets and moons to the KSP stock system. [x.x.x] Hot-Jool Mod, by UranianBlue - This mod has a gas giant relocated close to Kerbol. [x.x.x] Raid planet/moon addon, by KerikBalm - This mod is basically a terraformed mars replacement for Duna. [1.0.5] Saru Planet Pack, by tygoo7 - This is a planet pack that includes a Saturn analog for Kopernicus. [1.1.2] Sigma: Lava Laythe, by Sigma88 - So Sigma88 thought: "why don't I make an alternate version of Laythe, but with lava!" [1.1.2] Stock Planet Expansion, by The White Guardian - Stock Planet Expansion or S.P.E is a pack that adds countless moons to the Kerbal solar system for you to explore! From Moho to Eeloo, we got you covered! [x.x.x] The Death Star, by cubinator - This is a Kopernicus addon meant to recreate the original Death Star. It features a superlaser crater and an equatorial trench. [1.2.1] Xen's Planet Collection, by Xenonclave - This is a collection of stock-alike and (mostly) procedurally-generated Kopernicus planets and moons. Planetary Structures mods: Tired of just the KSC and the island runway to go to? Fill your world with bases to make it feel more real with these mods. [1.2.0] Alien Space Program, by GregroxMun - Take KSC And Push It Somewhere Else! (Duna, Laythe, or Eve). [1.x.x] Kerbal Cities Pack, by amankd - This WIP mod attempts to make a basic proceduraly generated city with a variety of buildings and road networks for KSP. [1.2.x] Real KSC in KSP, by Tristonwilson12 - This brings the real Kennedy space center and cape Canaveral and some various pads around the Globe, to KSP VIA Kerbal Konstructs. [x.x.x] South-West Launch Site, by Beale - A small launch site located on the north island of Kerbin's own New Zealand. Planetary/Atmospheric Visual mods: Want to make your planets look stunning beautiful? These mods will help. [1.2.2] E.T. - Extreme Texture (Overhaul for RSS), by ufindbatman - This is a huge visual overhaul for RSS that pushes up to 12 GB of RAM! [1.2.0] Para-Sci High-Performance Atmosphere Pack, by parameciumkid - Improve you planetary atmospheres with this mod, for use with the EnvironmentalVisualEnhancements mod. [1.2.2] Pood's OPM-VO Mod, by Poodmund - This is a in depth visual overhaul of all the planets in the Out Planets Mod. [1.2.2] Scatterer, by blackrack - Adds atmospheric scattering effects to the atmospheres of planets. [1.0.5] Sigma: Kerbin Recolor, by Sigma88 - This one will change Kerbin, and will have various options. [x.x.x] Spectra Pack, by Avera9eJoe - An alternative visual pack for KSP using a variety of mods. Gameplay mods: These mods are (quite literally) game changers. Look here for new game play possibilities. [1.2.2] CommSat Transponder, by Jso - The purpose of this module is to allow any antenna or combination of antennas on a vessel to act as a relay. [1.2.1] Galactic Neighborhood, by Sigma88 - Galactic Neighborhood,loading multiple planet packs in the same game. [1.2.0] Kourageous Tourists, by whale_2 - This mod temporarily promotes tourists to crew members and imposes several restrictions on them when they can go EVA. [1.1.3] Punish The Lazy, by technicalfool - A really simple reputation nibbler. [1.0.5] WAST Stock Realism Reblance, by Wavechaser - This mod puts the difficulty between stock game and RO, and specs making as much senses as possible. Gameplay Parts mods: Looking to modify or add in parts to change your gaming experience? [1.2.0] Boosteriferous SRB Thruster Profiles, by soundnfury - Shuttle SRB's were designed to have a burn rate that varied with time, decreasing the thrust while passing through Max Q. So why can't KSP SRB's do the same? [1.1.2] KerbalBrain, by critic - The idea is basically having a part that can perform the same engineering activities using KIS tools as a Kerbal can. [1.1.2] Make it SINK, by Fengist - Turn any stock vessel into a submarine. [1.2.0] Newbier Newb's Revamp of Civilian Population, by Tralfagar - This mod adds in the concept of a off planet Kerbal population that can expand and grow over time. [1.0.x] PARA-SCI JUMP DRIVE, by parameciumkid - A jump drive where to jump anywhere, you have to have already been there and left something for the drive to target. [1.2.0] Solid Electric, by Sharpy - Solid Electric introduces a set of parts based around the propellant. All parts run on the solid propellant and electric charge. Realism Gameplay mods: Want KSP to simulate real life better? Need to change the level of difficulty from the stock KSP? [x.x.x] Free IVA, by pizzaoverhead - Free IVA! Free as in freedom: Get out of your seat while in IVA, move around inside your craft, open and close hatches. [1.2.0] PersistentThrust, by mrsolarsail - PersistentThrust is a plugin that allows propulsion systems to operate during timewarp. [x.x.x] Radioactivity, by Nerta - This is a plugin whose goal is to add a relatively realistic radiation simulation system to KSP. [1.2.1] Real Battery, by Blackline - This mod rebalances stock batteries to create a more realistic battery function. It increases battery storage but limits discharge and recharge rates. [1.1.0] Solar Cycle Simulator, by Whitecat106 - This plugin simply generates and tracks the constantly changing solar cycles of the sun, this can be used in conjunction with RSS or a Stock game. [1.2.2] Sufficiently Realistic Progression Zero, by NotTheRealRMS - This is a mod pack that modifies KSP for a more realistic experience. Not a good/accurate description, needs work. [1.2.0] Water Expansion, by CliftonM - This mod attempts to add an expansion to water physics in terms of pressure, engines, etc. Life Support and Health mods: So that guilt is no longer the only consequence of leaving your Kerbals stranded on Eve. Crank up the difficulty in your missions by adding in some of these mods! [1.2.2] KabinKraziness, by JPLRepo - KabinKraziness goes up over time based on how much space the crew have, how far from Kerbin you are and if your Cabin temp is within 5 degrees of the climate control setting. [1.2.0] KeepFit, by timmers_uk - A plugin to track kerbal fitness levels and impact their G-tolerance as a result of spending years bunged up in tiny capsules. IVA mods: Want to try flying the whole mission from the cockpit? Or do you just need a better interior for your crew to look at? Find what you need below. [1.2.2] Kermantech MK3 IVA, by luizopiloto - A Kerbal Space Program mod with an improved IVA for the stock MK3 Shuttle Cockpit. [1.2.0] 'Mk1 Cockpit' IVA Replacement by ASET, by alexustas - Advanced IVA for 'MK1 Cockpit' is a full set of instruments and indicators for your aircraft, made in the General Aviation style. [1.2.0] 'Mk1 Lander Can' IVA Replacement by ASET, by alexustas - Advanced IVA for 'Mk1 Lander Can' is a full set of instruments for your spacecraft, inspired by the Golden Era of cosmonautics (1960-1970-ies). [1.2.0] 'Mk1-2 Pod' IVA Replacement by ASET, by alexustas - Whole brand new interior for the Mk1-2 Pod. [1.1.x] MK3 Space Shuttle IVA, by Jeast - This is a WIP mod for a Mk 3 cockpit IVA. [1.2.2] Warbird Cockpits! Vintage KN2 IVA, by theonegalen - This mod includes the Vintage Kerbonov KN-2 and Warbird Mk1 Inline cockpits Polished Parts mods: Eye-candy goes here! Change your part textures to make them pop or change appearance in different environments. [1.2.2] DCK: Camo for KSP, by DoctorDavinci - This mod contains MM configs that add camouflage to some of the stock parts using the FStextureswitch2 module from Firespitter. [1.1.x] CoolRockets!, by sarbian - This is an early release of a visual enhancements for stock engines and stock tanks. [x.x.x] Dangerously Shaded Stock Refresh, by DangerouslyDave - This is a WIP mod that is a reshade of the stock textures. [1.2.x] Destruction Effects, by jrodriguez - This mod adds flames and smoke to certain parts' joint break event. [1.2.2] RealisticComponents, by VikingStormtrooper - RealisticComponents Suite is a collection of small mods for KSP 1.2.2; the aim is to provide parts that look like the real ones. [1.2.2] Stock Part Revamp, by Ven - This part pack replaces several of the stock textures and models, hopefully making them more beautiful in the process. Visual and Sound mods: Specially dedicated to make your visual and audio experience even better! [x.x.x] IVA Everything, by martinezfg11 - Looking at KSP's awesome new feature, IVA's, you see through windows or "cutaways", is interesting and fun. What if the cut-aways were not only for parts with IVA's? [1.x.x] Kerbal Sound Overhaul Project, by pizzaoverhead - Aside from rocket engines and explosions, Kerbal Space Program is currently a very quiet game. This project is an attempt to fix that. [1.0.4] ProbeControl, by Tabakhase - A command center-like-IVA for unmanned vessels (Probe Cores). [x.x.x] TheWriteStuff, by CmdrThyte - DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES...to write stuff? Customize your space ships by adding text and decals to part textures. External Software: This is helpful software that does stuff for KSP outside of the KSP game. [x.x.x] Arduino based physical display, by zitronen - This is useful software and information for Arduino physical display's for launching your Kerbals. [1.2.9] Kerbal Sim Pit, by stibbons - This plugin maintains serial connections to one or more hardware devices. [1.1.3] kIPC - Inter-Processor Communication Between kOS and KRPC, by dewin - This is a KSP plugin to try to implement a bridge between kOS and KRPC. [1.1.2] ModelLessModlets,by genericeventhandler - This is a bunch of ModuleManager scripts that take stock models and modify them. [x.x.x] Stand Alone Map View, by Unit327 - A Kerbal Space Program mod that opens the map view in another window/monitor. Older Development Mods DO NOT ASK FOR UPDATES! Mods not activily under development, no author activity in over 1+ years are located in this section. Modding Tools: [x.x.x] KSPBlender, by Dasoccerguy - This is a .craft importer for Blender. Last post. Utility Mods: [x.x.x] Extended Trim, by MasseFlieger - This adds additional options in our trim controls, below is an early attempt to add this into the game. [x.x.x] Flight Computer, by pixartist - Fully automated flight, programmable via VPL. Last post. [x.x.x] KerbalGIS, by Gnonthgol - This plugin will setup your own tile server inside your game. This allows you to get better resolution, newer maps and better plugin integration. [0.9.0] LaserDist, by Steven Mading - This is a very small plugin. It makes a KSP Part that measures straight line distances by laser. ARR **[1.0.5] LightsOut, by nodrog6 - Add day and night modes to the VAB and SPH! Turn off the lights in the editors! Works at all upgrade levels! Last post. [x.x.x] MagneticEVA, by *Aqua* - A WIP mod developing a magnetic boots functionality for EVA'ed Kerbals. No License Visible [x.x.x] OrbitSnap, by godefroi - OrbitSnap addon will "snap" a vessel to the orbit of a predefined orbit, and eliminate any (tiny) perturbations that may have been inflicted as you adjusted your antennas. Career, Science and Tech Related Mods: [x.x.x] Contractpack: Dawn of the Space Age, by KSP_Jack - A campaign type mod for career and tech progression? The patches alone are worth salvaging if possible. [x.x.x] RealScience, by Agathorn - Say good bye to whack-a-mole style "science", and embrace a more solid research based approach to science. [0.2.3] RealSimpleScience, by Sandworm - More space/atmo science closer to kerbin, none of which is biome-dependant. Dropbox link [x.x.x] Tek Industries Science, by tek_604 - This is a plugin for science, including parts. Last post. Space Related Part Mods: [x.x.x] A.S.T.R.A. Command and Service Modules, by Gryphorim - Multiple part pack for command pod and service module system. Dropbox link No License Visible [1.0.2] Black Sky Suborbital Rocketplane, by AndyMt - The Black Sky is a suborbital spaceplane, based on the original design of the world's first crowd-funded spaceplane. [x.x.x] L.A. Industries, by Arod70 - This is a Kerbalized Soviet rocket parts pack. GoogleDrive link No License Visible [1.0.2] Moon Rocket from TinTin, by xxhansonmaxx - This is the Moon Rocket from one of the TinTin comics "Destination Moon". Last post. **[x.x.x] Pteron Micro Shuttle, by Sage Sagan - "Oh mommy! Its so cute, can we take it home!" A micro shuttle based off of Soviet spaceplane concepts. Dropbox link [1.0.4] Q Orbital Systems, by curtquarquesso - This is a small parts pack complementary of stock parts, as well as parts from Beale's Tantares parts pack. Last Post. Dropbox link [x.x.x] Spice Launch System, by maccollo - This mod is, or will be when it's complete, a set of SLS parts for realism overhaul. ARR [0.9.0] Systems Alliance Ship Yard, by flywlyx - I believe these are 2 Mass Effect ship models. [1.0.5] The 0.35m SSR MicroSat and Airlaunch Vehicle, by Squiggsy - Basically this is an aeroplane launched rocket containing a 0.35m Satellite. Last post. [x.x.x] World Space, by Lovad - World space. Rockets and spacecraft that really existed or were planned for production. Dropbox link No License Visible [1.0.5] 2-Kerbal Command Pod, by Yarbrough08 - This mod introduces you to the Mk. 1-1 A2, Two Kerbal Command Pod. Last post. Air, Sea, Ground Related Parts Mods: [x.x.x] A Mod Devoted to Rover Systems, by I.T Marcus - A mod devoted to building functional rovers. All of the parts are untextured as of right now. Last post. Dropbox link No License Visible [x.x.x] ACI - Aeropod, by Quellcrist - This is a unique and well done 1.25m cockpit stylized to resemble the F-8 Crusader. Dropbox link [x.x.x] Aerostats, by wasml - This is an airship part(s) mod. [x.x.x] Amphibious Hovercraft, by zitronen - A single part hovercraft replica I believe. 3rd party download link [x.x.x] AUC Aeronautic Technology, by Hary R - This is a small parts pack for aircraft similar to F-22/F-23 style. [1.0.5] FantomWorks, by FreddyPhantom - This part pack provides parts, as an extension for KAX by Keptin (KAX is not required to run this). Last post. [x.x.x] Hover craft, by flywlyx - Replica model of a Soviet/Russian Hovercraft. [1.0.2] Instell Inc. Experimental Engines, by 8bitsblu - Unique and Robotech-ish looking scram jet parts. Google Drive link No License Visible [x.x.x] Intui-Tech SRAVE, by trekfan42 - SRAVE- Slim, RAdial, Vtol, Engine. A disc shaped VTOL engine concept. GoogleDrive link No License Visible [1.0.2] Mk2 SR-71 Fantomworks, by FreddyPhantom - Stock-a-like Mk2 SR-71 cockpit. [x.x.x] Portable Rover Components, by alexustas - This is a WIP mod that is a small portable rover. Last post. Dropbox link [x.x.x] RamJet, by Jahulath - Ramjet engine parts pack. Dropbox link No License Visible Part Packs and General Parts Mods: [1.1.3] ATK Propulsion Pack, by Kartoffelkucken - This mod adds various solid rocket motors from Orbital ATK (Thiokol) into the game. ARR [x.x.x] Concave Construction Kit, by craigp - A parts pack with some unique parts. External link No License Visible [x.x.x] Derp Shield Corp's Pack, by Reign Of Magic - This is a WIP large engine part pack. ARR **[x.x.x] Foldaway Elevator, by Jahulath - Presenting the all new JonzCo foldaway elevator! Dropbox link No License Visible [1.0.5] Hot Contents Orbital Systems, by Hysterrics - This is a mod that aims to have multiple parts for every purpose imaginable. [x.x.x] Metal Wasp Industries Solar Panel and Parts Pack, by MrWizerd - This is a re-release of parts originally made by Terazone kerbal TetrisWizard. Last post. Isn't this mod integrated into another one? [x.x.x] MJY Future Space Industries, by mjy - This appears to be a model pack of 3 Sci Fi ships from DS9, Stargate, Star Trek. [x.x.x] Modular Rover Parts, by zilfondel - The RV-1 Rover Cabin is feature complete and is now available for download! Google Drive ink. Last post. [x.x.x] Nuclear Salt Water Rocket, by shynung - An engine mod based on the concept of the Nuclear Salt Water Rocket. [x.x.x] Part Models, by Martonaut - 2 part models available to anyone who wants to use them. Dropbox link [1.0.0] Radial Engine Mounts, by TeeJaye85 - This initial release contains two Radial Engine Mounts designed to allow you to turn your stack-mounted engines into radials. Patch by MeCripp (Dropbox) [0.9.0] Stack Inline Lights, by alexustas - 'Stack Inline Light' with full color and brightness setup and in any sizes! Last post. Dropbox link [x.x.x] The Open Part Mod, by Ven - The Goal: Create a probe for exploring asteroids grazing kerbin's sphere of influence. Google Drive link No License Visible [x.x.x] Tim Yam's Spaceliner, by pandoras kitten - This thread functions as a showcase for Tim Yam's incredible adventures in the world of 3D modelling. [x.x.x] Vodorod: Engines pack for RO, by SirKeplan - A couple of Hydrolox engines, primarily aimed at Realism Overhaul and not Stock. Dropbox link Weapon Mods: [1.0.5] BDDMP, by jediminer543 - BDDMP is a mod that was initially created by dsonbill, then adopted, that allows for the use of BDArmory weapons in DMP. Last post. Is this mod obsolete? Planetary Mods: [x.x.x] Cloud configurations for OPM, by Eleusis La Arwall - Different cloud looks for OPM mod. Last post. Is this mod obsolete? [x.x.x] Kerbal Binary devthread, by ibuckshot5 - Kerbal Binary is a mod similar to Kerbal Galaxy 2, but there doesn't have to be just 1 mod with the star-systems-around-a-black-hole feature, right? ARR [x.x.x] Kerbal Universe 2, by Poryy - A alternate Kerbol system pack. Dropbox link No License Visible [1.0.4] Kerbin 365, by Nolnoc - Kerbin 365 was created with the goal of making space travel harder for veteran players, while still allowing the use of Career Mode and custom rocket packs. Last post. [1.0.5] SKY - Scale-up Kerbalism for You, by SkyRex94 - A KSP Kerbol system re-scaling and modification mod. Last post. Dropbox link [0.9.0] StarSystems, by medsouz - This is a multi star system mod with a black hole. Last post. [x.x.x] Spud - A Moon for Dres, by MrChurnley - Dres was thought to be a lonely planet. Then Spud showed up. [x.x.x] The New Kerbol Mod, by MrHappyFace - This completely redesigns the stock planets, while keeping the same feel. It adds zombies to Laythe, horrific winds to Eve, and general awesomeness to every planet. Gameplay Mods: [x.x.x] Air Traffic Control, by skykooler - This mod adds an ATC menu to the game, which has been largely inspired by the one in Microsoft Flight Simulator X. [x.x.x] D.E.F.L.E.C.T.O.R. Shield, by kimiko - De-Fluctuating Energy Capacitor for Temperate or Overcooked Re-entries Shield. Dropbox link *[x.x.x] Electrical engines!, by touzenesmy - Tired of using a lot of stacked batteries to get more than 4k electric power ?, we thought about you! This mod adds electrical powered engines. Last post. [1.0.2] ExtraPlanetary LaunchPads Extended Part Pack, by rabidninjawombat - Additional part and re-texturing of EPLP. Last post. [1.0.5] N.A.N.A. Wildfire, by kimiko - WARNING: THIS IS A WORK IN PROGRESS: THINGS MAY ACTUALLY CATCH FIRE! Last post. [0.9.0] PackedParts, by bear67 - Ever run out of Rocket Part Storage and wanted a way to Compress them for later usage? Pack your Rocket Parts at a 10:1 Packed Parts Ratio. [x.x.x] Telemetry Radio, by woodywood245 - A mod for transmitting data from a spacecraft to the ground like Telemachus, but with the line-of-sight and range restrictions of RemoteTech. No License Visible Visual and Sound Mods: [x.x.x] MainSailor's Textures, by Phineas Freak - INTRODUCING: MainSailor's Procedural Textures. Last post. [1.0.5] Stock Replacement Assets, by hoojiwana - A very Work-In-Progress set of parts to replace various rocketry art assets with improved models and textures. Last post. External Software: [x.x.x] DMP Linux Server Tools, by dsonbill - A set of linux-native tools for administering and installing a DarkMultiPlayer server on GNU/Linux. Pastebin link [x.x.x] DMPExtendedPlugins, by dsonbill - DMPExtendedPlugins is a plugin for DarkMultiPlayer server. 3rd party download link [x.x.x] Firmata and Direct Serial for Auduino/others, by marzubus - This allows KSPAddons to open a direct serial port and talk with an Arduino or any serial device. [x.x.x] GetOffMyNetwork, by ragzilla - Attempts to run early in load order to inspect (using Mono.Cecil) all other plugins loaded into the KSP AppDomain. [x.x.x] Leap Motion Plugin, by nadvonm - You can control your rover and fly your plane with just moving your hand in front of your screen. Dropbox link No License Visible Abandoned Mods Abandoned by Author, Development Pages: [1.1.2] B.R.O.K.E.; DEV STOPPED, by magico13 - B.R.O.K.E. is a WIP framework for the creation and implementation of mods that center around regular funding adjustments. [x.x.x] Dark Days; DEV STOPPED, by daniel l. - A kopernicus pack that transforms the sun into a disintegrating red giant [x.x.x] DynamicSFX - Custom Part Sound Effects; DEV STOPPED, by ensou04 - Welcome to the Dev thread! DynamicSFX is a successor of ShipEffects Sound Mod. [x.x.x] Hermes Interplantary Vehicle Continued; DEV STOPPED, by Jasseji - This mod is intended to re-create the fantastic Hermes Spacecraft from the movie "The Martian". [1.0.5] kappa-ray irradiate your kerbals; DEV STOPPED, by soundnfury - kappa-ray models three kinds of radiation; in increasing order of energy, these are Van Allen belts, direct solar rads, and galactic cosmic rays. [1.2.0] Kerbal Galaxy Revamped; DEV STOPPED, by TheJangleMan - A new KSP star system project. [1.0.0] KCARS Mark II; DEV STOPPED, by philotical - A random assortment of models. I found only 1 live link in the OP. I noticed there are others who have posted links, mine this thread if you can. [1.2.1] Probe Control Room; DEV STOPPED, by icedown - This mod adds a mission control like room to all unmanned vessels. [x.x.x] Science Hard Drives; DEV STOPPED, by SirDargon - ScienceData is now stored in hard drives that have a limited capacity, require ElectricCharge and time to transfer ScienceData to them. [1.2.1] Stock Sized Real Solar System; DEV STOPPED, by sDaZe - This mod plans to bring RSS to stock size, basically a reversed RSS mod. Was this released by another author? [x.x.x] The Martian Rockets; DEV STOPPED, by MajorLeagueRocketScience - A 'The Martian' movie inspired replica of the Chinese Taiyang Shen rocket. Author stated project stopped then later made a patch. [1.0.5] The RAT Pack - Multi Mod Pack; DEV STOPPED, by satnet - The RAT Pack provides Ram Air Turbines, reverse thrusters, terrain warning and escape tower. [x.x.x] Vanguard Astrodynamics; DEV STOPPED, by Randazzo - 5 various mods that were worked on by Randazzo. [0.2.4] Voice Commander; DEV STOPPED, by blizzy78 -A plugin for software called 'Voice Commander' that enables players to use their natural voice to command their ships. Final note, if the mod librarian stops being active in the libraries for longer than 6 months for whatever reason, I hope that someone will volunteer to continue maintaining this library for the community's use. You have my permission to do. For future curators of this library: All posts created prior to April 1, 2017 have been inspected. There is no need to go farther back than that. There may be a dozen or so mods I may have missed or thought they were not in a working state to be included, its probably not worth the effort to find them. Some advise for library maintanence: The development pages are like a plant, always in growing and changing, they require more attentiveness than the release pages. Only add mods that have functional models or code to the library. Review Current and Older Dev section every 3-6 months to relocate mods as necessary. If a mod is adopted and re-released in either Add-on forum, ensure you remove old or irrelivant links to keep library functional.
  4. I just finished posting my stock X-wing and Tie fighter replicas to Kerbal-X. You can download and fly them now. Here is a video showing them in action... - Jett
  5. Hey! I've always been in love with atmospheric flight, but it was not until I played KSP that I found a fondness for spaceflight. I've always had a love/hate relationship with maths, i.e, I love the practical science/engineering/business applications of it, but it costs me horrors to do anything beyond basic equations. Anyway, a few weeks ago, as I was browsing the Internet, I came across a small PDF booklet that piqued my curiosity. It was titled "HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES." I gave it a quick reading, skipping over most of the maths, and realized that the apparent complexity in the design of a rocket engine stems not from the engine itself, which is a relatively simple machine, but from the fact that a flight engine has to fit a very harsh set of criteria: It needs extreme levels of both thrust and efficiency. It has to be extremely lightweight, and the tanks and piping have to be lightweight too. Cost is usually not an issue, or is pretty low in the priority list. That set of criteria produces the awesome beasts we know and love, but in the process also makes them extremely complex and costly machines. (Think turbopumps, regenerative cooling, exotic materials and building techniques, cutting-edge avionics and software, ultra-precise machining, etc) I realized, that, were one to have a different set of priorities, one could take the design of rocket engines out of the realm of the true rocket engine engineers (usually teams of specialists in aerodynamics, chemistry, thermodynamics, stress analysis, avionics, and the list goes on and on) and into the hands of a single hobbyist with barely high-school math skills like me. Enthusiastic, I gave the book a more thorough reading, and found out that it was more of a "How To" guide (Insert X value into Equation 4, take it from table B, and so on), and less of a true rocket engine design book. Given the fact that I actually want to learn design instead of just blindly following along a guide, I decided upon complementing it with other bibliography, mainly "Rocket Propulsion Elements", a monster of a book at 700 pages, and filled to the brim with complex math, which, nevertheless, has managed to solve (with considerable effort and headache on my part ) all the doubts such as Why is X done in Y way?, where does this precomputed value we're told to use come from?, etc. left in the wake of the smaller book. Hence I started the design process, and am currently in the phase of producing CAD drawings for manufacturing and assembly (i.e, I'm almost done) I've decided to share the process with you in order to: Give back to this awesome community at least a tiny bit of which it has given me over the years of playing KSP. Fully review the design process from start to finish as I write this, in search of errors. Learn even more as I search for ways to explain complex concepts in forms that are simpler to grasp than mere maths. Without further ado, let's dive in! I started the design process by listing a set of criteria for the engine to meet, in order for it to be a realistic, doable project for myself. Things I want or need: Simple. Safe (Well, as safe as a controlled explosion can be anyway) Cheap to build and operate Things I do not want or need: Extreme high performance. Or any performance at all. As long as it makes a supersonic flame and lots of noise, I'm happy. Lightweight. Expensive/Hard to find/Toxic propellants. Regenerative cooling (Arguably the hardest part in the design of any rocket engine) Expensive/exotic materials. Complex/extremely precise machining of parts. Gimbaling Given that different design criteria, the project becomes a lot simpler indeed! After outlining my requirements, I made the three most basic decisions that will drive the rest of the design process. Propellants to be used. How will the propellants be fed to the engine Thrust level to be achieved. After careful consideration, and a dive into Elements of Rocket Propulsion, and some Wikipedia to check chemical properties, I settled upon Gaseous Oxygen and Methyl Alcohol as propellants. The oxidizer, gaseous oxygen (GOX) is cheap, easy to find, non toxic, non cryogenic (does not require cryogenic valves, piping, engine pre-chilling, etc), has a slightly higher performance than liquid oxygen, and it also comes pre-pressurized (No pump required). It has a big drawback, in that the required tanks and pressure regulation devices are large and heavy (think high pressure storage of a gas which uses up a large volume), and, while that would be an instantaneous No-No for an engine to be used in a flight rocket, it was unimportant for my intended use. The fuel, methyl alcohol, also known as methylene or wood spirits, was chosen because, while it is more expensive than gasoline or kerosene, it burns at lower pressures and temperatures than those, therefore making the unspoken requirement "The engine should not melt/explode" a bit easier to comply with, and it can be bought at any hardware store. Methyl alcohol is toxic, but only upon ingestion and it's not horribly toxic or carcinogenic like other propellants or oxidizers such as hydrazine, aniline, red fuming nitric acid, dinitrogen tetroxide, etc) I also decided to use a pressure fed design, as, in keeping with the simplicity premise, I want to avoid turbopumps, gas generators, and all that sort of things that make complexity, cost, and the number of potential failure points to increase. The thrust level I decided upon was 100 newtons (10.2 Kgf or around 22 lbf). It's pretty darn puny for a rocket engine, but it's a nice round number, and should still be an interesting challenge, which should be achievable without: Needing huge chamber pressures/temperatures. Having a large fuel consumption. Rocket engines are inefficient machines by nature, and I don't want to go broke after the first few minutes of operation, With that decided, it is time to determine the basic operating parameters of the engine, such as mass flow, chamber pressure, etc. that will then be used to determine the materials and physical dimensions of the engine. That is already done, but I have to review it and convert from my scribbled design notes to a good quality post. Until then, I leave you with this render of the combustion chamber / nozzle assembly as a teaser of things to come. Dec 04 2015: In the last installment, I decided upon the propellant combination and thrust target. Today, I will determine the most basic operating parameters of the engine, and, upon those, calculate some other parameters which must be known in order to start calculating the basic physical dimensions of the thrust chamber and nozzle. Also, I keep all the parameters that I determine/calculate, in a large table, that is kept handy and lets me have all the data that I might possibly need, ready at a quick glance. This is the table so far, and from now on all results will be added to it, and data for any calculations, sourced from it too. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter or Dimension Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kgf / 100N 22.5 lbf Now, in order to get started with the physical design, we have to know a few parameters: Chamber pressure (Combustion pressure) Combustion Temperature. Mixture Ratio (Proportion of oxidizer to fuel) Approximate ISP (This is mostly a rough number dependent upon the propellant combination, and will be later adjusted to account for engine geometry losses) These parameters can be calculated, but designing an engine from scratch, with no reference numbers, is a daunting task. Fortunately there are huge amounts of precalculated data on the subject, made available by either government or private organizations, and we can easily source them from tables. As indicated on the table, these parameters are determined for expansion to 14.7 PSI, which is sea level atmospheric pressure. That is good enough for me, because this engine will not be used at very high altitude or a vacuum. (I live at 2700 ft above sea level) Also, not indicated on the table (one of the things the book assumes you to know/realize) is the fact that these pressures, temperatures, and ISP's, are based upon a stoichiometric mixture ratio (there is just enough oxidizer to burn all the fuel). Any other ratio will result in lower pressures and temperatures, and less performance, which makes sense, because you are either low on oxidizer, having unburned fuel go through the engine, and then burn with the outside atmospheric oxygen without producing useful thrust, or you have an excess of oxidizer going through the engine, and, given that there is not an unlimited amount of space inside the engine, any excess in oxidizer means a corresponding lack of fuel. (There is an exception to that if running fuel-rich reduces the molecular weight of your exhaust, such as in hydrogen/oxygen engines, but that is honestly beyond the scope of this discussion) Now we are ready to determine a few other rough parameters, most importantly, the engine mass flow rate. The engine mass flow rate will let us know the mass of propellants required for operating the engine at the desired thrust level. The formula for engine mass flow rate is: To understand why that does even make sense (It took me awhile to realize why it did, and I was very confused before that) you have to take two things into account: Mass conservation principle. No matter what is chemically happening inside the engine as propellants are burned, the same amount of mass that enters, will leave. Unless you somehow create a nuclear reaction, in which case some mass will be converted to energy, but that is a very, very, very unlikely outcome Specific Impulse (ISP) is just a fancy way of saying "Hey, this engine could develop X amount of thrust if it burned 1 unit of mass per unit of time" Thus, given that we know our thrust target and also know our rough ISP, we can proceed to calculate the amount of mass entering and exiting the engine per second. I'm pretty sure this engine will consume less than 0.1 kg of propellant per second, but let's find out the exact value. 100 Newtons are 10.1971621 kgf. Therefore our engine has a thrust of 10197 grams. Ah, metric system, how can I not love you 10197 / 248 = 41,116935483870967741935483870968 grams/sec. So, when the engine consumes 41.12 grams of propellant per second, it will emit 41.12 grams of exhaust gasses per second, and produce the 100 newtons of thrust. (In theory). Now based on that total, we will determine which part of the propellant mass is fuel and which part is oxidizer. (This will be used later in the design of the injectors, and fuel system and is better determined now than then) Given the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2, as per table 1, we then can determine the mass flow ratios to be as follows: Oxidizer flow = Emfr * R / (R+1) Oxidizer flow =0.403*1.2/(1.2+ 1) Oxidizer flow = 0,2198181818181818 newtons / sec oxidizer Fuel Flow = Emfr * R /(R+1) = Fuel Flow = 0.403/(1.2+1) Fuel Flow = 0,1831818181818182 newtons/sec fuel I know I'm not supposed to use newtons as a mass unit, and later realized that mistake, but the results are the same whether I use pounds or grams , only expressed in the pertinent unit. I have no clue why this is so, and if anyone could explain, I'd be grateful. Now with these parameters calculated, we can dive into the meat and potatoes of the project, and start calculating the physical dimensions of the engine, and also you'll get to see me suffer through some more complicated maths, but that will have to wait for the next installment. Until then, this is the engine data table, with all the data that we have determined or calculated so far. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2 kgf 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s If you have any insight, questions, or even better, have found an error, please let me know Dec 12 2015: Hey! After determining operating parameters, today we are going to determine some gas values, that we will then use to determine chamber dimensions, nozzle outlet diameter, expansion ratios, throat diameter, etc. Let's get started! The idea behind a DeLaval nozzle (That's how a rocket nozzle is called) is to transform a high pressure, high temperature, low velocity gas, like the combustion products, into a low pressure, relatively low temperature, and crazy-high speed gas. (Remember that momentum = mass times velocity, and given that gasses tend to be very light, in order to produce useful thrust, velocity has to be extremely high) Velocities of 2 km/s are not unheard of for small hobby engines This image shows the profile of the gases in a DeLaval Nozzle: Notice that the gasses after the throat are supersonic, and that is done in order to prevent pressure perturbations from travelling upstream (any pressure perturbations travel at the speed of sound) This is critical, because otherwise the nozzle would behave as a Venturi tube, and produce an exhaust of similar pressure and velocity as given in the inlet, which would be useless for us. Now, you'd think that calculating a diameter that will produce a desired Mach speed would be easy, but it turns out that the local sound speed (Mach number) of any gas is affected by pressure, temperature, and density... And guess what, a nozzle varies pressure and temperature along its whole length! Now the math starts to pick up in complexity! First, we have to determine the temperature of the gas in the nozzle throat (Tthroat). That is because, as explained above, the gas temperature at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to loss of some thermal energy during the acceleration of the gas to local speed of sound (Mach number = 1) at the throat. Gamma (the Y shaped Greek letter) is the ratio of gas specific heats, a dimensionless value (much like the Mach number), which relates to the heat capacity at a given volume for a gas. For the products of hydrocarbons and gaseous oxygen combustion, Gamma equals 1.2 Tgas = 1 / (1 + ((1.2-1)/2)) Tgas = 0.90909090909 of the Chamber temp. Tgas = 0.90909 * 3155 º K Tgas = 2868.18 º K or 2595 ºc The chamber (combustion) temperature is determined for this propellant combination from Table 1. Now, we have to determine the gas pressure at the nozzle throat.The pressure at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to acceleration of the gas to the local speed of sound (Mach number =1) at the throat, as given by So, Pgas = 300 psi * (1+((1.2-1)/2)) ^-(1.2 / (1.2 – 1)) I just rage-quitted there, and cheated with Wolfram Alpha. (which, by the way, is a wonderful free online tool that I recommend you check out) So, pressure at the throat is 169.34 psi. Quite a large drop, about half of the initial value, which is to be expected in this kind of nozzle. So far, so good. Also, the gas will have to be expanded to atmospheric pressure before exiting the engine. This is important for future calculations. Given that I live at 2700 ft above sea level, I just asked Wolfram Alpha which was the atmospheric pressure at that altitude. Unfortunately, time is in short availability for me right now. So, I give you the current status of our calculations. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Please join me in the next installment, when we determine Mach numbers and finally some physical dimensions! Until then, if you find any errors or have comments/suggestions, please do let me know. Thanks. Dec 18 2015: Hey! Real life has been hell these days! Fortunately, now I've had time to review another part of the design. Onward! Now that the gas parameters, such as temperature and pressure at the throat have been determined, and we know the mass flow of the engine, we can proceed to calculate throat area, and from that, derive throat diameter (The first physical dimension) Throat area is given by: Where R is the universal gas constant, M is the molecular weight of the exhaust gasses, and Gc is the universal gravitation constant. Athroat = ((Mflow/Pthroat) * ((R * Tthroat ) / (Gamma * gravitational constant)) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906 lb/sec / 169.34 psi) * ((64.388 foot-pound/pound/degree Rankine * 5679 degrees Rankine)/ (1.2 * 32.2 foot/sec^2 )) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906 lb/sec / 169.34 psi) * ((64.388 foot-pound/pound/degree Rankine * 5679 degrees Rankine )/ (1.2 * 32.2 foot/sec ^2 )) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34 psi) * ((64.388 *5679)/ (1.2*32.2)) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34 psi) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = 0.0520461 square inches, or 33.5781 square mm Given this area, we can proceed to determine diameter, by simple geometry of circles. Dthroat= 4*33.5781 / 3.14159265 Dthroat= 4*33.5781 / 3.14159265 Dthroat= 6.53858 mm I'm sorry guys, I really wanted to push out more content today but an unexpected work issue has arisen (yet again) *Sigh*.. I'll have a fuller update ASAP. Sorry for the really crappy little update, but hey, progress is progress! PS: Almost forgot, this is our Data Table now: ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461“2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Feb 18 2015: Hello guys! Sorry I left all of you hanging in there, but I've been having all kinds of Real Life Stuff™ going on! I can't promise updates will be regular anymore, but this project is in no way shelved or anything. In the last installment, we had determined the gas pressure, temperature, and throat area of the nozzle. Now, with that data on hand, we can proceed to calculate the best bell end diameter that will provide expansion to the desired pressure and prevent the engine from running under or overexpanded. (Don't worry, I'll explain these terms in a second) In order for us to understand why expanding to a predetermined pressure is important, you have to go back to the definition of a DeLaval nozzle that I posted some paragraphs above. "The idea behind a DeLaval nozzle [...] is to transform a high pressure, high temperature, low velocity gas, like the combustion products, into a low pressure, relatively low temperature, and crazy-high speed gas." So the nozzle does useful work (accelerating a gas) by taking energy from its heat while reducing its pressure. I never even thought this would be significant, I mean, the larger the expansion, the better the performance you extract from the engine, right? But as a thought experiment, I decided to imagine the "perfect" engine. This perfect engine would have an infinitely large exhaust nozzle, it would drop the exhaust pressure to zero and the exhaust temperature to absolute zero, and thereby convert all the available heat from the exhaust gasses into kinetic energy. Exhaust velocity would NOT be infinite, because there's only a limited amount of heat energy to begin with, and, given the infinitely large nozzle would also be infinitely heavy, that would render our perfect engine useless, but hey, this is only a thought experiment in a perfect vacuum... And then it hit me, that in fact a real engine would not operate in a perfect vacuum, where the ideal exhaust pressure is zero, but it would operate inside an atmosphere, where the ideal expansion is to atmospheric pressure. To better understand why this is so: Imagine you are sitting with your engine at sea level. Therefore, the pressure of the engine exterior is 1 atmosphere, or 14.7 psi. Now imagine you had 300 psi in the combustion chamber, and your hypothetical nozzle had been designed to reduce pressure at the exit to 100 psi. So, what happens when you start said engine? Your nozzle works as expected, and it reduces exhaust pressure to 100 psi, with a proportional temperature drop. Then, once the gasses leave the nozzle, what happens? They immediately proceed to expand to 14.7 psi, further cooling in the process. Therefore your nozzle is underexpanded, and it is wasting gas energy (Remember, any gas that expands outside the engine is useless for thrust, much like excess fuel would be (There is an exception to that if running fuel-rich reduces the molecular weight of your exhaust, such as in hydrogen/oxygen burning engines, but that is honestly beyond the scope of this discussion)). Now to the opposite end of the spectrum: Imagine you take the same engine and change the nozzle for one that goes to, say, 0.5 psi. As the gasses go further down the nozzle, their pressure will decrease, until it matches that of the atmosphere. At said point, they stop expanding, because the atmospheric pressure exerts a force equal and opposite to that of the inner gas pressure, and the exhaust will form a column that is "pinched" by the atmosphere and will exit the bell without expanding any further. This seems like it would be good enough, right? You get a slightly larger and heavier nozzle, but for that price, you make absolutely sure that you're expanding the gas as much as it can expand, and getting all the thermal and pressure energy you can get out of it. The exhaust is as cool as it can get, it's at ambient pressure, and you've extracted all the velocity you can extract. Then who cares if the nozzle is a bit too large? Well, in an ideal world that would be OK, but in the real world, having parts of the nozzle not filled with exhaust is a bad, bad idea. The best that can happen is that the gas "sticks" to the nozzle walls after its expansion is done, you get vacuum "bubbles", Mach diamonds, turbulence, etc. in the exhaust and you lose thrust. (That happens with mild overexpansions) and the worst that can happen is the flame flopping around like crazy and banging the nozzle walls randomly until the vibration, noise, and mechanical stress of the turbulent gas flow cause the engine to experience R.U.D. (Rapid Unscheduled Disassembly) Real rockets have a problem with that. Especially first stages! First stages have to go from sea level to almost a vacuum! So how do they avoid gross underexpansion or overexpansion? Well, by compromising, and using a nozzle that is designed to work halfway between sea level and vacuum. So upon start up they are overexpanded, and as they climb they reach their design altitude (perfectly expanded), and then past that they become underexpanded. Example overexpanded nozzle. You can see the telltale Mach disks. And my favorite underexpanded one, Saturn V going uphill You can check out the expansion of exhaust gasses in this video of the Mars Climate Orbiter launch. Check out how big that plume gets as the atmosphere gets thinner and thinner. That was when I came across what I thought was the simplest engine design calculation so far: With said constant already being helpfully provided by the author. But alas, I'm always curious, and I dived into Rocket Propulsion Elements, to find out why relative gas expansion was so simple. Oh, how I was to repent. Turns out, said constant is only valid for sea level. For expansion to a different pressure, you need either a new constant, or you need to do math of the kind that gives you chills. Nevertheless, once I was in, i had no choice but to press forward (Just kidding, I had fun learning about it) These equations will be used to calculate the Mach speed of the exhaust gasses, and once we have that, find an exhaust area that will yield exhaust pressure equal to the local atmospheric pressure for that Mach number. Once again, Wolfram Alpha proves to be an invaluable tool for the hobbyst rocket engineer who wants to save time and headache. An exhaust velocity of Mach 2.62 sounds incredibly high, but actually, is pretty much on the lowest end of what you will get with a rocket engine. Now that we know the area of the nozzle end, we can use simple circle geometry to calculate a diameter (It's the same formula we already used to derive nozzle throat diameter from nozzle throat area) Dexhaust=0.515609 inches or 13.0965 mm. Therefore our Master Data table now looks like this: ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Join me in the next installment, where we'll calculate the combustion chamber parameters, and we will be then ready to begin sketching the innards of the chamber + nozzle. Until then, thanks for your time & patience in dealing with my ramblings, and as always, if you find a mistake, please DO let me know. I happen to dislike explosions if I have to pay for the exploding stuff. Mar 3 2015: Hi! Finally found a bit of free time! Real Life keeps me busy, and usually at the end of the day I'm too knackered to do anything other than crawl into bed .... But enough of my whining! You're here for the possible explosions rocket engine design theory. Given that we now know the throat diameter, and exit diameter, one would think that it's already time to calculate nozzle inlet diameter, but, a quick bit of thinking reveals that the nozzle inlet and chamber outlet are one and the same, so we'll kill two birds with a single stone, and calculate chamber dimensions which we can then use to derive nozzle inlet diameter. We will start by calculating the volume of the chamber, and, knowing that volume, we can make an educated guess about length/diameter ratio, and calculate exact values from there. What would a good volume be? A good volume would be one that ensures adequate mixing, evaporation, and complete combustion of propellants by the time they reach the nozzle inlet. That is so, because the nozzle is designed to work with a specific inlet pressure and temperature. Any propellant that goes past the nozzle inlet, will probably burn in the nozzle, which is a bad idea because temperatures at the throat are already pretty critical (despite being at lower temperatures, the throat is the area with less dissipation surface available, and therefore more susceptible to heat damage) and also it would throw off our pressure and temperature ratios for all the points along the nozzle, and if the chamber is too big, the gasses will have time to cool before they enter the inlet, thus reducing engine performance. So, in resume: Chamber too big: Colder inlet temperatures, performance wasted. Heavier engine. Somewhat easier cooling due to lowered gas temps at the nozzle. Risk of combustion instability. Chamber too small: Dangerously hotter nozzle, performance wasted. Lighter engine. Calculating the aerothermochemodynamics of complex hydrocarbons reacting while changing their state, pressure, mixture ratios, temperature, movement speed, and several other variables, in order to ensure complete combustion, is an awful, hellish nightmare. Trust me, I have looked at it. But turns out, there's a cheat for that. Even Real Life Rocket Scientists™ happen to use it for preliminary designs. It's called "characteristic chamber length" and is defined as the length that a chamber of the same volume should have if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle section. Characteristic chamber length, L* or L star, is determined experimentally for different propellant combinations, throat diameter, and combustion pressures, and it can be sourced from tables. For an hydrocarbon burning engine like mine, L* is between 50 to 70 inches. The variation is to account for injector design (propellant mixing) I decided to go with 60 inches. Vchamber = 60 * 0.0520461 cubic inches, therefore Vchamber = 3.122766 in3 or 51.173 cm3 To derive chamber length from volume, we also have to know a diameter. A good diameter for combustion chambers is around 5 times throat diameter. Dc = 5 Dthroat Dc = 5 * 6.53858 Dc = 32.6929 mm – 1.287122 inches This is for the cylindrical portion of the chamber. For a small chamber, we can just assume the convergent segment to be 1/10th of the chamber volume, and be done with it. For the chamber area, i just went with my trusty ally, Wolfram Alpha. Lc = Vc / (1.1 * Ac) Lc = 3.122766 in3 / (1.1 * 1.3012 in2) Lc = 3.122766 / (1.1 * 1.3012) Lc = 3.122766 / 1.43132 = 2.18174 inches - 55,416196 mm And thus, our Engine Master Data Table is beginning to fill with physical dimensions. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 Cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length (including Convergent Segment) 55,416196 mm 2.18174” Please join me next time, were we'll calculate chamber walls, dabble in safety margins, and make a first crude sketch of the engine (Spoiler: It does end up looking like a rocket engine) Until then, if you happen to find any errors, or have feedback, please do so. Thanks Apr 30 2016: Wow! It's been a long time! Sorry for the delay guys... Real life has been absolutely hectic, work issues, study issues, family issues, you name it you got it! Despite the long time between updates this project is not dead at all and I've been itching to show some of the progress I've made. So, without further ado, let's dive in! In the last installment, we had finished determining chamber and nozzle dimensions, but these are the inside ones only, and now we will calculate wall thickness. Every point in the chamber and nozzle has to be strong enough to resist the pressures involved, otherwise the engine will explode. I've decided that, in order to simplify the design, I will simply use a constant wall thickness, suited for the highest pressure area. This is really overkill for parts of the nozzle where the pressure will be lower, and makes the engine significantly heavier, but greatly simplifies both design and machining. Thus I shall design a vessel that can contain 300 psi with an adequate safety margin. Given that the nozzle will be automatically overbuilt, due to its lower operating pressure, I will treat the chamber as a pipe and thus greatly simplify calculation. The equation for the stress on the wall of a tube is: where S is the stress on the pipe wall, P is Pressure, D is Diameter and Tw is the wall thickness. Thus, if we replace S with the ultimate strength of our material, we can calculate the minimum wall thickness. I choose copper, given that it has excellent thermal conductivity, is easy to machine, and is cheap. The ultimate strength of copper is around 10.000 psi, but I will use a conservative 8000 psi in this calculation. S= P * D / 2Tw Tw = P * D / 2S Tw = 300 psi * 1.287122 inch / 16000 Tw = 300 * 1.287122 /16000 Tw = 0.0241335375 inch or 0.61299185 mm Of course this is the absolute minimum value, and while going with 2 mm wall thickness should be more than enough, there are other things to consider, machinability being a top priority since I don't want this project to be unnecessarily hard to machine (Machining a nozzle with walls of that thickness, in copper, will be very hard to do without deforming it) Therefore, I will make an educated guess and use a 5 mm wall thickness, which should be easy to obtain. That also gives me an 815% safety margin. This baby may melt, but an explosion is now an extremely unlikely outcome. (Thankfully) Obviously this just made the engine a lot heavier, but, then again, I don't care about weight. Now that we know all our dimensions, we need to determine our half angles, or the angles of the lines that join inlet, throat, and outlet, thus conforming the nozzle walls. For this small engine, adding a bell shape would give me major machining headaches, and produce only a minor performance improvement. Based on a simpler geometry proposal by @A Fuzzy Velociraptor, I decided to go with 15º and 40º half angles, jointed by rounded unions. I proceeded to fire up my favorite CAD software and did a quick sketch. (All dimensions in mm) I don't know about you, but to me, that definitely looks like a rocket engine. What do you guys think? Next up: We will tackle the issue of cooling. Hopefully tomorrow. No promises. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 Cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º May 06 2016: Did I say tomorrow? I totally meant in a week or so! Let's get started on cooling, shall we? In order to understand the cooling needs, we first have to understand how the heat flows through a rocket engine. Most of the heat of combustion is either used up accelerating the gasses, or leaves with the exhaust, while a part of it is transferred to the chamber wall, propellant injectors, and nozzle. Heating is a problem because it can debilitate the metals of the chamber to the point at which they cannot resist the chamber pressure anymore, causing deformations which are usually followed by RUD. Therefore, we can devise of several methods to keep the temperatures within reason. No cooling at all: Use the thermal mass of the engine as a heat sink, then radiate the heat away while the engine is off. Pros: Simplest method - Cons: Run time very constrained. Passive cooling: Use either the engine nozzle or chamber walls exposed to the atmosphere as radiators. Pros: Very reliable - Cons: Complex design, a large run time requires more radiating surface than may be available, and thus, the run time is still limited without adding heavy radiator vanes. Active cooling: Use a cooling fluid circulated against the walls to get heat out of the engine. Pros: Unlimited run time. Potential to be extremely lightweight, if regenerative cooling is used (Regenerative cooling means that propellant doubles as cooling fluid) Cons: Complex design. I shall use Active cooling for this engine, for the following reasons: Safety I: If I design the engine for unlimited run time, the chance of destroying it in a 5 second initial run is extremely low. Safety II: The cooling jacket doubles as a shrapnel shield, and protects the test stand equipment from a possible explosion. It should be an interesting and educative challenge, but not a hardcore one like regenerative cooling. Active cooling works like this: (in this example, the cooling fluid is water) Small hobby rocket engines have an average heat transfer from the hot gasses to the chamber walls of about 0.5 Kw/cm2/sec, or 3Btu/sq inch./sec. Therefore, and assuming a perfect wall conductivity, this is the amount of heat that has to be removed from each square cm of the engine. Now in order to know the total heat transfer per unit time, we have to determine the inner surface area. In order to simplify calculation, I will ignore fillets and treat the engine as a cylinder for the chamber, a truncated cone for the nozzle's convergent section, and another truncated cone for the divergent section. Atotal= Achamber + Anozzle convergent + Anozzle divergent The formula for the surface area of a cylinder is: I shall modify this formula, because I do not want the total area, I only want the area of the side wall + top (the injector plate) The bottom area is shared with the convergent section of the nozzle and there is no material there to absorb heat. Therefore, Achamber = 2 * 3.14159265359 * 16.345 ^ 2 + 2 * 3.14159265359 * 16.345 * 40 So, the area of the chamber inner side walls plus injector plate inner side: Achamber = 5786 sq milimeters. The lateral area of a truncated cone, is as given by: Thus, for the convergent segment of our nozzle, Anozzle c = 3.14159265359 * (16.345 + 3.408) * Sqrt ( (16.345 - 3.408)^2 + 15.838) We use lateral area because the "bottom" of the truncated cone is the chamber radius and is not in contact with the walls, and the "top" is the throat radius, and, as such, also not in contact with walls. Therefore, Anozzle c = 840 sq mm And now, the same for Anozzle d Atotal= Achamber + Anozzle c + Anozzle d Atotal= 5786+ 840 + 145 Atotal= 5786+ 840 + 145 = 6771 square mm, or 67.71 square cm, or 10.5 square inches. The total heat transfer, "Q", is equal to the heat transfer rate "q" times the surface area of the inner walls. Therefore Q = qA Q = 0.5Kw/cm2/sec * 67.71 cm2 And thus, the total heat transfer of the engine is 33.85 Kw, or about 45 horsepower... (For the Imperial guys, about 31.5 BTU/sec) Join me next time, when we will attempt to find out exactly how much water flow does it take to get these insane amounts of heat out of the engine! If such a small engine produces these amounts of heat, my respect for the guys and gals that work on the real deal with regenerative cooling has multiplied hundredfold. May 16 2016 A few days ago, we calculated the amount of waste heat that the engine would output when working, and now we need to devise a means to get said heat out of the engine, in order to keep the operating temperatures as low as possible. Injector cooling is not an issue, as they are cooled by the inflow of propellant. Injector plate and chamber, however, are. For the sake of simplicity, I will stick to using water as coolant. Therefore, the system now has a few defined constraints: The coolant fluid must not boil. I will use water as coolant, for its high specific heat, and availability The system must be more capable than strictly needed. I don't care about mass and therefore I will have ample safety margins. Coolant flow speed of 10 m/sec or around 30 fps The coolant shall enter near the nozzle, flow all the way around the chamber, and leave near the injector plate. The amount of water mass flow (mass/sec) needed can be calculated, given the desired temperature rise and the heat input to the fluid, as given by: This is a simplified equation that only will work for water. For other cooling fluids, you need to factor in specific heat capacity. A good ΔT could be 20 ºC, that way water entering the cooling system at ambient temperature, about 20 ºC, would leave at 40 ºC, and thus a 60 ºC margin would remain before its boiling point. (68 to 108 ºF, 42.22ºF ΔT,) Wm = 31.5 / 40 Wm = 0.7875 pounds/sec, or 357 grams/second of coolant fluid. Another cool thing about using water is that, given a density (σ) of 1kg/lt, we now also know that the engine will need 0.357 liters of water per second in order to operate. (That is around 21.5 liters per minute, or 1290 liters per hour.) Now we have to calculate a pipe of such area as to obtain the desired water flow at the desired flow velocity (10 m/s should be more than enough to prevent boiling for this engine). To simplify calculation, I will treat water as a perfectly incompressible fluid. To obtain the desired mass flow at the desired velocity, the cooling jacket must have an area Ajacket, given by: The cooling jacket will therefore be like a ring around the outside of the chamber walls, with cross-sectional area Ajacket , as given by: where D2 is the inner diameter of the outer jacket and D1 is the outer diameter of the combustion chamber, given by: D1 = Dc +2Tw Where Dc is Chamber inner diameter and Tw is the wall thickness. Now we substitute and solve as this: And thus: D2 = sqrt(4mw/(Vw ^ density ^pi) + D1 ^2) D2 = sqrt(4*0.357kg /(10 m/s ^ 1 kg/lt ^3.14159265359) + 42.69 ^2 ) So, 44.33 mm is the inner diameter of the cooling jacket. I will just round it up to 46 mm for ease of machinability. That will increase coolant consumption without significantly improving cooling, but I don't care about that. Please join me in the next installment, when we finish up the coolant jacket design, including yet again safety margins, and some weird math! Until then, I leave you our ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2068 kpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1168 kpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174 ” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º Average wall heat transfer 0.5 kw/sec/cm2 3 Btu/sec/“2 Total inner surface area 67.71 cm2 10.5“2 Total heat transfer 33.85 kw/sec Coolant fluid Water Coolant fluid ΔT 20º C 42.22º F Coolant mass flow 357 grams/sec 0.7875 lb/sec Coolant flow volume 0.357 liters/sec 12.07 fl oz/sec Coolant density 1kg/lt 62.43 lb/ft3 Coolant flow velocity 10 m/s 32.81 ft/sec Coolant jacket inner diameter 46 mm 1.811” June 29 2016 Man, time sure flies when you're having fun horribly busy! On with the show! In the last installment, we had almost finished the cooling jacket, but some dimensions still have to be known, such as jacket inlet/outlet diameters, and jacket wall thickness. I shall use a single outlet, and two offset inlets, in order to produce a swirling motion of the coolant that should help prevent hot spots. In order to avoid pressure variations, and to keep flow speed constant, I shall keep a constant area between inlets, jacket, and outlet. The jacket has to withstand the coolant pressure, but it also doubles as shrapnel shield in case of engine RUD, and thus I will simply go for an overkill 5 mm wall thickness for the jacket, which gives us an outer diameter of 56 mm. The area of the inlets equals 1/2 of the area between the chamber outside wall and the jacket inner wall. This, as given by the area of a circle formula, equals 5221 mm2 for the jacket, and 4499 mm2 for the chamber. Thus, the coolant flow passage area is 722 mm2. and the outlet is 3.032 cm in diameter, while the inlets are half that. I'll just round it to 30 and 15 mm, for ease of machining. I'm starting to feel that the extra area I've added is counterproductive, as the design might be wasteful of water. Although better safe than sorry. I'll stick to those dimensions, and if there's excessive cooling I can simply reduce flow. And with that, the cooling design is done. Next up: Injectors! Oh boy! ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2068 kpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1168 kpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174 ” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º Average wall heat transfer 0.5 kw/sec/cm2 3 Btu/sec/“2 Total inner surface area 67.71 cm2 10.5“2 Total heat transfer 33.85 kw/sec Coolant fluid Water Coolant fluid ΔT 20º C 42.22º F Coolant mass flow 357 grams/sec 0.7875 lb/sec Coolant flow volume 0.357 liters/sec 12.07 fl oz/sec Coolant density 1kg/lt 62.43 lb/ft3 Coolant flow velocity 10 m/s 32.81 ft/sec Coolant jacket inner diameter 46 mm 1.811” Coolant flow passage area 722 mm2 1.119”2 Coolant inlets diameter 15 mm 0.5906” Coolant outlet diameter 30 mm 1.181” Mar 10 2017: Not abandoned! It may take me a long time, but this project will be finished come hell or high water! It's been a long time, so I'd recommend that you read from the beginning as a refresher. With that said, let's proceed. So, where was I? Ah, yes, injectors, injectors. The function of an injector is to take high pressure propellants from the feed lines, meter the appropriate amount of each (much like a carburetor), and inject them into the chamber in such a way that they can properly and efficiently burn. There are several kinds of injectors, impinging, showerhead, hollow post, pintle, etc. For this design, I shall use an impinging design. It's easy to design and build, and, while it has several disadvantages (Less efficient, very hard to throttle, small variations in shape cause big mixture irregularities, etc), these disadvantages are irrelevant to the type of engine that I'm designing. There are several "eyeballed" parameters. 100 PSI pressure drop. This should be enough to help prevent instability without requiring structural reinforcement. 20 m/s injection velocity. I was unable to find data on how an injection velocity is chosen for different propellants, however, this value is mid of the range for small hydrocarbon/oxygen engines We can now proceed to determine injector hole area, based on the physical characteristics of the propellants. Ethanol can for all practical purposes be considered incompressible. Thus, the injection area that satisfies the mass flow and injection characteristics is given by Where m is the propellant flow mass, c is the discharge coefficient, δ the density, and Δp the pressure drop. A typical discharge coefficient for round hole, small size injectors with a larger fuel manifold behind is about 0.7 The density of ethanol is about 0.75 g/cm3 at ambient pressure, and almost does not change with pressure. Pressure drop will be 100 psi. And also the bibliography I'm using (For those of you crazy cool enough to attempt a similar project) Title Author Editor DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Dieter K. Huzel and David H. Huang Rocketdyne Division, North American Aviation HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES Leroy J. Krzycki ROCKETLAB / CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF PROPULSION Philip G. Hill and Carl R. Peterson Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Ignition!: An informal history of liquid rocket propellants John D. Clark Rocket Propulsion Elements 7th Edition GEORGE P. SUTTON and OSCAR BIBLARZ JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC If you have any insight, questions, or even better, have found an error, please let me know
  6. I am making a kerbal cockpit simulator based on the endeavor, with some modifications. I will post more details later but here are a few pics of my progress so far.. I made the platforms 2x6 so I can easily move it from room to room without disassembly. Some of the things I have planned are: 1- Red led's outside of windows programmed to heat from reentry 2- Arcade Joystick set for docking 3- Flight joysticks for both seats and 1 throttle 4-Vibration motor programmed to g-force 5- Working Multi-function displays I started documenting later than I wanted to so once I get more organized I will post more. I also welcome suggestions. Let me know what you think
  7. Hello! Welcome to Through Hardships to the Stars (previously known as KSP Megastructures)! This is a fan-fiction illustrated story, played in sandbox mode, with many, many mods. Contents: Chapter 1 - StarDust (This Post) Chapter 2 - SpacePlane-1 Chapter 3 - Comm Fleet Chapter 4 - Station Science Chapter 5 - The End Chapter 6 - New Beginnings Chapter 7 - Further Than Any Kerbal Has Gone Before Chapter 8 - Merkury-Appaloosa Chapter 9 - Moving Forward Chapter 10 - The Mun and Brumby Chapter 11 - Interstellar Hazard Chapter 12 - Bigby Solar Observatory Interlude - The Plan Chapter 13 - Starting The Plan Chapter 14 - SpaceLab Operations Chapter 15 - Updating The Plan Chapter 16 - Satellites Galore Chapter 17 - The Grand Tour of Kerbin Chapter 18 - By SQUAD... Chapter 19 - Solar Trusses Chapter 20 - Gilly Chapter 21 - Getting Stuff Done Chapter 22 - The Hybridium Chapter 23 - A Discovery Chapter 24 - Duna Calls Chapter 25 - Maintenance Chapter 26 - Minmus Chapter 27 - Good and Bad Chapter 28 - Rebellious Chapter 29 - Unexpected Developments Chapter 30 - Pushing Forward Chapter 31 - Something Big Chapter 32 - Something Big II Want to submit a payload? Answer these questions and it'll be launched Note: Any mods are allowed except those that add life support (TAC-LS, USI-LS, Snacks, etc) and those that add different fuel systems (like RealFuels, EngineIgnitor, Cryogenic Engines, etc) Payload Submission Form: CHAPTER 1: STARDUST The International Kerbal Space Program wasn't going well. After the Kongress decided that manufacturing enough nukes to annihilate Kerbin three times over (with no conflicts going on at the time) was more important than space exploration, the IKSP had all fundings cut. The space program was bankrupt, with all their achievements being forgotten over time. After 4 years of uncertain-ness, Jerome Kerman, head of the IKSP, had no choice but to sell off the program to a private investor. That private investor was Dave Kerman. The IKSP was officially declared a private organization 4 years, 3 munths and 2 days after kovernmental funding was cut. Dave immediately set his sights on the IKSP's huge, but ageing, space station. It was officially named the Kerbal Space Station, but nearly everyone called it "StarDust". 4 years ago, it was an engineering marvel. The culmination of the entirety of Kerbin working together to reach into space, and stay there. However, now the station was slowly failing. The RTGs were losing power, the circuit connections were getting unstable and the atmosphere inside was escaping. Something had to be done, or StarDust would soon be rendered completely unusable. The first thing that Dave Kerman and his team decided on was to replace the old habitation arms with an all-new, modern habitation ring. Or more accurately, four of them. The 364-ton monstrosity needed an all-new launcher to get it into orbit: the SB-3, Station Builder 3. The SB-3 was just an SB-2 with 3 cores. The SB-1, compared to these huge rockets, was so small it was barely worth mentioning (it was still pretty big, having been made of 3.75m parts). The habitation ring was mounted on top of the SB-3. Unfortunately the fairing wasn't wide enough for the ring, so the entire assembly had to be botled to a rocket with a flat top. The brute force approach would have to be used, punching a hole through the lower atmosphere and getting out of it ASAP. The rocket was rolled to the launchpad successfully. With a crowd of exactly 14 kerbals in Mission Control, SB-3 with the Habitation Ring lifted off. The rocket followed an unusually steep gravity turn, focusing more on getting out of the lower atmosphere than building up horizontal speed. Booster separation: And finally, a stable orbit was reached. The closest approach was 47.2km. Not too bad for a private space program who had never docked before. Mission Control could work with that. All further maneuvers would be completed with the second stage, which had a full tank of fuel. All maneuvers were performed successfully and the stage was detached from the Hab Ring less than a kilometer from StarDust. The Hab Ring guided itself in under the power of its own RCS thrusters. Docking was completed on the light side of Kerbin, which is not at all right and proper, but it was the safest option for a first mission. The IKSP's first private mission was a complete success. Now all that was left was deorbiting the second stage: Most of the components overheated on reentry. Only the fairing base and docking port survived, which showed some strange aerodynamic properties... Since the base was practically gliding down, it was no surprise when it survived contact with the ocean. [This gave me an idea... can I make a glider out of fairing bases?? I'll have to try some designs.] The IKSP's first mission was a success. But Dave Kerman wasn't finished there...
  8. Math is part of the fun! Edit: It's possible I've answered my own question (see the reply) but a second set of eyes would still be super appreciated, if it sound like a fun puzzle to solve through. I feel so close, and yet so far... I was honestly expecting to figure out the problem while rubber-ducking this post together, but alas no such luck. Best of luck on your analysis, and thanks in advance for the help or consolations! Oh, and as a personal request, thanks for poking holes in my equations, but please don't poke a hole you're not willing to fill back in 0. Premise So, we have a lifter that'll get mcraft tons to LKO, and a final unpowered reentry stage weighing mpod tons to finish the trip, and we want to maximize the amount of fun we can have in between. By fun, I mean ΔV with a given TWRmin! We should be able use the rocket equation to find the optimum size of each stage relative to the next (so long as we're using the same engine specs everywhere.) Let's solve for the deltaV of a specific case, and generalize from there. Yeah, that's the craft we're describing! 1. ΔV of a single stage, given masses and TWRs: 2. Extend ΔV from individual stages to a full craft 3. Generalize to a form that's irrespective of craft size ... Results seem mostly good. 4. Plot in terms of more convenient (mfull /mpayload) ... where things are probably definitely wrong So, I hit this road block on Friday and attacked the problem from every angle I could think of over the weekend, rederiving the first 3 sections from different conceptual starting points. I slept on it, mulled over it and triple checked everything, but there's obviously something amiss because the graph in section 4 is obviously wrong in the limit of stages being very large compared to their payloads. Can you figure out the right answer? Best of luck! Terms Future works Finally, I'm flagging friendly neighborhood mod @Vanamonde in case another board would be more appropriate. I think this is the most fitting place, but let's see where we end up!
  9. Title is self explanatory. Mine was sharing a couple of pics of a Kopernicus system I made. What was yours? You don't have to share it, I'm not making you!
  10. totm

    Talk like Up-Goer Five: Express complex ideas using only very simple, common words. For anyone who has somehow managed to miss it, a while back xkcd had an absolutely brilliant strip: a schematic of the Saturn V, carefully labeled.... but with all terms restricted to only the thousand most common English words. This is where the KSP community gets the term "you will not go to space today." https://xkcd.com/1133/ This game is to talk like Up-Goer Five. That is, you have to express complex ideas using only the most common English words. Here are the rules: The person before you ends their post with a brief paragraph of something reasonably complex to explain. You need to take their post and re-word it using this tool (it lets you type what you want, and draws a red line under any "forbidden" words): http://splasho.com/upgoer5/ You can paraphrase if need be (you'll probably need to). The one really hard rule is, your "translation" has to fit in that tool's edit box with no red "forbidden words" underlines at all. Post your translation inside a spoiler box, so that people reading your post have a chance to guess an answer first, if they want to. Then provide a technical paragraph of your own for the next person to take a shot at. You're not allowed to answer your own post; someone else has to. But you're welcome to come back again after some other folks have had their turns. Guidelines for the "technical paragraph": Don't make it too long, please. Just a sentence or two is plenty. (Otherwise nobody will want to take the burden of "translating" it.) Don't make it so hard that nobody understands it. It should be something that a typical KSP forum user can understand without having to go look stuff up. Ideally the post should be about KSP-relevant topics, e.g. spaceflight, astronomy, engineering, KSP game advice, etc., but that's not a strict requirement, just a suggested guideline. (Props to @Deddly for pointing out the upgoer5 tool to me, which is what gave me the idea for this game.) Just as an example, here's a sample technical paragraph: SRBs are useful as boosters on the launchpad, because they're inexpensive and provide a lot of thrust. However, they're less efficient as upper stages, due to having a low Isp. Here's my stab at translation, using the above-linked tool to validate it: Fair 'nuff? Okay, to get the ball rolling, here's a technical paragraph for someone to start with: Building a SSTO spaceplane is challenging, because not only do you need to balance air-breathing engines with those that work in a vacuum, but also the ship needs to be aerodynamically stable at high velocity.
  11. I've read that the way to build this aircraft is with Infernal Robotics, but there's nothing infernal about this one. It's pure stock. After building the Moller Skycar I had a notion how to make the wings work. I started with the Skycar’s butterfly hinges, added wings, and removed the pistons which were so prone to breaking. The wings swing fore-and-aft reacting to speed changes like a real Tomcat. I had trouble with the wings twisting until I remembered that Tomcats have "wing gloves" that fit around the base of the rotating sections, so I built those, along with the "wing deck" on top of the nacelles to restrict wing motion to one axis. You can see both features on this Tomcat: Here's the wing glove/deck: I thought I was done at this point, but wanted a go at synchronizing the wings as well. So I added some solar-panel gear teeth to each wing hinge that engage in the center section, and another to restrict the arc of the swivel, and the wings move in unison now. Here's an exploded view of the mechanical bits: The thermometers hold the hinge axles in place inside the engine nacelles. The wings are attached to the lower end of the hinge axle, and the solar panels to the upper end. The solar panels mesh in the center behind the cockpit to synchronize the motion of the wings as seen below: After the early versions were so fragile, I was amazed how simple and stable operation became after these changes. This Turkey(1) ended up working as I expected and is also fun to fly! Yes, I did listen to Kenny Loggins DANGER ZONE on a loop for the three solid days it took to build and test this. But when Youtube wouldn’t allow me to use Kenny Loggins, I discovered DANGER ZONE by The Sinners. Operation: Engage SAS. Throttle full. Stage. Leave the ground as quickly as possible to avoid injesting a squirrel and stalling one of the engines. This plane can be squirrely on the ground. Watch the wings sweep back as you gain speed. Snap roll or decelerate to extend them again. Stir in afterburner to taste with action group 1. You have about 20 minutes of fuel, or 6 minutes if you feel THE NEED FOR SPEED. Mods EditorExtension and HangarGrid were used during construction, but the result is pure stock, so it should also be usable on consoles. KerbalX link Mass 11.23t Cost 60,916 Crew Capacity 2 Part Count 97 Built in KSP 1.2.2 Size 11.86 x 4.26 x 11.05 (1) Turkey is a deck crew nickname for how the Tomcat looks on landing approach with its wings and flaps and spoilers all fanned out. And a play on the "Tom" in its name.
  12. Stock VTOL Joint Strike Fighter As promised, I created a craft showcase video for my stock JSF. Here it is in all its glory. This project started after I had the inspiration to adapt @Majorjim!'s wonderful thermometer hinge to an aircraft. I quickly made a working hinge, using landing gear to actuate the engine, building on my experience from my Vought F8U Crusader. After I got the mechanism to work, I spent just as long working on the exterior of the plane, matching it as closely as I could to the real JSF. The result was a mechanically complex aircraft that you would want to take out to dinner (or war, for that matter). The procedure for flying the JSF is also comparatively simple, and requires a minimum number of action group presses. Unfortunately, the way KSP handles undocking means that to land, you have to switch over to the engine and reset the throttle, but it's easy to maintain control while doing so. Procedures for Flight: Download Link: https://kerbalx.com/servo/F-35B-JSF
  13. I wanted just a little more exposure than kerbalx alone, so I'm posting here for your viewing pleasure. Lots of things going on here - full steering rack with steering wheel, a rear axle with coupler, 2x gear stepdown. Even found a spot to put a fuel tank. No mods. The worst thing? Steering wheel is on the wrong side of the car. video piston car
  14. John Stapp and his experiments with rocket sleds, human deceleration and ejection seats. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp
  15. Happy Thursday everyone, and welcome back to the KSP forums threads of the month. I have a throng of thrilling threads for you, and helping me choose this month are: @Spaceception @Maverick_aus @Deddly @Dman979 And... @Red Iron Crown KSP Discussion already has a lot of stickies but this one is too good to pass up. In our increasingly environmentally concious age electric power is replacing internal combustion, even in KSP. I get dizzy just thinking of this one... Something a little different from fanworks, a guidance system for RSS written in kOS. And a world first for KSP, circumnavigating Kerbin in a stock turboprop aircraft. A blast from the past but still going, check out this excellent parts pack. Some actual science in the science labs... And finally, broaden your horizons with this collection of quotes. Special mention goes to Alshain for suggesting that the TOTM threads are marked, to make it clear why they are stickied. That's it for this month, fly safe! See Augusts TOTM here.
  16. Welcome back to the Kerbal Space Program forums threads of the month! Joining me this month in selecting top threads from around the forums is @Mad Rocket Scientist! Remember, if you see something you believe should be in here next month drop me a PM Starting in Suggestions this time we have a very simple change that could have an enormous effect on multi-mission planning, with Snarks idea to add manoeuvre nodes to the Tracking Station. From Fanworks comes an interactive story by Tw1, Bill verses Bill, where the path of the story depends on your suggestions. What will happen next? That's up to you! Chemp brings us this months Mission Report, where he takes our intrepid Bill Kerman on a Kerbal powered flight around the planet, the poor Kerbal must be exhausted after all the excitement this month! From the Spacecraft Exchange Bubbadevlin shows off what must be one of the best Saturn V replicas ever made in KSP, this is seriously something, but only high end PC's need apply. This months Challenge comes from TedwinKnockman66, who challenges us to go somewhere with only .625m parts, it's a lot harder than it sounds. This is a little old but it's too good not to share, check out Dasoccerguys craft importer for Blender! There's a texture fix for 1.0.5 craft in the thread, this is a great way to view your craft outside of KSP, and maybe even import them into other games. From the Science & Spaceflight forum, Spaceception asks us to guess when SpaceX will send people to Mars, I don't know the answer but I bet if you asked Elon he'd say "ASAP!" And finally something a little different from the Lounge, Ehco Corrallo shows us his literary skills with his new space flight inspired novel. Contains mild profanity so don't read it out loud That's all for this month! Januaries TOTM can be found here.