FreeThinker

[1.2.2] KSP Interstellar Extended 1.12.15 (27-3-2017) Development

8421 posts in this topic

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This is the development thread of KSP Interstellar Extended where new development can be discussed or request can be made.

For any question on existing functionality, ask and discus them in the new Release Thread of KSP Interstellar Extended

KSP Interstellar Extended is a plugin for Kerbal Space Program, designed to encourage bootstrapping toward ever more advanced levels of technology as well as utilizing In-Situ resources to expand the reach of Kerbal civilization. KSP Interstellar Extended aims to continue in Fractals original KSPI vision in providing a realistic road to the stars. Players will first gain access to contemporary technologies that have not been widely applied to real space programs such as nuclear reactors, electrical generators and thermal rockets. By continuing down the CTT tech tree and performing more research, these parts can be upgraded and later surpassed by novel new technologies such as fusion and even antimatter power. We attempt to portray both the tremendous power of these technologies as well as their drawbacks, including the tremendous difficulty of obtaining resources like antimatter and the difficulties associated with storing it safely. The goal being to reward players who develop advanced infrastructure on other planets with new, novel and powerful technologies capable of helping Kerbals explore planets in new and exciting ways. The principal goal of KSP Interstellar is to expand Kerbal Space Program with interesting technologies and to provide a logical and compelling technological progression beginning with technologies that could have been available in the 1970s/1980s, then technologies that could be available within the next few years, progressing to technologies that may not be available for many decades, all the way out to speculative technologies that are physically reasonably but may or may not ever be realizable in practice.

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For KSP 1.0.5 Download version: 1.7.6 from Here

For KSP 1.1.3 Download version 1.9.11 from Here

For KSP 1.2.2 Download latest version 1.12.16 from Here

source: Github

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Download & Installation Instructions

  • step 1: remove any existing KSPI installation (GameData\WarpPlugin folder)
  • step 2: download  KSPI-E and put the GameData in your KSP Folder (allow overwrite)
  • step 3: re-install latest version of TweakScale
  • step 4: (optionally) install KSP Filter Extensions.

Recommended Star System/ Galaxy mods:

Recommended Tool mods:

More KSPI-E integration mods can be found in here

Documentation & Tutotials

KSPI is one of the most sophisticated mods for KSP. To help you get started, you can make use of the following resources:

KSPI-E for Dummies

KSPI-E Guide by Nansuchao

KSPI-E  Technical Guide

KSPI-E Wiki

KSPI-E Youtube Videos:

 

Main Features KSPI Extended includes new improvements and fixes from which the following are the key features:

  • Improved realism of diversity
    • Nuclear Engines
    • Electric Engines
    • Reactors
    • Thermal and Electric Propellant
    • Fuel Modes for Fission, Fusion
    • Beamed power transmission

Support

KSPI-E add support for the following mods

 

Basics KSPI-E Construction

There are 6 basic components needed to create a working KSPI-E propulsion module are as follow

  • Reactor - A reactor is needed to produce heat energy or charged particles which is used by other KSPI components to convert it into useful energy.  Pebble Bed is recommended for high thrust/atmospheric launches and Molten Salt is recommended for long term usage for upper stage/satellites.  Your choices will change as you unlock more components

  • Generator - A generator is required to produce Electric Charge and MegaJoules, both resources are needed on almost any KSPI vessel.  Megajoules are needed for KSPI engines which have ‘Electric Power Needed’ = Yes or Partial

  • Radiators - Radiators are required to expel WasteHeat from the reactor, generator or engines.  Without a radiator you will not be able to generate any power!

  • Engine - Without an engine this wouldn’t be much of a propulsion module.  Most engines operate most effectively when directly connected to the reactor.  The reactor heat transfer performance values will indicate how much of the original energy is available if an engine is not directly connected to the reactor.  The Atilla and Arcjet RCS thrusters do not require any direct connection to function at 100%.  I recommend starting with either the Thermal Turbojet or Thermal Rocket nozzle.

  • Propellant/Fuel - All Reactors and most Engines require propellant/fuel to operate.  The Interstellar Fuel tanks are the standard containers that will be used to store the propellants.  Hydrazine or LqdAmmonia are performance fuels and are be strongly recommended for Launch stages.

  • Control - A probe core or crewed command module is also needed to operate the vessel.

 

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Common Issues

 

  • All engines (except vacuum plasma thruster) must overcome the static pressure in the atmosphere and is better suited for vacuum usage and may not show any thrust in the atmosphere.  Smaller thrusters will help overcome static pressure

Research

KSPI Is a High tech, hard science mod which gradualy unlocks sophisiticed technologies with advanced research . When researching KSPI techs, your are not forced into following a single path. Instead there are mutliple paths you can focus on.

Nuclear Propulsion is a stock tech but it unlocks the first Nuclear Engine, the Solid NCore Nuclear Engine a.k.a. NERVA. It intitialy can only use LiquidFuel or on Hydrogen as a propellant, but as more Nuclear Propulsion Technology is reseached it is capable of using a divere variation of propellants

Nuclear Power unlocks the first reacor which is specificly ment for fission power production in space, the Molten Salt Reactor which contains a build in thermal electric generator

Advanced Nuclear Power unlocks the the modular Thermal Electric Generator, which when connected to a reactor can produce electric power

Advanceded Nuclear Propulsion allows the NERVA to function in LATERN mode, meaning adding exygin in the nozzle to increase thrust, and unlocks the Thermal Launch Nozzle which can be put under modular reactor

High Energy Nuclear Power unlocks the Particle Bed Reactor, which is capable of generating high amount of thermal heat at a low reactor mass. THe High Trust to Weight ratio makes it suitable of beinged used as a heavy single stage to otbit, which is it's main intended purpose.

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion introduces the Closed Cycle Gas Core Reactor which can achieve significantly higher Isp than the NERVA

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion  unlocks the Open Cycle Gas Core Reacor, which offers even higher ISP than the close cycle gas gore reactor but at the expanse of versatility as it is only capable of orating while in space.

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion    unlockes the Fission Fragment reactor, which thanks to its ncredible high Isp allow allow to the travel to anywhere in the solar system and behind. The reactor can also be used for High efficiency electric power production

Fusion Power unlucks the First Reactors intended for power production, the Magnetic Confinement Fusion Reactor which used super powererfull magnetcs to contain a plasma at high temperatures. Although thesereactors are bulky, they have ability to contain charged particles which  can directly converted into energy at high efficiencies or redirected to a magnetic nozzle for Insterstellar HIgh Isp. For smaller vessels, The Magnetic Target Fusion Reactor is a highly efficient heat engine, converting fusion fuel and lithium into thermal power.

Fusion Propusion unlock the first fusion engine  which are inteded for propusion.

Advanced Fusion unlocks the second tier of fusion fuels and introduces 2 advanced fusion enginess, the Tokamak Fusion engine and the VISTA Inertial Fusion Engine. The Tokamak Fusion engine has an integrated magnetic nozzle which can use any single atom propellant at high Isp and the Vista offers High Isp with High thrust levels

Nuclear Engine/Reactors

The Core of KSPI are its engine/reactor, they make the magic happen. There are now 5 Fission engines and 5 Fission Reactors, 5 types of fusion reactor, and  2 eotic reactor each with the own characteristic behavior, excelling in a particular way (and therefore most fit for certain applications)

Part Model

Unlocking Technology               

Power Output (2.5m)

Reactor/Engine Main Properties

Description

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Nuclear Propulsion

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

    Solid Core Nuclear Reactor is one of the first nuclear engine available capable of using nuclear energy for propulsion, allowing Isp roughly twice the Isp of Chemical rockets. It's thrust to weight using Liquid Hydrogen is initially too low for any launch except in the upper stages. With Advanced Nuclear Propulsion technology is becomes possible to operate in Liquid Oxygen augmented mode effectively tripping the thrust at the cost of 36% lower Isp.  With the advent of higher Nuclear propulsion technologies, other propellant then Hydrogen become available as a possible propellant, which is more or less adventurous depending on the circumstances. Solid Core Reactor can also be used for High power production, but due to it's inability to replenish its fuel, has only limited endurance.
        Traveling Wave Reactor a.k.a. Candle reactor is a small reactor specificly targeted for small probes. The reactor function in many ways like a candle, where is slowly converts it fisionable material into energy.
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Nuclear power

Improved Nuclear Power

Nuclear Fuel Systems

High Nuclear Power Systems

0.444  GW

0.666 GW

1.0 GW

1.5 GW

Min Diameter: 0.625m

Dry Mass (2.5m): 8 t

Fuel Mass (2.5): 6 t

Cost: 18k

Molten Salt reactor is the first high thermal power nuclear reactor available KSPI-E, they excel in reliable long lifetime thermal power generation using Uranium. At the expanse of 50% power output it can burnup 99% of all  uranium fuel. Besides Uranium it is also capable of using Thorium which generated more power but it durability is significantly lower. On the upside thorium is cheaper than Uranium and can be mined much more abundantly. Because its nuclear fuel is mixed constantly, gases like Xenon gas are not trapped but are extracted and can be used for other purposes. This reactor is also very suitable for Tritium breeding where lithium is converted into valuable Tritium. Another advantage is that the heat from the reactor can be transported effectively to other modules thanks to Molten Salt transport medium.

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Improved Nuclear Power

High Nuclear Power Systems

    Pebble Bed reactors become available a bit later than Molter Salt reactor but thanks to their significantly lower mass they are the first nuclear reactor with can provide a Trust to Weight ratio higher as 1, meaning it can be used as first stage or second stage rocket engine. Although Pebble bed  reactors are ideal for providing high thrust, when used for power generation, they suffer from heat throttling, meaning the reactor will automatically produce less heat output when heat is building up. Although reactor uses a transferable fuel source, due to is inefficient fuel usage, (most of the mass is not uranium), it is not efficient for long term power production
        Particle Bed Reactor aka TIMBERWIND is the continued development of the Pebblebed targeted for propulsion
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Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

    Closed Cycle Gas Core reactors excel in generating average amounts thrust combined with with significantly Higher Isp compared to it Nuclear counterparts. This makes them ideal for short range planetary missions to like Duna and Eve. The Closed Cycle Gas Core reactor is one of the few  High Isp engine reactors which is capable of operating in an atmosphere. With the help of some boosters, it can be used to launch into orbit from Kerbin.
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Experimental Nuclear Propulsion

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

    Open Cycle Gas Core reactor excel a generating high amount of thermal power at double the core temperatures the Closed Cycle predecessor with less mass. This is achieved my removing the walls that separate the propellant and the nuclear fuel. Although this allows much higher core temperatures, the disadvantage is the reactor cannot operate while under the influence of acceleration, which happens when it is either on he surface or when accelerating at high speed.
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Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

3 GW

Min Diameter: 3.75m

Dry mass: 16 ton

Cost: 400k

Fission Fragment Reactor (a.k.a. Dusty Plasma) improves over Particle Bed Reactor. When they first become available, they are less powerful as particle bed reactor, but it's the first reactor capable of generating charged particles. The generated charged particles are efficiently transported on your vessel using magnetic confinements and can be used for either Very High Isp propulsion in magnetic nozzle or directly converted into energy with Direct Conversion Power Generator.
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Fusion Power

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

3 GW

4.5 GW

6.75 GW

10.125 GW

Min Diameter: 5m

Dry mass: 16 ton

Cost: 600k

Magnetic Confinement Fusion Reactor (a.k.a Tokamak)  is one of the first Fusion Power reactor and comes available with Fusion Power. This reactor is Big and Bulky and require a fixed amount of power to operate but it can be used wide variety of operations. The amount of power required depends on the type of fusion and the number of researched fusion technology. MCF is most suitable for fuel efficient, thermal efficient power production. One of the big advantage of Fusion is that it's fuel can be very cheap, relatively easy to store and has only low radioactive waste product. The Fusions product themselves can be directly converted into electric power, which allows it to be very energy efficient.
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Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

5 GW

7.5 GW

11.25 GW

16.875 GW

Min Diameter: 3.75

Dry mass: 32 ton

Cost: 800k

The Stellerator Fusion Reactor is in essence a magnetic confinement Fusion Reactor with a significant higher efficiency at the cost of higher mass. This makes it most suitable power salilites in fixed orbit that need to maximize power output.
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Fusion Power

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

 

Diameter: 2.5m

Dry Mass: 8 ton

Cost: 180k

Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor can be smaller than the MCF reactor, but it is limited to providing thermal power. This makes it ideal for build SSTO vessels which require large amount of thermal heat to generate thrust when connected with any thermal nozzle. It can also be used for Electric Power production, but it requires a large amount of radiator to be effective.
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Fusion Rocketry

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

    Magneto Inertial Confinement Reactor is the first fusion engine specifically meant for Direct High efficient propulsion. It cannot be used for power and  It's not as efficient as electric propulsion but it produces minimal amount of wasteheat, which will reduce the overall mass of the vessel. Note that the propellant  is  limited to Lithium , which is required both for achieving fusion as converting the fusion power in effective propulsion.
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Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

 

1.0 GW

1.5 GW

2.25 GW

  Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor is the first reactor capable and specialized if the generation of Electric power from Aneutronic fusion reactions.The reactor has an integrated charged particle direct energy converter, which allows up to 85% of aneutronic fusion energy to be converted into Electric power. Since the direct energy converter efficiency don't depend on temperature, you can run the radiators a lot hotter, meaning you need a lot less radiators then other reactor which depend on thermal electric power conversion. This means it will be ideal when used with Electric propulsion engines and does not require any heavy thermal electric generators.  The downside is the Engine cannot be used with either thermal or magnetic nozzles.
        Antimatter Initiated Microfusion (AIM) reactor can deliver more power in a smaller package but only runs on exotic antimatter, helium3 and enriched uranium. The engine can be connected to either thermal nozzles or magnetic nozzles.
        Antimatter reactors versatile , expensive, and incredible powerful, the only real problem is collecting significant amount of Antimatter. They produce up to 80% Charged Particles which can be used by magnetic nozzle to create a large amount thrust an high Isp
        Quantum Singularity Reactor is the ultimate Mass to Power converter technology. It uses a microscopically sized black hole to accelerate light atoms into charged particles and heat. The charged particles fuse resulting in heavier atoms, which can be used for other purposes. The black hole event horizon also creates small amount of antimatter which can be used by antimatter reactors. The amount of produced power is variable, but the amount of required power to sustain black hole is constant and it has a minimum power level at which the black hole can be kept alive.


Reactor/Engine Technical details:

 

Ractor Name

Reactor Cost / Minimum Size (default 2.5m)

Unlock Technology / Tech Ugrades                                                                                           

Core Temp. (Kelvin)

ISP (s)

Max Power (GW)

thrust thermal (kN)

Empty Mass (t) Max Fuel mass (t) Build In Nozzle Base Power Req (MW) Thermal Propulsion Efficiency Thermal Power Efficiency Charged Power Efficiency Heat Trans Effic Min Utilisation Fuel transfer and Efficency Magnetic Nozzle Efficiency / ISP (s) Special Electric Power (KW) Tritium Breeding

Nuclear Candle

5,000

0.625m

Nuclear Propulsion

Nuclear Power

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

1730 2076 2491 873.66 0.0100 0.0150 0.0225 2.33 0.15 t 0.05 thermal   100% 0%   10% 100% no n.a. limited to 0.625m, No throtling, cannot be deactivated 50 no
Microwave Thermal Reciever

10000

1.25m

Advanced Solar

2268

1000s

 20

4413

3 t

n.a.

none

Requires Microwave beamed power

100%

n.a.

 n.a.

n.a.

0%

efficiency depends on distance to tranmitter, and atmosphere density

n.a.

Requires connection with microwave tranmitter no no

Nuclear Turbojet

15,000

1.25m

Nuclear Propulsion

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.400 0.600 0.900 102 / 136 / 171 6 t 0.03 thermal   100% n.a   n.a 0.1% no no   50+50 no

Nuclear Ramjet

30,000

1.25m

Nuclear Propulsion

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.600 0.900 1.350 102 / 136 / 171 8 t 0.03 thermal   100% 75%   80% 0.1% no no Build In Air intake 50 no
Molten Salt

60,000

0.625m

Nuclear power

Improved Nuclear Power

Nuclear Fuel Systems

High Nuclear Power Systems

800K / 1008K / 1270K / 1600.0K

593s / 748s / 840s 0.444 0.666 1.000 1.500 147 / 174 / 206 8 t 6t UF6 none   100% 100% n.a. 95% 20.25% / 13.5% / 9% / 6% no no

Fuel Recycling with Lab

Integrated thermla generator yes

 

Nuclear Sollid Core Engine

90,000

1.25m

Nuclear Propulsion

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

2000 / 2500 / 3000 939s 1050s 1150s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 / 267.64 / 369.37 / 509.79 12 t 0.1 thermal   100% 75%   80% 0.1% no no requires 10 sec for full Throtle 80+80 no

 

Pebble Bed

120,000

1.25m

Nuclear Fuel Systems

Improved Nuclear Power

High Nuclear Power Systems

2000K / 2500K / 3000K

939s 1050s 1150s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 267.64 / 369.37 / 509.79 8t                          

 

 Particle Bed

150,000

1.25m

High Energy Nuclear Power

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

2500K / 2750K / 3000K

800s / 939s / 1111s

4.00 / 6.00

1020 / 1302 / 1823 12 t 1t pebbles none 100% 100% 75% n.a. 80% 4% pumped no Heat Throttling 50 no
                                       
                                       
                                       
                                       

Magnetized Target Fusion

OMEGA

180,000

1.25m

Fusion Power

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

 

2500K

1050 1.20 / 1.75 /  2.45 / 3.43   6 t     Q20 / Q40 / Q60 / Q80 /  

100%

none

80%

 

pumped

       

Magneto Inertial Confinement Rocket

210,000

1.25m

Fusion Rocketry

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

180.000 K 3770s / 5200s  / 6500s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 /  

6 t

  thermal Q150 / Q200 / Q266 / 100% lithium   only

none

none

0%

0%

pumped

30% / 40% /53%

20% propellant  limited to Lithium or Aluminum

none

50%

 Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor

250,000

1.25m

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

    1.33 / 2.0 / 3.00   6 t     Q40 / Q80 / Q120 none   100% build in direct converter     pumped no Aneutronic fusion only, +1 Fusion Tech level    

Nuclear Lightbulb

300,000

2.5m

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

7890 / 12562 / 20000 / 1865s / 2354s / 2970s 2.00 /  3.00 / 4.50 368.00 427.83 496.03 16 t 0.1t U235 thermal n.a. 100% 50% n.a. n.a. 2% pumped no Limited to non oxidizing propellants 50 + 50 no

Open Cycle Gas Core

350,000

2.5m

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

25124 /  50247 3328s /  4707s 4.00 / 6.00 154.62 / 247.39 12 t 0.04 U none   100% 50%   90% 20% 1-100% depending on gravity no Buoyancy effects   no

Dusty Plasma Bed

400,000

3.75m

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 3700 1260s 3.00   16 t 0,065 none   60% 60% (2)

100%

80% 40% pumped

46%

52700 - 527000

 

  none yes

Nuclear Salt Water Rocket (*)

500,000

3.75m

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion

 

5000s - 10000s

70.00

4200 - 2100

21 t

  thermal   100% none n.a. n.a 0%

Water + UraniumTetraBromide

no Cannot be used in Low or Hyperbolic orbit of Kerbin none yes

Sperical Tokamak

600,000

5m

Fusion Power

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

32000K

Li: 6800s

H2: 11800s -118000s

3.00 / 4.50 / 6.75 / 10.125   20 t 3t Li none Q10 / Q20 / Q40 / Q80 / n.a. 100% 2500K 100% 80% 0% pumped 100%

60%

15.000 - 1.500.000

Fuel recycling

  yes

Antimatter Initiated Microfusion

800,000

2.5m  

Antimatter Power

Antimatter Power

Unified Field Theory

n.a. n.a 8.00 / 12.00 / 18.00   6 t   none   n.a. n.a. 100% n.a 0% pumped 13.500s - 61.000 80% Charged Particles   no

AntiMatter

1,000,000

0.625

Antimatter Power

Ultra High Energy Physics

Unified Field Theory

100000K  150000K  220000K 6641s / 8133s / 9850s 20.00 / 30.00 / 45.00   16 t  

none

  100% 100% 100% 80% 0% pumped yes Total fuel Annihilation   no
VISTA Fusion Engine

1.500,000

5m

Advanced Fusion

Exotic Fusion

Unified Field Theory

 

n.a.

 

15500s - 27000

46.0 / 92.0 / 184.0

600 / 1200 / 2400

24 t

 

magnetic

Q45.6 / Q91.2 / Q182.4

n.a.

none

none

n.a

0%

pumped

15.500 - 27.200

Kills Nearby Kerbals

 

no

DAEDALUS IC Fusion Engine

3.000.000

5m

Exotic Fusion

Exotic Fusion

n.a. 1.000.000s 1500.00 / 3000.00 300 / 600 72 t   magnetic                      

Quantum Singularity

6,000,000

5m

Unified Field Theory

Ultra High Energy Physics

320000K

none

160.00 / 320.00

 

64 t

 

none

Q50 / Q100

none

100%

100% but for power onlyi

n.a.

10%

pumped

  Need zero environment to startup intergrated thermal and charge particle generator  

(1) requires Improved Nuclear Power (2) requires Fusion Power (3) requires Fusion Rocketry (*) Not implemented

Explanation table:

Spoiler
  • Reactor Family - This field describes the technology behind the reactor. The technologies used in KSPI are based closely on real life reactors or scientific theories. You can use regular Wiki/Google searches to find out more about the real life counterparts.
  • Unlock Technology/Upgrade Technologies - Reactors are high tech equipment that is not available to Kerbals right away and must be unlocked through the tech tree. Reactors also have the ability to be upgraded to provide increased capabilities when the prerequisite upgrade technologies are researched. The numbers in the Core Temp, max ISP thermal, max Power, and thermal thrust show the base values as well as the upgraded values split by a '/'. For example the Molten Salt produces .612 GW of power when it is first unlocked but after researching the technology 'Nuclear Fuel Systems' the output increases to .856 GW of power.
  • Reactor Cost - This is the cost of the reactor at the 2.5 M size, the cost of the reactor can also be greatly impacted by the cost of the fuel the reactor uses. Fuels like Uranium can actually be more expensive than the reactor itself! Due to the complex nature of reactors, smaller sized reactors can have the same cost as larger reactors, cost and performance are not necessarily related.
  • Core Temperature (Kelvin) - This is operating temperature of the reactor. Reactors with a higher core temperature typically allow for higher ISP (Specific Impulse) values than cooler reactors which can be seen by comparing the Molten Salt and Gas Core reactors. A higher temperature reactor also plays a factor in the fuel selection process since higher core temperatures allow fuels to go through a thermal decomposition process which provides more thrust for a given fuel. The power output of the Dusty Plasma and Pebble Bed reactors is dependent on the core temperature of the reactor, as the temperature increases the power output will also decrease. These reactors are also passively safe since their power output will decrease with increased core temperatures, but as a side effect they are not very good at producing electric power since all WasteHeat needs to be expelled from the vessel using radiators.
  • Max ISP thermal - This describes the reactors maximum ISP it is based directly on core temperature. As the core temperature increases through new reactor technology or fuel modes, the ISP will also increase. Fuel selection and Reactor technology also play a major role in the ISP of a propulsion system.
  • Max Power (GW) - This describes the maximum power output in terms of heat generated. The heat is used by KSPI systems to generate thrust or power. Also note that it is affected by Reactor Technology upgrades.
  • Thermal Thrust(GW) - The thermal thrust is the maximum amount of thrust a reactor can generate when combined with a thermal engine. The engines section shows the method in which it uses to generate thrust and engines with the 'Thermal' identifier use this value. Thrust has a direct correlation with Isp and Power, In general, the higher the isp, the lower the thrust.
  • Empty Mass (t) - This is the mass or weight of the reactor when no fuel is present.
  • Max Fuel mass (t) - This describes the maximum amount of fuel that can be held in the reactor in terms of weight. For Molten Salt reactors this also determines how fast the reactor will become poisoned by Anticides. Even though only a fraction of the nuclear fuel is used, it can become effectively useless due to Anticides buildup which prevent Fission from happening.
  • Base Power Req - This value describes the amount of energy required to start and maintain a fusion reaction. This only applies to fusion based reactors. More advanced fusion reactions require increased amounts of power to start and sustain the reaction. Note that the amount of required power can be higher than the amount of produced power if you don’t have sufficient electric generators (both Thermal and Direct energy converters). This is covered in more detail in the reactor fuel section. Electric Energy technology or Wasteheat processing reduces the need for thermoelectric power generators.
  • Thermal Propulsion Efficiency - The thermal efficiency determines how efficient a thermal reactor is at converting energy into thrust. Lower values here will mean the reactor will produce less thrust for its provided power (GW).
  • Thermal Power Efficiency - This value describes how efficiently a power generator uses the provided power (GW). Lower values indicate a less efficient conversion and increased WasteHeat production.
  • Heat Transfer Effectiveness - This is the efficiency of heat transfer from a reactor to other parts. Some reactors are much more efficient at transferring heat due to the type of reaction materials used. This is relevant for engines which are not required to be connected directly to the Reactor. For every part the energy has to pass through some efficiency is lost. The final efficiency penalty is simply the sum of all parts (except the first one) it passes through. An exception to this is the non-androgynous docking port, which are optimized for thermal transfer.
  • Minimum Utilization - The minimum utilization shows the lowest operating state for a reactor. If the reactor shows 10% minimum utilization then it can provide anywhere from 10% to 100% of the reactors output scaling depending on requested power.
  • Leaks Product - [Feature not yet implemented] If a reactor shows that it leaks product, then the products of the resulting nuclear cannot be recovered and is said to be leaking. You will see a decreased mass of the reactor products over time.
  • Fuel can be pumped - This explains if reactor fuel can be transferred from other parts of the ship while the reactor is operating.
  • Can use Magnetic Nozzle - This explains if the reactor is capable of producing charged particles. Charged particles are a product of some types of nuclear reactions and can be used as propellant to provide thrust when paired with a magnetic nozzle. The highly energetic charged particles can also be efficiently converted into electrical power user direct energy converter. Note that charged particles propulsion provide very high Isp and an often overlooked advantage is that the Magnetic Nozzles reduces WasteHeat and that charged particles can be transferred throughout the vessel without loss (except for 1% power cost).
  • Heat Throttling - The heat throttling of a reactor simply means that when the reactor temperature increases the power output decreases. Additional radiators can be used to offset the loss of power due to increased reactor core temperature. Thermal and Magnetic nozzles also reduce WasteHeat buildup, allowing heat throttled reactors to perform at maximum capacity.
  • Buoyancy Effects - This describes the reactors ability to provide thrust while under acceleration. The reactor buoyancy effect will decrease the power output when the reactor is subjected to G-forces.
  • Tritium Breeding - This is a process that allows the reactor to produce Tritium which is used in a fusion reactor. Tritium breeding requires a compatible reactor as well as a supply of Lithium and a tank to store the Tritium which is created from the free neutrons. Tritium is the 3rd most valuable fuel in KSPI and is one of the required fuels to power the Vista Engine. Tritium will decay into Helium 3, which is the second most valuable resource in KSPI and can be used for efficient aneutronic Fusion.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Fusion Reactor Fuel Modes

 
Fuel Mode Reactors Types Tech Requirement

 

Reactor Power

Reaction Energy

 

Reaction Rate

Power Requirement Multiplier

 

Fuel Products Charged Particles Brems-strahlung Neutron Energy Ratio
D-T Fusion MCF / MIF Fusion Power 1 1 1 1x LqdDeteurium + LqdTritium Helium4 19.3% 0.7% 80%
Cold D-D Fusion MCF Fusion Power 0.3537 0.7074 0.5 0.9x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + Helium3     66.5%
D-He3 Fusion MCF Advanced Fusion 0,884 1.04 0.85 2x LqdDeteurium + LqdHe3 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 79.13% 15.87% 5%
T-T Fusion MCF / MIF Advanced Fusion 0.5457 0.642 0.85 2x LqdTritium Helium4 17% 3% 80%
Full D-D Fusion MCF / MIF Advanced Fusion 0.6135 1.227 0.5 2x LqdDeteurium Helium4 31.1% 10.7% 58.2%
Hot D-D Fusion MCF Exotic Fusion 0.3635 0.727 0.5 6x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + LqdTritium     10%
D-Li6 Fusion MCF / MIF Exotic Fusion 0.889 1.27 0.7 6x LqdDeteurium + Lithium6 Helium4 18.2% 81.8% 2.5%
p-B11 Fusion CBF Exotic Fusion 0.3458 0.494 0.7 6x LqdHydrogen + Boron Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 36,3% 63.6% 0.01%
                     
He3-He3 Fusion MCF / CBF Unified Field Theory 0.551 0.73 0.7 8x LqdHe3 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen  41.9% 58.1% 0%
He3-Li6 Fusion MCF / CBF Unified Field Theory 0.672 0.96 0.7 8x LqdHe3 + Lithium6 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 41.9% 58.1% 0.1%
Li6 Fusion Cycle CBF Unified Field Theory 0.5344 1.1875 0.45 8x  Lithium6 Helium4 41.9% 58.1% 0.1%
p-Li7 Fusion MCF / CBF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.6839 0.977 0.7 10x LqdHydrogen + Lithium Helium4 75% 24.9% 0.5%
p-Li6 Fusion MCF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.159 0.227 0.7 10x LqdHydrogenLithium6 Helium4 + Helium3 75% 24.9% 0.1%
p-N15 Fusion CBF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.1704 0.284 0.6 10x LqdHydrogen + Nitrogen15 Helium4  + Carbon 60% 24.9% 0.1%

* MCF = magnetic confinement Fusion, MIF = Magnetic Inertial Fusion  CBF  = Coliding beam Fusion reactor   

** = not implemented yet.

This is an overview off all fuel modes and there effects on performance

Non Fusion Reactor Fuel Modes

This is an overview off all fuel modes and there effects on performance

Reactor Fuel Modes
Fuel Mode Type Reactors Tech Requirement Core Temp Modifier Reaction Energy Fuel Efficiency Fuel Products Charged Particles Brems-strahlung Neutron Energy Ratio
Uranium Oxide Fission NERVA / JUMBO Nuclear Propulsion 100% 1 85% EnrichedUranium DepletedUranium ** 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Hexafloride Fission Molten Salt / Gas Core Nuclear Power 100% 1 15% UF6 94% DepletedFuel + 6% Xenon 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 80% 0.8 80% UF6 80%DepletedFuel + 10%Plutonium 10%DepletedUranium 0 n.a 2%
MOX Plutonium Burnup ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 115% 0.9% 30% 7%Plutonium+ 93%Anticides DepletedFuel 0 n.a 1%
Thorium Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Power 138% 1.38 15% ThoriumTetraflouride Anticides 0 n.a 2%
Thorium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 69% 0.69 99% ThoriumTetraflouride + Anticides 96%DepletedFuel + 2%Anticides + 2%Plutonium 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Nitride Pellet Fission Pebble Bed Nuclear Fuel Systems 100% n.a. 5% UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Nitride Nanoparticle Fission Dusty Plasma High Energy Nuclear Power 100% n.a. 97% UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 83.5% * 0.46 n.a 2%
Microfusion Fussion-Fision Hybid AIM Exotic Fusion Reactions 100% 1 94%

LqdDeteurium + LqdHe3 & UraniumNitride + AntiMatter

Helium4 + Hydrogen + DepletedFuel 95% n.a. 5%
AntiMatter AntiMatter Antimatter Antimatter Power 100% 1 22% AntiMatter none 80% 20% n.a

* MCF = magnetic confinement Fusion, MIF = Magnetic Inertial Fusion  CBF  = Coliding beam Fusion reactor   

** = not implemented yet.

Power Generators

Generators are electricity production parts in the KSPI mod. Generators come in 2 different types and function differently. Generators in KSPI generate both electric charge and MegaJoules. Generators must be directly connected to a reactor to generate electricity and can only use power from one reactorGenerator at a time. Radiators are required by the Generator to expel WasteHeat and will not function without them.

  • Thermal Generators - These generators convert thermal power from a reactor into electrical power and waste heat. Their efficiency determines what percentage of that thermal power is converted into electricity. The rest becomes waste heat. Typical thermal generators in space use closed cycleBrayton gas turbines. For traditional molten salt-based fission reactors, this type of generator gives a maximum theoretical efficiency of 31%. Upgrading the electric generators changes them from Brayton Cycle Turbines to a KTEC Solid State Generator heat engine with no moving parts - this ups the theoretical efficiency to 60%!
  • Charged Particle Generators - This type of generator produces power directly from the use of charged particles which are created in great quantities by fusion reactors. Charged particle generators have much higher efficiencies than their thermal counterparts. These generators will produce varying amounts of power depending on the reactor and fuel modes used

 

The Thermal Generator and Charged Particle generators can both be used at the same time on reactors that produce both charged particles and thermal power. This maximizes power potential and lower your utilization and therefore minimise WasteHeat production and reactor fuel consumption.

Radiators

Radiators are used in KSPI to expel excess WasteHeat from a vessel. WasteHeat is produced by reactors, generators, microwave receivers and will build up over time. Once WasteHeat builds up in a vessel to 95% capacity than reactors and microwave receivers will automatically power down. If WasteHeat is allowed to reach 100% then the parts may start being destroyed from too much heat. Non retractable solar panels are exempt from the WasteHeat mechanic. The Thermal Helper addon included with the KSPI installation can be used to estimate a reactor’s WasteHeat output. The values in the addon will dynamically update depending on the connected components. The Thermal helper is only accessible from the VAB/SPH.

Radiators
Name Unlocking Technology Foldable Mass Resize Scaling Factor Radiator Area Temperature Special
Inline Radiator       3     Build in Reaction Reaction Wheel
Small Flat Radiator Heat Management Systems no   2   1600 / 3500 Physics-less
Foldable Heat Radiator Heat Management Systems yes 0.8 2.25 400 / 680 1600 / 3500 Contains Folding automation technology
Large Flat Radiator Specialized Heat Management no   2   1600 / 3500 Can be used for landing stability

Note the radiator performance depend for a large part on unlocked tech nodes:.

Radiator Technologies
Technology Science cost Effect Graphite Radiator Only
Start   Max temp 1850K no
Heat Management Systems 160 Max temp 2200K no
Advanced Headmanagment 550 Max temp 2616K no
Specialised Radiators 1500 Max temp 3111K yes
High Energy Science 2250 Max temp 3700K yes
Nanoloathing 1000 60% improvement Emmisive constant yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Availability KSPI parts and upgrades with CTT technodes:

  • Nuclear Power: small Molten Salt reactor
  • Large Scale Nuclear Power:
  • High Energy Nuclear Power:
  • Advanced Nuclear Propulsion
  • Meta Materials: All Radiators: Mo Li Heat Pipe ----> Graphene Radiaton
  • Exotic Reactions: Tokama Fusion Reactor -> Upgraded Tokama Fusion Reactor
  • Improved Nuclear Propulsion:
    • Thermal Rocket Nozzles (all sizes)
    • Thermal TurboJets (all sizes)
    • Gas Core reactor and Dusty Plasma reactors and
    • Molten Salt and Particle reactors----> Mk2 Molten Salt / Particle reactors
    • Magnetic nozzles
      • Thermal TurboJets ----> hybrid thermal rockets
  • Experimental Electrics
    • Electric Generator: Brayton Turbine → KTEC Thermoelectric/Direct Conversion (better efficiency)
    • Heat Radiator: Mo Li Heat Pipe → Graphene Radiator (better efficiency
  • Fusion Power

    • Nuclear Reactor: Solid Core Reactor → Gas Core Reactor (3x power output)
    • Thermal Turbojet: Atmospheric Thermal Jet → Hybrid Thermal Rocket (Basic version can only work in atmosphere, Upgraded version can toggle over to internal fuel)
    • D-T Inertial Fusion Reactor → High-Q Inertial Fusion Reactor
  • Ultra-High Energy Physics

    • Antimatter Reactor: Solid/Liquid Core Reactor → Liquid/Plasma Core Reactor (3x power output)
    • Plasma Thruster: Magnetoplasdynamic → Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (uses no fuel)
  • Antimatter Power

 
Propellant

Resouese Name

Unlock Technology Chemical Thermal ISP multiplier EngineThrust Multiplier Thermal Decomposition Full Decomposition Energy Oxidising / Reducing / Inert Soot Effect Thermal / Electric Propellant Average Density ISRU
Hydrogen LqdHydrogen Nuclear Propulsion H2 1 1     R -0.01 Both 0.07085 kg/l ++
Diborane Diborane Experimental Nuclear Propulsion B2H6 0.763 1     R -0.01 Gas core / Electric  0.421 kg/l --
Methane LqdMethane Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CH4 0.3503 - 0.78 1 - 1.6 1000K - 3200K 19.895 R 0.25 Both + +/-
Hydrazine Hydrazine Exotic Nuclear Propulsion N2H4 0.744 1.4     R -0.01 Both ++ -
Helium LqdHelium n.v.t He 0.7 1     I 0 Electric - +
LiquidFuel LiquidFuel Nuclear Propulsion ? 0.65 1     R 0 * Both ++ --
Lithium Hydrate LithiumHydrate Experimental Nuclear Propulsion LiH2 0.65 1     R -0.01 Both 0.78 kg/l  
Ammonia LqdAmmonia Experimental Nuclear Propulsion NH3 0.63 1.4     R -0.01 Both 0.86 kg/l -
Beryllium Hydride *     BH 2 0.6 ?       R        
Hydogen + Fluorine *

LqdHydrogen  +       LqdFlorine

Exotic Nuclear Propulsion H2 + F2 0.7 2.2     R 0 Thermal afterburner +/- -
Hydrolox (Hydrogen + Oxygen) LqdHydrogen  +       LqdOxygen Improved Nuclear Propulsion H2 + 02 0.63 2     R -0.01 Thermal afterburner -- +/-
Methalox (Methane + Oxygen)   Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CH4 + 02 0.25 - 0.55 ? 1 - 2 1000K - 3200K ? 19.895 ? R 0.1 Thermal afterburner + +
LOX (Liquid Fuel + Oxidizer)   Improved Nuclear Propulsion   0.417 1     R 0 Thermal afterburner ++ ++
Water   Exotic Nuclear Propulsion H2O 0.3333 - 0.4714 1.2071 2000K - 4200K 2.574 O -2.5 Both ++ +
Kerosine   Efficient Nuclear Propulsion   0.21888 - 0.42477 1.459 1000K - 3200K 12.305 R 0.4 Both + ++
Liquid Carbondioxide   Experimental Nuclear Propulsion CO2 0.2132 - 0.4085 1.459 3200K - 7000K 12.305 O -2.5 - 0.33 Both +/- +/-
Liquid CarbonMonoxide   Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CO 0.3273 - ? ? 4000K - 10000K 6.1525 O 0.5 Both +/- -
Liquid Nitrogen   Efficient Nuclear Propulsion N2 0.3273       I -0.01 Both ++ +/-

* Not implemented

ISRU atmospheric scoop

KSPI offers the ability to scoop gas directly from the atmosphere (or just above it) into resources which can be used for propulsion or ISRU refinery processes. The rate at which you can collect depends on the density and abundance of a gas. Note that you can also collect resource just above the atmosphere and that light gasses as Hydrogen and Helium gradually become more abundant the higher you get

Planet/Mun Atmospheric composition:

Spoiler
ISRU scoop
Planet/Mun Ar CO2 N2 H2 O2 NH3 CH4 He 3He H2 D Ne
Eve 1% 62% 37%                  
Kerbin 1% 0.035 78% 2% 21%   0.002 0.005   0.0005   0.018
Duna 1.7% 96%     1.3%              
Acleptus 1.5% 48% 39% 1% 10.5%              
Jool           0.2% 0.3% 9.7% 0.0137% 89.8% 0.000137%  
Laythe   0.6% 79.4% 2% 18.6%              
Sarnus       0.1%   0.012% 0.4% 3% 0.03% 96%    
Ulrum               15% 0.15%      
Neidon               13% 0.13% 85%    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

ISRU Refinery: The ISRU Refinery allows you to process resources into other resources

ISRU Refinery
Process Required Resources Resource Products Type
Aluminum Electrolysis Aluminia LqdOxygen + Aluminum Deconstruction
Ammonia Electrolysis LqdAmmonia LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen Deconstruction
Water electrolysis Water LqdHydrogen + LqdOxygen Deconstruction
CO2 Electrolysis LqdCO LqdCO + LqdOxygen Deconstruction
Methane Pyrolysis (*) Methane LqdHydrogen + Carbon Deconstruction
Water Gas Shift Water + LqdCO LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Contructor
Reverse Water Gas Shift LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Water + LqdCO Contructor
Sabatier Process LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Methane + LqdOxygen Contructor
Antraquinonene Process LqdHydroden + LqdOxygen HTP (Hydrogen Peroxide) Contructor
Haber Proces LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen LqdAmmonia Contructor
Peroxide Process LqdAmmonia + HTP Hydrazine + LqdOxygen Contructor

 7a4f9yb.jpg

Interstellar Fuel Tanks
Title Technology Volume (Liter) Bonus Mass (mT) Boiloff Exposure Power Req (kW) Breaking Force Special
IFT X48 High Performance Fuel Systems 48000 15% 6 28000 70 250  
IFT X24 High Performance Fuel Systems 24000 12% 3 16000 45 250  
IFT X16 Advanced Fuel Systems 16000 8% 2 14000 35 200  
IFT X12 High Performance Fuel Systems 12000   1.5 10000 25 200 NoseCone
IFT X8 Advanced Fuel Systems 8000 5% 1 8000 20 200  
IFT X10 Large Volume Containment 11000   0.8 8000 20 50 Radial
IFT X2 High Performance Fuel Systems 2000   0.25 2000 5 190  

 

 

Interstellar RCS systems:

2dluoh5.jpgv5dfd0.jpg

From left to right: Corner ResistoJet RCS, 5 way ResistoJet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS (Curved), Linear Arjcet RCS, Arcjet RCS Tank

Engines:

Interstellar offers 11 different type of engines, each with their own advantages and disadvantages.

Thermal Nozzle is the first engine available. They directly use the thermal heat generated by the reactor to heat-up propellant. The Advantage is that this is very efficient, as minimum amount of power is lost, and many propellants can be used. The disadvantage is that Isp, which is lower than other form of propulsion, it dependent and the core temperature of the reactor and used propellant. On the plus side many propellants can be used and thermal nozzles benefits for the energy released by decomposition when propellant are subjected to high temperature. This means propellant like Ammonia and Hydrazine give a significant bonus to thrust and Isp. Although it offers you you to use many resources as an propellant, it might be wise to avoid propellant that contain carbon, as they tend to to produce clog the heat eachanges with soot, which lowers your maximum thrust and causing overheating. For optimal efficiency, connect a thermal nozzle directly to an reactor, but if desired you can put other parts between the thermal nozzle and reactor at the cost of lower efficiency.

Thermal Turbojet becomes available at the same time as thermal nozzle. Their advantage is that they allow high amount of propulsion, without any propellant, that is they use the air as an propellant. This means you can save a lot of mass on propellant. The downside is that it only function inside an atmosphere, on the plus side, this includes any atmosphere, even those without any oxygen. Do note that in order to travel fast though the atmosphere, you need precoolers to cool the compressed air to a temperature that prevent the turbojet from overheating.

Arcjet are the first electric engines offered by Interstellar. Instead of thermal heat, they use electric power to heat a propellant to high temperature. The advantage is that you can use any non oxidizing propellants and enjoy the same decomposition propulsion bonus. One of the big disadvantage is that electric propulsion is less efficient as a lot of power is lost by converting the power into electric power and then convert into heat again. This is compensated by its ability control it's trust at the cost of Isp and the ability to use multiple reactors to power the same set of engines. Arjcets can be connected any where on you vessel, just make sure it is fed with desired propellant, and the reactor has access to radiator to lose its waste heat. [TABLE=class: grid, width: 1600]

yfKcwbh.jpg

Engines
Type Technology Method ISP (LqdHydrogen) Efficiency Variable ISP Gimbal manouverability Functions in Atmosphere Functions in Vacuum Propellant Electric Power Need Jet Engine Special Thermal Thrust Bonus Wasteheat effect   Operating Cost
Nuclear Turbojet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no very high full no Atmospheric Air none Turbojet build in precooler & build in reactor no Consumes   very low
Nuclear Ramjet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no high full no Atmospheric Air none Ramjet build in precooler and air intake no Consumes   very low
Thermal Launch Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal up to 3000s 100% no high yes yes any NTR propellant + Oxygen as afterburner none   Can overheat when clogged full Consumes   low
Thermal Ramjet Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal

up to 3000s

100% no average yes in atmospheric mode yes  Atmospheric Air or any NTR propellant

none

Ramjet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes  

low

Thermal Turbojet Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal up to 3000s 100% no high partial with propellant thermal, full in jet mode yes Atmospheric Air or NTR propellant none Turbojet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes   very low
Nuclear Light Bulb Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 1850s - 2970s 100% no high partial   any NTR propellant none     full     low
Plasma Nozzle Plasma Propulsion Thermal 3000s - 12000s 100% yes (*) low partial   mono atomic propellants yes (*)       Low   low
5 way Resistojet RCS Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 544s (heated) 80% partial RCS yes yes Any propellant partial   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High   low
VTOL Resistojet (*) Ion Propulsion Thermal 1000s 80% no high yes yes Any propellant yes   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full Low   average
Linear Arcjet RCS Advanced Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 2000s (heated) 52% no RCS partial yes Any propellant partial   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High   average
ATILLA Advanced Ion Propulsion Magnetic/ Thermal 2854s - 5704s (*) 50-80% yes average partial yes Any propellant yes   Cannot use oxidizing propellants partial Average   average
MPD Plasma Propulsion Magnetic 11213s ionisation efficency no average partial yes Any propellant yes   Efficency depend on propellant no Average   average
VASMIR Advanced Electromagnetic Systems Magnetic / Thermal 2956s - 29,969s 30-60% yes low no yes mono atomic propellants yes   Efficency depend on Isp and Atmospheric Density no High   average
EM drive Specialized Plasma Generation Quantum Vacuum > 10.0000.000 10% no low yes yes vacuum plasma from nothing yes   reactionless propulsion no Very High   low
Magnetic Nozzle Advanced Plasma Propulsion Charged Particles/ Magnetic 12.000 - 1.200.000 100% yes none no yes LqdHydrogen + Charged Particles low, 1% charged power   Requires charged particles no Consumes   average
VISTA Fusion Rocketry Fusion 15.500 - 27.200 > 10000% limited low no yes LqdHydrogen + LqdDeuterium + LqdTritium up to 2.5 GW   Deadly radiation and Safety Features n.a. Extreme   very high
DEADALUS Advanced Fusion Fusion 1.000.000 > 10000% none none no yes LqdDeuterium + LqdHelium3 up to 5 GW   Aneutronic n.a.  high    extreme

(*) not yet implemented

Type - This field describes the technology behind the engine. The technologies used in KSPI are based closely on real life engines or scientific theories. Note the distinction between Thermal and Magnetic. Thermal engines have limited Isp but benefit from thermal decomposition, giving it extra thrust and improved Isp. Magnetic engines first need to Ionize the propellant. Some engines like the Vasimr and Atilla engine use a combination of the 2 techniques.

Method- This describes the engine's power input used to generate thrust. Engines can use Thermal (GW) power from a reactor, magnetic types use charged particles, quantum vacuum uses the vacuum of space to produce thrust and Fusion uses an internal fusion reaction to produce thrust.

ISP (LqdHydrogen)- This section shows the ISP (fuel efficiency) an engine produces when using LqdHydrogen as the propellant. Different types of propellants can provide different thrust values in an engine which is covered in more detail the Propellants section. Efficiency - The efficiency of an engine is how much of the thermal power (GW) is used to produce thrust and the remainder is expunged as Waste Heat. A low efficiency engine may require additional radiators to radiate the heat into the surrounding environment. The efficiency of electric engines is highly dependant on the efficiency of the propellant used.

Variable ISP - In KSPI some engines can have a variable ISP when operating. The ISP of an engine decreases as it produces more thrust. Higher thrust values also decrease the energy conversion efficiency.

Gimbal - This describes if the engine has gimbal capability. Gimbaled engines can use thrust vectoring to control the attitude of a vessel. Note that RCS engines do not gimbal but are linked with KSP RCS system.

Functions in Atmosphere - This is another self-describing value which explains if the engine can produce thrust when in an Atmosphere. Some engines rely on the vacuum of space or other methods to produce thrust and cannot be used in an Atmospheric environment. Many of the thrusters in KSPI are affected by static pressure. Which means the engine has to overcome the pressure of the atmosphere before producing usable thrust. Static pressure can be overcome by using a higher thrust propellant or by using a smaller nozzle.

Propellant- The propellant section explains which propellants are compatible with a given engine. Note that some engines can be upgraded to allow for additional propellants than is initially unlocked.

Electric Power Need - This section explains if Electrical Power (measured in MegaJoules) is required for the engine to operate. Engines can require partial or full electric power, as well as mixed types that also use charged particles. Some engines like the RistoJet RCS, will switch to unpowered mode when insufficient power is available. These engines can therefore be used without KSPI reactors.

Special- The special column covers any extra information about an engine that does not fit into a specific category on the chart.

Thermal Thrust Bonus - This describes an engines ability to produce extra thrust depending on the propellant used. The temperature of the thermal engine also plays a factor on the thermal thrust bonus when factoring in thermal decomposition of a fuel. (More below in the Propellants section)

WasteHeat effect- This explains how much Waste Heat is generated when firing a particular engine. Engines can both consume WasteHeat as well as produce WasteHeat depending on the engine technology used.

Operating cost - This gives a general overview of the operating cost of running a engine. Electric engines are more expensive than thermal engines, since thermal engines have require less radiators. Vista Engines are very expensive to operate due to their high rate of consumption of Tritium.

 

Beamed Power

Image

Name

Technology

Cost

Mass

Receive / Transmit Diameter

can receive thermal can receive electric can receive data

Receive Wavelength

Transmit Power

@ 2.5m

Can Transmit Science

Can Link Up

 Can Relay

Transmit wavelength

Transmit Efficiency

Receive Efficiency

Role / Special

Special

ioRNmbs.jpg Microwave Transducer Large Electrics 2000 4 t 10m no no no n.a. 4 GW yes n.a. no

8.56 mm

 

maximum n.a.   Integrated Microwave Generator
  Inline Thermal Receiver Mk1 Large Electrics 2000                       n.a. maximum   Can power thermal engine  or generator
0TIkigY.jpg Multi Bandwidth  Dish Transceiver (Shielded) Advanced Solar Technology

5000

6 t

5m

      10 nm - 1m yes yes yes yes   n.a. high universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching
UbP025l.png Phased Array Transiever Advanced Solar Technology   1 t 5 m   2 GW   1 - 10 mm 1 GW     no 8.56 mm n.a. 100%    
l5tgv5T.jpg Deployable Phased Array Transiever Advanced Photovoltaic Materials   2.5 t 25m   5 GW   1 - 10 mm 2.5 GW     yes 8.56 mm 90% 90%    
  Radial Phased Array 2             35 Ghz , 94 Ghz,                  
  Inline Thermal Electro Phased Array 2             35 Ghz , 94 Ghz,           90%      
  Sphere Thermal Electro Phased Array 2             35 Ghz , 94 Ghz,           90%      
  Radial Microwave Rectenna       5m                          
eEao7ZS.jpg Diode Infrared Laser Turret 1     0.5 m      

n.a.

750 nm - 1mm

   

no

 

85%

n.a. Early IR trasnmitter  with Build in Beam generator Integrated IR Beam generator
  Radial Thermal Voltalic Receiver 2     5 m       750 nm - 1mm no         n.a. 60%    
  Radial Photvaltalic Receiver 2     5m       10 nm -700 nm             60%    
  Radial Rectenna 2     5m      

1 mm - 1 m

750 nm - 1mm

10nm - 750

   

no

no

         
  Oversized Thermal Dish Receiver Aluminum 3     100m yes 1/3 thermal power yes 0.005% 400 nm - 1m microwave only DIRECT yes         Performs better in UV visible light wavelengths can receive in electric at 1/3 thermal power
  Oversized Thermal Dish Receiver Gold 3     100m yes 1/3 thermal power yes 0.005% 400 nm - 1m microwave only DIRECT yes         ss
jhv0cem.jpg

Microwave Infrared Rectenna

3     10m no yes  

750 nm - 1m

  no

no

no

    75%

 

 
FpXWVl1.png

Infrared Mirror

3     10m      

700 nm - 1mm

  no

no

yes

    95%

Can directly relay beamed power

can only relay
VwTROgd.jpg

UV Light Mirror

3     10m      

10 nm -700 nm

  no

no

yes

    90%

Can directly relay beamed power 

can only relay
 

Multi Bandwidth  Dish Transceiver (Medium)

Advanced Photovoltaic Materials

10000

8 t

10m  

 

yes

yes with 0.005% Configurable

10nm - 1m

yes

RELAY

yes

yes

  Depends on connected beam generator Depends on wavelength  universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching
 

Multi Bandwidth Dish Transceiver (Large)

Microwave Power Transmission

40000

32 t

20m  

 

yes

 

1 mm - 1 m

750 nm - 1mm

10nm - 750

yes

RELAY

yes

yes

  Depends on connected beam generator Depends on wavelength universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching

Data Transmission

Besides beamed power transmission, some of the parts used for beamed power are also suitable for data transmission. For comparison the stock transmitter are included

Name Type Interval PacketSize Transmit Cost Standby Cost Dish Angle Transmit Distance Combinable
Communotron 16 DIRECT 0.6 2 12 EC     5.0e+5 True
HG-5 High Gain Antenna RELAY 0.35 2 18 EC 1.15 EC / s 90 5.0e+6 True
RA-2 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 1 24 EC     2.0e+9 True
RA-15 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 2 24 EC     1.5e+10 True
RA-100 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 4 24 EC 1.1 EC / s 0.025 1.0e+11 True
Communotron DTSM1 DIRECT 0.35 2 12 EC     2.0e+9 True
Communotron HG-55 DIRECT 0.15 3 20 EC     1.5e+10 True
Communotron 88-88 DIRECT 0.1   20 EC     1.0e+11 True
                 
Microwave Phased Array Transceiver RELAY 0.1 1 25 EC 2.5 EC /s 160 1.0e+7 True
Deployable Microwave Phased Array Relay Reciever RELAY 0.1 1 100 EC

10 EC /s

160

5.0e+7 True
Radial  Thermal Dish Receiver DIRECT 0.1 1 50 EC 5 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+12 True
Folding Thermal Dish Receiver Gold DIRECT 0.1 1 50 EC 5 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+12 True
Multi Bandwidth Rectenna Dish Transceiver (10m) RELAY 0.1 1 100 EC 10 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+13 True
Multi Bandwidth Rectenna Dish Transceiver (20m) RELAY 0.1 1 400 EC 40 EC /s 0.005 5.0e+13 True
Oversized Microwave Infrared Thermal Receiver DIRECT 0.1 1 800 EC 80 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+14 False

 

Warpdrive (Faster Than warp drive)

Fast than light speed is only possible by folding space itself.  Space in front of the vessel needs to be shrunken while space behind it the vessel is extracted. To shrink and expand space, you need to generate negative mass which can be achieved by exciting exotic matter. KSPI warp drive can generate exotic matter  and use it to create a warp field. The amount of power required to create a stable warp fields depends on the speed and power of the warp coils.

The speed of light itself requires the least amount energy. Traveling faster or slower requires more power. However speed is influenced by a large degree by the curvature of space, in other words, gravity. It means that the higher the gravity pull of any heavily body, the lower the maximum speed possible for a finite amount of power requirement. This effectively means that when a vessel is in a low Kerbin orbit, where the pull of gravity is significant, the maximum warp speed is very low. And since traveling slower than the speed of light requires more power, it means that it will be hard or impossible to generate enough power. To  get around it, you need to bring your vessel further away from the gravity source or install more warp drive power.

Warp Power is achieved by any of the 3 warpdrives in KSP, The Light Warp Engine, the Foldable Warp Engine and the Heavy Warp Engine. The amount of warp power is directly dependent on the mass of the warp drive. Warp drives also stack linear, which means it will not matter if you use 24 ton of light warp drives or a single large warp drive.

 

Work In Progress

Note that do not consider myself the person that have to determine the future of KSPI, it's just that nobody else seems to want to do it. I would be more than happy to share that responsibility. Anyone that actively want to develop KSPI is free to do it. It would appreciate it as it would allow me to focus more on advanced features I have ideas about. Also notice I haven't had the time yet to play a serious KSP 1.0 campaign yet. But now my hands are full just making KSPI-E functional again. I think KSPI could develop into something much better. The simply truth is, KSPI is too big for a single developer. I don't have the time nor the skills to implement everything that it deserves. I'm especially frustrated about the lack of artist support. Many of KSPI models and effects look dated and ugly compared to more resent mods. There have been some artist and programmers offering their help but they often go AWOL after a short time. I'm not sure If I can keep it up myself indefinably. I would prefer to create a team of developers that works on KSPI together. I guess that's the only way to ensure KSPI Future

 

Edited by FreeThinker
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Trusters

  • Made ISP/Trust performance of Thermal /Plasma Thruster in atmosphere depend on exitArea and atmospheric pressure
  • replaced specific size Thermal Thrusters by a single resizable Thermal Thruster with GUI which predics thrust in Vacuum and at Sea level
  • Significantly Increased Thermal Nozzle trust to realistic performance levels
  • Electric engines power usage is limited by available power (optional)

Reactors

  • replaced specific size Sensan/Akula reactors and replaced by 2 resizable Particle Reactors (Small and Large) and a single resizable Dusty Plasma Reactor
  • Significantly decrease weight of Particle Reactors

Resource

  • Added ability of Atmospheric Scoop to function as Propulsive fluid accumulator which can be achieved by placing a vessel in a circular orbit at the edge of space with access to KSPI plasma engines and enough power.
  • Improved Compatibility with RealFuels
  • Added Liquid Nitrogen en (RealFuels) Nitrogen as a resource which can be used for Thermal/Magnetic/Electric Rockets
  • Added Cryotank which stores Liquid Nitrogen at low temperature, requiring electric power to maintain
  • Added Integrated Nitrogen Radiator which stores Nitrogen gas and can perform Active cooling with Liquid Nitrogen
  • Nitrogen can be scooped from the atmosphere with Atmospheric Scoop

Techtree

  • Added support for other Techtrees
  • Added support for Community Tech Tree (CTT KSPI Config made by Olympic1)

Science

  • Improved Science Lab research : Profession & Skill now matter (+/- 50%) , effect of stupidity reduced (+/- 10%)
  • Improved Science Lab feedback, it will at real time show how much science is already collected

Fixes

  • Fixes KSPI Legacy issue where Computer Core would only give 1/4 of the research it should when unfocused
  • Fixed KSPI Legacy issue where Cryostats would too much resource due to boiloff caused by insufficient powering while outside of warp
  • Fixes KSPI Legacy issue where Reactors Retrofit(upgrade) button would not function
  • Fixed KSPI Legacy issue where stupid Kerbals would actually improve research output in the Lab
  • Fixes KSPI Legacy issue where Athmospheric scoop would not reset flow to 0 when flying out of atmosphere
  • Fixes KSPI Legacy issue where Double Pivoted Solar Power generators could not be converted to Microwave power
  • Includes all fixes done in Boris Maintenance KSPI Port

 

License Info

Credits

  • @Fractalfor developing the original KSP Interstellar
  • @Eleusis La Arwall for most of the new Reactors, new Power Dish transmitters and Beam generators
  • @zzzfor most of the original models/texturing, including all reactor, most engines
  • @Boris-Barborisfor porting KSPI to 0.90 and fixsing many bugs
  • @Northstar1989for providing theoretical basis for many of the new features in KSP Interstellar Extended
  • @EvilGeorgefor programming Solar Wind collector and ISRU processing and several other ISRU processes
  • MrNukealizer for his help in C# development work on KSPI
  • Snjo for making the code FSFuelSwitch public available
  • for making creating the models for Interstelar Fuel Tanks distributed by Fuel Tanks Plus Mod and creating the modles for the static RCS blocks
  • Olympic1 for his help with the integration of KSPI with CTT
  • KaiserSnow for providing Icons for Integration with Filter Extension
  • InsanePlumber for converting part textures to DDS format
  • A2K For helping get KSPI-E on CKAN
  • Bishop149 for Helpi improve the Wiki and OP
  • ABZB for Helping to find many bugs and developing Mk2 EXtension Mod
  • SmallFatFetus for giving permission to use is Vasimr model
  • michaelhester07 for creating Particle Accelerator
  • NathanKell for creating ModuleRCSFX.
  • Trolllception for helping new players understand the tables on the OP and MM scripts
  • Nli2work for creating the Magneto Inertial Fusion Engine
  • @Nansuchaofor helping to create documentation and guides for KSPI-E

Recommended Mods

64K or K2 by Paul Kingtiger

Kerbal Joint Reenforcements by ferram4

SKY - Scale-up Kerbalism for You

Edited by FreeThinker
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Post #552 from the previous thread seems like an oversight. The wiki lists the 2.5m and 3.75m fusion reactors as having deuterium and tritium.

https://github.com/FractalUK/KSPInterstellar/wiki/Reactors

Perhaps, but I think it has something to with storage, as deuterium needs to be stored at crystatic temperatures. Still a small amount would be usefull to allow easier construction.

I guess we have to create a new Wiki as well, any volunteers?

Edited by FreeThinker

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I was mistaken about the thermal rocket nozzles in the tech tree. That wasn't in CTT, that's in "unofficial KSPI."

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Any chance of you converting this to use Regolith? It would be nice if all my mods were playing with the same ball, so to speak.

Or doesn't that fit with your vision for this (backwards-compatibility and all)?

I've considered having a look at doing it myself, but I'm guessing it's more complicated than just a few MM configs, which means it may well be beyond the limitations of my addled brain. :confused:

Edit: forgot to say thanks for taking this on board - I'm glad people like you are keeping great mods alive when their original creators vanish.

Edited by UnanimousCoward

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Any chance of you converting this to use Regolith? It would be nice if all my mods were playing with the same ball, so to speak.

I already partialy use Regolith. This reminds me to add it to the dependancies. But I guess you mean to replace ORS resource detection/extraction by Regolith

I don't have any real objections to switch to Regolith, but I do not understand how to implement it for resource collection/extraction.

Edited by FreeThinker

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So, how exactly do you change the maximum Isp for thermal rockets? The option's not in the WarpPluginSettings.cfg file, and adding it doesn't seem to work - it makes MechJeb think the Isp is going to be higher, but doesn't actually let it go above 3,000 seconds in practice.

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I already partialy use Regolith. This reminds me to add it to the dependancies. But I guess you mean to replace ORS resource detection/extraction by Regolith

I don't have any real objections to switch to Regolith, but I do not understand how to implement it for resource collection/extraction.

+1 on regolith, documentation found here (hopefully up to date)

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Why do people keep asking about using Regolith?

Let's be clear- the Karbonite/Regolith system is NOT well-adapted to some of the things KSP-Interstellar does. It has many important/useful features Regolith doesn't, like auto-adjusting the resource extraction rate based on resource-density (important for RealFuels compatibility). Under-the-hood ORS/CRP is a better, if more complex and harder to program with, system- it just needs a better interface for players to locate resource-deposits than it currently has.

It's good for SOME things- that's why the Extension Config currently uses BOTH ORS *AND* Regolith, one for normal resources and the other for Propulsive Fluid Accumulators. But Regloith does simply NOT do some things as well as ORS/CRP.

So, -1000 for Regolith since I've been helping to develop the Extension Config, and there are a lot of things we still have yet to do with it that wouldn't work properly with the Regolith system... :P

Regards,

Northstar

Edited by Northstar1989

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Why do people keep asking about using Regolith?

Let's be clear- the Karbonite/Regolith system is NOT well-adapted to some of the things KSP-Interstellar does. It has many important/useful features Regolith doesn't, like auto-adjusting the resource extraction rate based on resource-density (important for RealFuels compatibility). Under-the-hood ORS/CRP is a better, if more complex and harder to program with, system- it just needs a better interface for players to locate resource-deposits than it currently has.

It's good for SOME things- that's why the Extension Config currently uses BOTH ORS *AND* Regolith, one for normal resources and the other for Propulsive Fluid Accumulators. But Regloith does simply NOT do some things as well as ORS/CRP.

So, -1000 for Regolith since I've been helping to develop the Extension Config, and there are a lot of things we still have yet to do with it that wouldn't work properly with the Regolith system... :P

Regards,

Northstar

Well considering that popular mods like Karbonite and ScanSat already have switched to it and most mods are switching to it it appears to be the system of the future. If there are limits you could talk to those developing Regolith about them. Also would help to not have to install both regolith and ORS to use interstellar because until the memory for KSP is more optimized everyone is looking to keep their total number of mods down to avoid crashes.

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Well considering that popular mods like Karbonite and ScanSat already have switched to it and most mods are switching to it it appears to be the system of the future. If there are limits you could talk to those developing Regolith about them. Also would help to not have to install both regolith and ORS to use interstellar because until the memory for KSP is more optimized everyone is looking to keep their total number of mods down to avoid crashes.
the amount of memory used by ORS or Regorth is insignifican compared to the resources required by a single part model or texture. ORS is only 43kB that's nothing, and it does not keep any significant amount of data in memory either. Edited by FreeThinker

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Why do people keep asking about using Regolith?

Because of interoperability and gameplay (Scansat, oh my god scansat) I guess. Nobody wants to deal with multiple interfaces (or none at all, looking at ORS/Scansat) when there is no apparent benefit from it. Also, the reason CRP was made in the first place was the plethora of resources floating about, which where all trying to be the same thing in essence (aquifier, water, lqdwater, h2o, etc)... Starting this again, if not in resource definitions then in frameworks, seems like a bad idea to me.

Let's be clear- the Karbonite/Regolith system is NOT well-adapted to some of the things KSP-Interstellar does. It has many important/useful features Regolith doesn't, like auto-adjusting the resource extraction rate based on resource-density (important for RealFuels compatibility). Under-the-hood ORS/CRP is a better, if more complex and harder to program with, system- it just needs a better interface for players to locate resource-deposits than it currently has.

It's good for SOME things- that's why the Extension Config currently uses BOTH ORS *AND* Regolith, one for normal resources and the other for Propulsive Fluid Accumulators. But Regolith does simply NOT do some things as well as ORS/CRP.

What do you mean with auto-adjusting extraction rates based on density? You have the ability for varied resource abundances and looking at a standard drill config, it also has an efficiency parameter - so you could vary rates based on what resource you are mining without issue. If you are having things like conservation of mass during resource conversion in mind, well the ratios can be calculated, again, without issue. Apart from that, as already suggested, if you feel some important feature is lacking in Regolith, consult with Roverdude, he surely knows best how to get certain results if the specifics are so very important...

So, -1000 for Regolith since I've been helping to develop the Extension Config, and there are a lot of things we still have yet to do with it that wouldn't work properly with the Regolith system...

What a wonderful way of dealing with other people's concerns^^

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Because of interoperability and gameplay (Scansat, oh my god scansat) I guess. Nobody wants to deal with multiple interfaces (or none at all, looking at ORS/Scansat) when there is no apparent benefit from it. Also, the reason CRP was made in the first place was the plethora of resources floating about, which where all trying to be the same thing in essence (aquifier, water, lqdwater, h2o, etc)... Starting this again, if not in resource definitions then in frameworks, seems like a bad idea to me.

I'm aware of the desire to get ScanSat working with KSP-Interstellar, although some players (like myself) can't play with it due to its extensive RAM and CPU requirements... However, Regolith is simply not up to the task of some things accomplished by ORS in KSP-Interstellar...

What do you mean with auto-adjusting extraction rates based on density?

What I mean is, if you change the "resource" density of a resource in the configs (like we *currently* do with the KSP-Interstellar/RealFuels integration config- there is literally no other way to do it, since KSP-Interstellar's default resource-densities bear no relation whatsoever to reality in many cases...) then parts that extract that resource from the ground/air/etc. (like the KSP-Interstellar ISRU Refinery) will automatically adjust the units/minute they extract of that resource to harvest the resource at the same mass-extraction rate...

You have the ability for varied resource abundances and looking at a standard drill config, it also has an efficiency parameter - so you could vary rates based on what resource you are mining without issue.

I've played with Karbonite before, so I know what those terms mean. The resource abundance is essentially equivalent to the resource concentration *in the ground* in ORS/KSP-Interstellar. The "efficiency" parameter relates to how quickly that resource is extracted relative to the concentration/abundance, and as I understand it, is capped at 100%.

BOTH these parameters need to continue to exist in some form in KSP-Interstellar, regardless of whether it uses Regolith or ORS for the majority of its In-Situ-Resource-Utilization needs. HOWEVER, an *ADDITIONAL* calculation needs to be performed that corrects extraction-rates based on config changes to the resource-density. KSP-Interstellar automatically does this with ORS (so if I change "LiquidFuel" into "LqdHydrogen", for instance, the extraction-rate remains the same on a kg/minute basis, even though I have decreased the resource-density more than 500-fold!)

Don't get me wrong, it is POSSIBLE to separately calculate a new base extraction-rate for the resource, or simply multiply the abundance 500x fold or what-not using Regolith, but doing so would be much more complex and much trickier (with a lot more potential to screw up) than the system that currently exists with ORS. Given these difficulties, it seems it would be *MUCH* easier to try and figure out how to get ORS to work with ScanSat, than to try and code around Regolith's clumsy responses to changes in resource-density...

If you are having things like conservation of mass during resource conversion in mind, well the ratios can be calculated, again, without issue. Apart from that, as already suggested, if you feel some important feature is lacking in Regolith, consult with Roverdude, he surely knows best how to get certain results if the specifics are so very important...

That's the thing. We would have to change conversion-ratios and/or consult with Roverdude for *EVERY SINGLE CHANGE* we make to replace a resource-density if we switched over to Regolith. With ORS, it's much simpler, you just give it a mass:ratio (say, electrolysis of Water produces 88.88% Oxygen and 11.11% Hydrogen by mass) and it automatically adjusts resource-consumption based on *any possible change* you could ever make to resource-densities at a later point. *WITHOUT* a ModuleManager patch.

ORS makes it MUCH simpler to tweak densities, create cross-mod compatibility, or even just re-name a resource (it keeps a catalog of the "name" for each resource type, i.e. there is a "Water resource name" which could be "Water" or "LqdWater" or "Liquid Water" and they would all be functionally-identical with a simple MM patch to change the name in that catalog...) than does Reglolith.

Don't get me wrong, I love Regolith- it has its place/purpose, and some things it does better than ORS- and that's why we use it for the Propulsive Fluid Accumulators, for instance- because it already had some very nice code fro scooping resources from the edge of an atmosphere while in time-warp. But it simply is *NOT* up to meeting the bulk of the needs of KSP-Interstellar, which is the mod Fractal_UK coded ORS around in the first place...

What a wonderful way of dealing with other people's concerns^^

It was meant to be humorous. Sorry if it came across a little dickish... Trust me- it's all in good fun, I value your input Tellion. :D

Regards,

Northstar

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This is a re-post from the KSP-Interstellar 0.90 port maintenance thread, to help us start migrating the conversation here from there:

Northstar: Did you calculate ISP/Thrust figures for Water in a thermal nozzle? I'm curious.

Water (H2O) has 9 times the Molecular Weight of Hydrogen: so it's ISP should be approximately 1/3rd that of Liquid Hydrogen- corresponding to an ISP multiplier of 0.33 based purely on Molecular Weight. HOWEVER, water also engages in Hydrogen Bonding- which reduces its ISP relative to Molecular Weight even further (because a given amount of heat-injection won't raise its temperature as high, leading to lower Exhaust Velocity), so a more accurate value would be around 0.25-0.28

However, it is CURRENTLY set at 0.4714 instead. I'm not sure why this is- most of Fractal_UK's other ISP multiplier selections are accurate to the molecular weight and physical/chemical properties...

The same effect is observed for Ammonia, which also engages in Hydrogen Bonding, and has an ISP multiplier of 0.6503 instead of the expected value of 0.342 based on molecular weight, or 0.30-0.32 after accounting for Hydrogen Bonding.

My guess is Fractal_UK used a higher ISP multiplier to account for the reduced thrust observed with Water and Ammonia relative to the expected Thrust/MW based on their molecular weight (in fact, he gives this explanation on the KSP-I wiki). HOWEVER, what Fractal_UK did NOT seem to grasp is that the lost Thrust *DOES NOT* show up as a higher ISP/Exhaust Velocity. Water and Ammonia are just poor NTR fuels to use, period.

The only advantages of Water/Ammonia is that, due to their Hydrogen Bonding, they are HIGHLY storable. As in, at the ambient temperatures of space both will *FREEZE* into a SOLID rather than attempt to boil-off into a vapor like LH2 or LOX... However, boil-off is not currently modeled in KSP-Interstellar (it *IS* in RealFuels, however, and indeed neither fuel experiences boil-off with that mod installed, unlike Hydro/LOX...)

Thanks for catching that EMPeror? I assume that's why you asked me to calculate the proper ISP for Water...

@FreeThinker

The ISP multipliers of Water and Ammonia need to be reduced to the following values:

Water: 0.33

Ammonia: 0.342

Also, there needs to be a *NEGATIVE* (less than 1) Thrust-modifier on both Water and Ammonia that *REDUCES* their EFFECTIVE ISP to 0.28 and 0.30, respectively.

Here are the appropriate Thrust modifiers to attain that:

Water: 0.900

Ammonia: 0.875

So, Water should produce only 90% of the expected Thrust for its Molecular Weight and ISP, and Ammonia only 87.5%.

Regards,

Northstar

Also, Freethinker, you asked about LF/O mix before.

I want to make sure you correctly understand, the Thrust-increase of 200% is *RELATIVE TO HYDROGEN ALONE*.

Here are appropriate Thrust/ISP values for a LANTR fuel-mode, drawn DIRECTLY from the table on page 7 of the report you linked to:

LH2/LOX ISP multiplier: 0.6289 (so, an ISP 62.89% of Hydrogen with a given reactor temperature and nozzle-size)

LH2/LOX Thrust Multiplier: 3.1444 (314.44% Thrust relative to Hydrogen)

# EDIT: Initial calculations for the ISP multiplier were too low, because I divided 566/1000 instead of 566/900 to determine the relative-ISP of LANTR fuel-mode. *PLEASE* use the new value of 0.6289 above.

So, if a NTR in LH2-mode produces a Vacuum Thrust of 1.15 kN/MW at a Vauum ISP of 1150 seconds... (this is *approximately* the correct value at a reactor temperature of 3000 K, with a Vacuum-nozzle attached, and what we have been balancing the Sethlans family of reactors to with equal-diameter Thermal Rocket Nozzles)

Then it should produce 3.62 kN/MW of Vacuum Thrust at a Vacuum ISP of 732.22 seconds when using LH2/LOX.

Another issues to be aware of- LANTR DOES *NOT* OPERATE AT STOICHIOMETRIC RATIOS FOR LH2/LOX COMBUSTION!

According to the first report on LANTR you linked, the fuel mass-ratio at the *HIGHEST* LOX-injection ratio (where you get a full 314.4% increase in Thrust relative to LH2 alone) is only 1:4, *not* the 1:8 stoichiometric ratio, or the 1:6 fuel-ratio you would see with a typical Hydrolox chemical rocket engine.

Seeing this, the fuel-ratio RealFuels/KSP-I needs to be changed *SIGNIFICANTLY*. The fuel/ox ratio is stock KSP-I is currently 10:11, clearly to match the existing rocket-fuel mix, and I wouldn't recommend changing this as it will make things too difficult on new players. HOWEVER, RealFuels seeks to match real-world fuel mixtures and performance whenever possible (this is basically the entire purpose of that mod), so the current RealFuels Hydro/LOX fuel-mode ModuleManager patch needs to be changed as follows...

Here is the current code, found in the "RealFuelsFix" config now included with KSP-Interstellar Extension Config:


@BASIC_NTR_PROPELLANT[Hydrolox]:FINAL:NEEDS[RealFuels]:FOR[WarpPlugin]
{
@guiName = Hydrolox
@PROPELLANT[LiquidFuel]
{
@name = LqdHydrogen
@ratio = 0.73
}
@PROPELLANT[Oxidizer]
{
@name = LqdOxygen
@ratio = 0.27
@DrawGauge = False
}
}

Now *HERE* is what the code NEEDS to be changed to:


@BASIC_NTR_PROPELLANT[Hydrolox]:FINAL:NEEDS[RealFuels]:FOR[WarpPlugin]
{
@guiName = Hydrolox
@PROPELLANT[LiquidFuel]
{
@name = LqdHydrogen
@ratio = 0.80
}
@PROPELLANT[Oxidizer]
{
@name = LqdOxygen
@ratio = 0.20
@DrawGauge = False
}
}

You'll notice that the LANTR fuel-mode causes thermal rockets to now burn significantly more Hydrogen-rich. Which is GREAT for Propulsive Fluid Accumulators around Jool, but bad for the size of your spacecraft in RealFuels... (due to Hydrogen's *VERY* low fuel-density) :)

I'll also try and re-post this on the new thread for the KSP-Interstellar Extension Config, as we start to migrate more discussion to over there...

Regards,

Northstar

Edited by Northstar1989
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FreeThinker,

So, a minor issue I stumbled across recently- Duna has *very* small amounts of Oxygen it its atmosphere (0.13% abundance).


ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION
{
name = DunaOxygen
guiName = Oxygen
celestialBodyName = Duna
resourceName = Oxidizer
abundance = 0.0013
}

Yet it's not currently possible to scoop it with a Propulsive Fluid Accumulator (while simultaneously scooping Carbon Dioxide) in RealFuels, as there is no config change of Oxidizer --> LqdOxygen. Since there currently no way to obtain Oxygen directly from the CO2 resource, the ability to scoop this residual Oxygen could prove *very* important...

I suggest adding the following code to the RealFuelsFix file:


@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[DunaOxygen]
{
resourceName = LqdOxygen
}

Ideally this should go at the end of the current list of Atmosphere Resource Pack changes, like so:


@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_PACK_DEFINITION[InterstellarAtmosphericPack]:FINAL:NEEDS[RealFuels]:FOR[WarpPlugin]
{

@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[KerbinOxygen]
{
resourceName = LqdOxygen
}
@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[KerbinHydrogen]
{
resourceName = LqdHydrogen
}
@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[JoolHydrogen]
{
resourceName = LqdHydrogen
}
@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[LaytheOxygen]
{
resourceName = LqdOxygen
}
@ATMOSPHERIC_RESOURCE_DEFINITION[DunaOxygen]
{
resourceName = LqdOxygen
}
}

Also, we need to get ISRU reactions to convert CO2 --> O2 eventually. The *BEST* reactions for this are:

CO2 Electrolysis: CO2 --> C (solid) + O2

Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction + Water Electrolysis: 2 CO2 + 2 H2 --> 2 CO + 2 H2O --> 2 CO + 2 H2 + O2

In both cases, you would have a waste-product you simply dump overboard: Graphite with the CO2 Electrolysis reaction, and Carbon Monoxide with the Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction... ALTHOUGH, it should be mentioned that Carbon Monoxide is itself a potentially useful gas- it can be used to manufacture Kerosene via the Fischer-Tropsch Process in combination with Hydrogen, and can be combusted with Oxygen for a VERY low-ISP chemical rocket (around 180-200 seconds ISP, if my memory serves correctly) for suborbital hops around Mars/Duna...

Both ISRU reactions can *EASILY* be selectively carried out in Mars-like conditions with relatively light/compact (space-grade) refineries, and are in fact currently being developed/researched (the primary engineering challenge is in gathering CO2 from the Martian atmosphere in the first place, as it is so thin- luckily Duna's atmosphere is MUCH thicker...) for fuel-production and life-support reasons on future Mars missions...

Regards,

Northstar

Edited by Northstar1989

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FreeThinker,

Also, I decided to go and write up some specific fixes for the ISRU refineries so that they will now have RealFuels modular fuel-tanks, which will be insulated (and solve the current boil-off issue with the tanks *not* being insulated).

This will allow players to select BEFORE launching a rocket what types of resources they want to give their ISRU refinery storage for- which is a complaint Dreadicon and some other players made to me in the past (that they couldn't customize their refinery for the usages they had planned for it). Going to Dres, for instance? No need for a Water tank- but adding lots of UF4 storage would be nice!

The following code should also be added to the "RealFuelsFix" file:


@PART[FNRefinery]:FOR[RealFuels]
{
MODULE
{
name = ModuleFuelTanks
volume = 1750
type = Cryogenic
}
}
@PART[FNInlineRefinery]:FOR[RealFuels]
{
MODULE
{
name = ModuleFuelTanks
volume = 1750
type = Cryogenic
}
}
@PART[FNInlineRefineryLarge]:FOR[RealFuels]
{
MODULE
{
name = ModuleFuelTanks
volume = 11000
type = Cryogenic
}
}

The volumes for each have been *PRECISELY* determined to match the RealFuels convention of multiplying existing stock tank capacity by 5 (as the RealFuels resources are MUCH less dense, and stock parts typically only have about 1/5th the capacity they should have in liters...)

Regards,

Northstar

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OK, so took a look at the performance of the Thermal Turbojets, now that we're more or less done with the Thermal Rockets. Here's what I got for a basic Runway test:

QdrfHhZ.jpg

JIhQgPO.jpg

So, we get 124.8 kN of Thrust for 187.5 MW of ThermalPower at an ISP of 136.1 seconds...

That equates to 0.6656 kN/MW, which is *FAR* too low...

OK, so now let's plug this into the equations we already know to get the CORRECT Thrust/MW so we can adjust it...

First of all, we need a standard to adjust to. Luckily, we already have this: the expected vacuum behavior of the Timberwind Nuclear Thermal Rockets in vacuum. These produce a bit under 1 kN/MW (our version produces a bit more Thrust/MW in vacuum, due to having nozzles that are optimized for Vacuum usage when the same diameter as the reactor...)

Thermal Tubojets, however, unlike Thermal Rockets, get their best Thrust/MW performance at an atmospheric pressure of about 0.3 atm in KSP. Their ISP is 2500 at this altitude according to the currently-used Thermal Turbojet atmosphere-curve:


atmosphereCurve
{
key = 0 1200
key = 0.3 2500
key = 1 800
}

However at pressures of 1 atm or above, they get only 800 seconds ISP (our ISP is even lower because KSP-I then adjusts this # for reactor temperature- I have NO IDEA what reactor temperature the curve was first generated for, and I don't care enough to run the calculations necessary to find out...)

So, our Thrust/MW and ISP should theoretically be (2500/800) = 3.125 times higher at optimal atmospheric pressure, which is what we should adjust our calculations to, or else we'll end up making our TTJ's *MUCH* too powerful when attempting to buff them to realistic values to match the Thermal Rockets... (currently, they are far too weak compared to the Thermal Rockets)

That means, our OPTIMAL Thrust/MW is *CURRENTLY* 2.08 kn/MW (which is still too low for the ISP of 425.3125 seconds under optimal conditions with this reactor...) However it's worth noting the Thermal Turbojet will NEVER perform at this level because it will also lose Thrust to its VelocityCurve as it flies faster...


velocityCurve
{
key = 0 1 0 0
key = 400 0.8 0 0
key = 800 0.9 0 0
key = 1700 0 0 0
}

In fact, as you can see, when traveling at 1700 m/s (just under Mach 5) with our current VelocityCurve, our Thermal Turbojet will produce NO THRUST WHATSOEVER.

Which is actually perfectly realistic- in fact this about the maximum possible speed an advanced air-breathing engine like SABRE can operate at...

Anyways, so now that I've explained the caveats and limitations of why it will be impossible to see performance this good in practice, let's see what we can't do to bring the *theoretical* optimal performance for our Thermal Turbojet (at an ambient pressure of 30.3975 kPa and an airspeed of ZERO) up to where it should be...

OK, so the first equations we need here are the following:

Thurst = Mass Flow Rate * Specific Impulse * g

E = 1/2 * m * v2

and, derived from these equations:

Isp1/Isp2 = SqRt (m2/m1)

That is, the total mass of atmosphere our Thermal Turbojet is acting on, compared to a Thermal Rocket (or Thermal Turbojet) at higher Specific Impulse will be the square-root of the ratio of the TTJ's ISP to the higher-ISP Thermal Rocket/Turbojet's ISP...

It's worth noting that unlike with a Thermal Rocket, where the Mass Flow Rate is typically increased by using a denser propellant, a Thermal Turbojet simply grabs more atmosphere with its intakes to provide additional Thrust, provided more atmosphere is available through the intakes... In this aspect, hotter nuclear reactors will allow higher-altitude flight because they can achieve the same Thrust with significantly less airflow...

Anyways, first of all, using our OPTIMAL ISP of 425.3125 seconds...

1000/425.3125 = SqRt (m2/m1) --> m2/m1 = 5.529

So, our Thermal Turbojet will have 5.529 times the Mass Flow Rate of a Timberwind NTR in vacuum. Or, approximately, a 1.25 meter Sethlans using Hydrogen in Vacuum at an ISP of 1150 seconds (since we set the extra ISP to come from higher Thrust at the same Mass Flow Rate, in keeping with the higher Vacuum ISP coming from the nozzle...) That could be useful to note for later- since it might help us confirm the Thermal Turbojet is working correctly with the new performance values we give it...

OK, now what about Thrust? We need an equation for Thrust that compares it to a NTR at 1000 seconds ISP as well...

Thrust = Mass Flow Rate * ISP * g

ThrustTTJ/ThrustNTR = 5.529 * (425.3125 seconds/1000 seconds) * 9.80665 = 23.0575

Note that "g" is "standard gravity"- the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in vacuum near the surface of the Earth, and is inherently tied up in our calculation due to the convention of expressing Specific Impulse in seconds instead of as Effective Exhaust Velocity (in m/s)...

OK, so anyways, we know that our Thermal Turbojet should produce 23.0575 times the Thrust of a theoretical 187.5 MW NTR with an ISP of 1000 seconds... Which is just a 1/4th scale version of the "Timberwind 75" Nuclear Thermal Rocket (and this is why I choose to standardize performance against the "Timberwind 75" design specs as much as possible earlier in development- so we could refer back to this real/known number as much as possible for later development...)

We know the expected Vacuum Thrust for our theoretical reference Nuclear Thermal Rocket, then- 1/4th the Vacuum Thrust of the Timberwind 75, or (735.5 / 4) = 183.875 kN

So, we can calculate the expected *OPTIMAL* Thrust of our Thermal Turbojet:

23.0575 * (735.5 / 4) = 4239.70 kN

Seems rather high, doesn't it? But remember, we only get this performance under OPTIMAL conditions. How do we do at sea-level at a standstill?

(4239.7) * (800/2500) = 1356.7 kN

That's a little more reasonable (a bit over 6 times the Thrust of a comparable NTR in vacuum- which is expected, as Thermal Turbojets get *MUCH* better Thrust/MW than Thermal Rockets due to their higher Mass Flow Rate...) Note that when in flight, we'll *quickly* start to lose even more Thrust at high altitude due to the Velocity Curve, and we'll still produce ZERO Thrust at an airspeed of 1700 m/s...

Anyways, how are we doing for Thrust/MW now?

Sea-Level Performance: 7.24 kN/MW

OPTIMAL Performance: 22.61 kN/MW

Seems about right given that Thermal Turbojets are *SUPPOSED TO* get much higher Thrust/MW than Thermal Rockets...

The Thrust *is* rather high, but keep in mind that our reactor is HUGE and *EXTREMELY* POWERFUL for a Thermal Turbojet- the one designed for the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project was a 2.5 MW reactor that operated at 1133.15 degrees Kelvin. IF it had actually been used in-flight instead of just carried up as a dummy, it could have produced 56.53 kN of Thrust at optimal conditions at the same Exhaust Velocity as our reactor here (or, more likely given the lower operating temperature, even MORE Thrust at a *lower* Exhaust Velocity) for a reactor that would have weighed less than 100 kg if it were built to the same Power/mass ratios as the Timberwind 75...

Also, remember, it's going to take some *INSANE* air-hogging to get enough Intake Area to run a Thermal Turbojet that powerful at full-thrust, even at sea-level. Forget about running in at full-thrust at high-altitude...

Back to the main topic, and sorry for the tangents... Here is a comparison between our CURRENT sea-level performance (standstill, on the runway) and the CORRECT sea-level performance:

CURRENT Sea-Level Performance: 0.6656 kN/MW

CORRECT Sea-Level Performance: 7.24 kN/MW

Which means, we need to multiply the Thrust/MW of the Thermal Turbojet parts by (7.24/0.6656) = 10.8774

Also, I saw that "MaxThrust" is currently only set too 300 kN for both the 1.25 meter and 2.5 meter Thermal Turbojets in their part confisg (although that value *MIGHT* be overwritten by KSP-Interstellar, because I'm fairly sure I've seen much higher Thrust values coming from Thermal Turbojets already...) Still, it might be necessary to up-rate the part's MaxThrust value by 10.8874 times its current value as well (to 3263 kN), if that has any actual significance, to maintain the original balance...

Summary/Conclusions:

- Thermal Turbojets currently have *MUCH* too low a Thrust/MW rating compared to realistic values, and are not as competitive with current Thermal Rockets in-game as a result (their Thrust/MW is actually currently *inferior* to a Thermal Rocket- when it should be MUCH higher due to their low Exhaust Velocity).

- Thermal Turbojets were PREVIOUSLY competitive with Thermal Rockets, but the buffs of Thermal Rockets to match real-world performance specs have made them inferior. A buff is required to match real-world performance specs and make them competitive again.

- Thermal Turbojet Thrust/MW should be multiplied by 10.8774 in order to match real-world values and return competitiveness.

- Thermal Turbojet Maximum Thrust values should probably also be up-rated by a comparable amount to retain original balance.

- Thermal Turbojets have low ISP (and thus require large amounts of Intake Air for their Thrust), operate poorly at high altitudes, and can only operate up to a MAXIMUM speed of around Mach 5- so this will *NOT* make for free ascents to orbit, *ESPECIALLY* when playing with RealSolarSystem

Regards,

Northstar

Edited by Northstar1989

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LH2/LOX ISP multiplier: 0.6289 (so, an ISP 62.89% of Hydrogen with a given reactor temperature and nozzle-size)

LH2/LOX Thrust Multiplier: 3.1444 (314.44% Thrust relative to Hydrogen)

Alright, this means the trustMultiplier for 3.144* 0.6289 = 1.977 seems pretty close to Fractals original 2.2222

- - - Updated - - -

Also, there needs to be a *NEGATIVE* (less than 1) Thrust-modifier on both Water and Ammonia that *REDUCES* their EFFECTIVE ISP to 0.28 and 0.30, respectively.

Here are the appropriate Thrust modifiers to attain that:

Water: 0.900

Ammonia: 0.875

Ok I think I will add thrustMultiplier setting to EnginePropellants. This way we no longer needs a LFO modifier because it can be configured for every propellant (or mix). Could you also investigate other propellants have thrustMultiplier different form 1.

Also, arent' you mixing up Ammonia with Methane?

[TABLE=class: prettytable floatleft]

[TR]

[TH=colspan: 2]Solid Core NTR 3200° K[/TH]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH=colspan: 2][/TH]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (H2)[/TH]

[TD]8,093 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (CH4)[/TH]

[TD]6,318 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (NH3)[/TH]

[TD]5,101 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (H2O)[/TH]

[TD]4,042 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (CO2)[/TH]

[TD]3,306 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[TR]

[TH]Exhaust velocity (CO or N2)[/TH]

[TD]2,649 m/s[/TD]

[/TR]

[/TABLE]

Ammonia is nice because it breaks down into gases (Hydrogen and Nitrogen). Methane is nasty because it breaks down into Hydrogen and Carbon, the latter tends to clog the reactor with soot deposits. Water is most unhelpful since it doesn't break down much at all.

Edited by FreeThinker

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Behold the power of Atom!

A single 1.25 Partle Reactor lauches a rocket 47 ton with and 2 external LFO (Liquid Fuel + Oxidiser) tanks

P0Yaztj.jpg

Lauches in LFO mode generating 510 kN

v5mpKQQ.jpg

Nearly in orbit it drops it 2 LFO it used to get in space. Now we have 3 full 2.5 Liquid Hydrogen Tanks left to travel anywhere we want!

Notice that I do no longer use the LFO multiplier, every propellant thrust can now modified with the thrustMultiplier (default to 1)

I'm starting wonder why aren't we using Nuclear Engines when they are clearly so powerful. Is it just the fear of the capital N or something else?

Edited by FreeThinker

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Also, arent' you mixing up Ammonia with Methane?

Nope. Look at the Exhaust Velocity of Ammonia in that table. It's much lower than Methane, despite having a nearly-identical Molecular MAss

More thoughts to come later.

Regards,

Northstar

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KSP Interstellar Extended is a plugin for Kerbal Space Program, designed to encourage bootstrapping toward ever more advanced levels of technology as well as utilizing In-Situ resources to expand the reach of Kerbal civilization. KSP Interstellar Extended aims to continue in Fractals original KSPI vision in providing a realistic road to the stars. Players will first gain access to contemporary technologies that have not been widely applied to real space programs such as nuclear reactors, electrical generators and thermal rockets. By continuing down the CTT tech tree and performing more research, these parts can be upgraded and later surpassed by novel new technologies such as fusion and even antimatter power. We attempt to portray both the tremendous power of these technologies as well as their drawbacks, including the tremendous difficulty of obtaining resources like antimatter and the difficulties associated with storing it safely. The goal being to reward players who develop advanced infrastructure on other planets with new, novel and powerful technologies capable of helping Kerbals explore planets in new and exciting ways. The principal goal of KSP Interstellar is to expand Kerbal Space Program with interesting technologies and to provide a logical and compelling technological progression beginning with technologies that could have been available in the 1970s/1980s, then technologies that could be available within the next few years, progressing to technologies that may not be available for many decades, all the way out to speculative technologies that are physically reasonably but may or may not ever be realizable in practice.

CKAN-Indexed-brightgreen.svgKSP%20AVC-Supported-brightgreen.svgctt_small.png

This mod supports the Community Tech Tree pixel.gifbtn_donateCC_LG.gif pixel.gif

AtomicRocket02Patron256.png

all licensing info can be found in second post

Current version: 1.6.8 can be Downloaded at Here

Download & Installation Instructions

  • step 1: remove any existing KSPI installation (GameData\WarpPlugin folder)
  • step 2: install TweakScale
  • step 3: download  KSPI-E and put the GameData in your KSP Folder
  • step 4: (Optional but highly recommended) install KSP Filter Extensions.

 

For those that want to build advanced MK2 Space Planes powered by KSPI-E technology, ABZB has created MK2 KSPI Extension Mod, which requires Mk2 Expansion. More KSPI-E integration mods can be found in here

Documentation

KSPI is one of the most sophisticated mods for KSP. To help you get started, you can make use of the following resources:

KSPI-E Beginers Guide

KSPI-E Wiki (dated but mostly still relevant)

Main Features KSPI Extended includes new improvements and fixes from which the following are the key features:

  • Improved realism of thrust/ISP of NTR/ Plasma Thrusters in the atmosphere.
  • Improved realism and diversity reactors
  • Improved realism and diversity Propellants
  • Improved realism and diversity Fuel Modes for Fission, Fusion and Antimatter
  • Improved realism and diversity Microwave Power transmission
  • Improved realism and performance Propulsion Engine

KSPI-E add support fo the following mods

Reactors There are now 5 nuclear engines and 5 distinct Nuclear Reactors, and 4 types of fusion reactor, each with the own characteristic behavior, excelling in a particular way (and therefore most fit for certain applications)

- NEVERA/LATERN This is the first nuclear engine available

- Molten Salt reactors Molten are the first high electric power nuclear reactor available KSPI, they excel in reliable long lifetime electric power generation using Uranium. It has an specialised customised integrated thermal electric generator which save space and mass. Another advantage is that the heat from the reactor can be transported effectively to other modules thanks to Molten Salt transport medium. (mass exp 1.42)

- Particle Bed reactors become available a bit later than Molter Salt reactor but thanks to their significantly lower mass they are the first nuclear reactor with can provide a Trust to Weight ratio higher as 1, meaning it can be used as first stage or second stage rocket engine. Although Particle reactors are ideal for providing high thrust, when used for power generation, they suffer from heat throttling, meaning the reactor will automatically produce less heat output when heat is building up. Alhough reactor uses a transferable fuel source, due to is inefficient fuel usage, it is not suitable for long term power production

- BUMBO reacors becomes avialbe with experiment nuclear propulsion. It's essentialy as big dumb NERVA on steriods. It's one of the most powerfull reactors available, but it cannot be refueled like a Pebble Bed but it does not have any safety features which prevent it from melt down.

- Gas Core reactors excel in generating high amounts electric power with and High ISP from Thermal Nozzles. Compared to the particle Bed, thanks to their high temperature, they allow electric generator to produce more power and thermal thrusters to operate at higher ISP. Their core temperature and thermal output and temperature can be improved when using thorium, but will last not as long as Uranium.

- Dusty Plasma reactors improves over Particle Bed Reactor. When they first become available, they are less powerful as particle bed reactor, but it's the first reactor capable of generating charged particles. The generated charged particles are efficiently transported on your vessel using magnetic confinements and can be used for either Very High Isp propulsion in magnetic nozzle or directly converted into energy with Direct Conversion Power Generator.

- Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) Reactor start to become a avaialble with Fusion Power. The reactor are Big and Bulky and require a fixed amount of power to operate. The Amount of power required depends on the type of fusion reaction and unlocked fusion technology. MCF r is most suitable for high efficient power production or High Isp propulsion

- Fusion reactors excel in High Isp in both thermal nozzles as magnetic nozzles.

- AIM reactors produce slight less power than Fusion but the make up for it being only half in weight of Fusion Reactors and don't require external power to start

- Antimatter reactors heavy, expensive, but incredible powerful, the only real problem is collecting significant amount of Antimatter. They produce up to 80% Charged Particles which can be used by magnetic nozzle to create a large amount thrust an high Isp [TABLE=class: grid, width: 1400]

Reactors
Reactor Family (2.5m) Reactor Cost Unlock Technology Primary Upgrade Technology Secondary Upgrade Technology Core Temp. (Kelvin)

thermal ISP (s)

Max Power (GW) thrust thermal (kN) Empty Mass (t) Max Fuel mass (t) Build In Nozzle Base Power Req (MW) Thermal Propulsion Efficiency Thermal Power Efficiency Charged Power Efficiency Heat Trans Effic Min Util. Leaks Product Fuel can be pumped Magnetic Nozzle Efficiency / ISP (s) Special Electric Power (KW) Tritium Breeding
Nuclear Candle 5,000 Nuclear Propulsion Nuclear Power Improved Nuclear Propulsion 1730 2076 2491 873.66 0.0100 0.0150 0.0225 2.33 0.15 0.05 thermal   100% 0%   10% 100% no no no 0.625m Build In Radiator 50 no
Nuclear Turbojet 10,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.400 0.600 0.900 102 / 136 / 171 6 0.03 thermal   100% n.a   n.a 0.1% no no no   50+50 no
Nuclear Ramjet 15,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.600 0.900 1.350 102 / 136 / 171 8 0.03 thermal   100% 80% (1)   80% 0.1% no no no Build In Air intake 50 no

NERVA/ LATERN / CERMENT

25,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 2123.64 2229.82 2341.31 967.742 991.64 1016.13 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 267.64 / 369.37 509.79 12 0.1 thermal   100% 80% (1)   80% 0.1% no no no Oxygen Afterburner 80+80 no
Molten Salt 50,000 Nuclear Power Nuclear Fuel Systems Improved Nuclear Power 1100.0 1555.6 2200.0 696.49s 828.26s 984.99s 0.500 0.866 1.500 147 / 174 / 206 8

2

 

none   100% 100%   95% 10% no partially no

Recycling with Lab

 

Built In ThermalGenerator yes
Pebble Bed 100,000 Improved Nuclear Power High Energy Nuclear Power   1451 / 2000 / 2800 800s / 939s 1111s

4.0 / 6.0

1020 / 1302 / 1823 6 1 none 100% 100%   80% 4% no yes no Heat Throttling   50
DUMBO 150,000 Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion   1600 / 2500

840s / 1050s

8.5 / 12 1137 1760 / 2719 12 0.37 none   100% 80% (1)   60% 0.1% yes no no     no
Nuclear Lightbulb 200,000

Improved Nuclear Propulsion

High Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Experimental Nuclear Propulsion 7890 / 9862.5 / 12328 / 1865.34 2085.51 2331.66 3.375 4.375 5.671 368.00 427.83 496.03 16 0.1 thermal   100% 40% (1) n.a. n.a. 2% no yes no   50 + 50 no
Open Cycle Gas Core 300,000 Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion   25000 /  50000 3320 /  4696 2.00 / 4.00 154.62 / 247.39 4 0.04 none 20 MW (*) 100% 30% (1)   90% 20% yes yes no Buoyancy effects   no
Dusty Plasma Bed 400,000 Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion   4100 1344s 2.00 / 4.00   9 0,065 none 40 MW (*) 60% 60% (2) 46% 80% 40% yes yes

45%

52700 - 527000

 

    yes
Open Field Magnetic Confinement (*) 600,000 Fusion Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion n.a. 3500s - 35000s 5.0 / 10.0 / 20.0   20   magnetic 500 MW n.a 100% n.a n.a. 0% yes  

80%

6,509  - 35.000

3.75m size

Variable propellants

  yes
Closed Field Magnetic Confinement 800,000 Fusion Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion 7000 / 10500 / 15750

1757s / 2152s / 2635s

4.0 / 6.0 / 9.0   12   none 400.0 / 266.6 / 177.7  60% 100% 100% 80% 0% no yes

60%

15.000 - 1.500.000

3.75m size

Fuel Recycling

  yes
Magneto Inertial Fusion 1,000,000 Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Reactions Unified Field Theory 60000 5140s 4 / 8 / 16   6   none 4MW - 40 MW 100% 30%. none 0% 0% yes yes 20% Lithium propellent  required   50%
VISTA 1.200,000 Fusion Rockets Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Reactions n.a. n.a. 114 / 228 / 456 15-75(5) 30-300(10) 60-1200(20) 12   magnetic 125-625  125-1250  125-2500  n.a. n.a. none n.a 0% yes yes

15.500 - 27.200

Kills Nearby Kerbals   no
Antimatter Initiated Microfusion 1,500,000 Exotic Fusion Reactions Antimatter Power Unified Field Theory n.a. n.a 8 / 12 / 18   6   none   n.a. n.a.   n.a 0% yes yes 13.500s - 61.000 95% Charged Particles   no
AntiMatter 3,000,000 Antimatter Power Ultra High Energy Physics Unified Field Theory 180000 8909s 46.875 / 75.0 /  120   16   none   100% 100%   80% 0% yes yes yes Total fuel Annihilation   no

(1) requires Improved Nuclear Power (2) requires Fusion Power (3) requires Fusion Rocketry (*) Not implemented

  • Reactor Family - This field describes the technology behind the reactor. The technologies used in KSPI are based closely on real life reactors or scientific theories. You can use regular Wiki/Google searches to find out more about the real life counterparts.
  • Unlock Technology/Upgrade Technologies - Reactors are high tech equipment that is not available to Kerbals right away and must be unlocked through the tech tree. Reactors also have the ability to be upgraded to provide increased capabilities when the prerequisite upgrade technologies are researched. The numbers in the Core Temp, max ISP thermal, max Power, and thermal thrust show the base values as well as the upgraded values split by a '/'. For example the Molten Salt produces .612 GW of power when it is first unlocked but after researching the technology 'Nuclear Fuel Systems' the output increases to .856 GW of power.
  • Reactor Cost - This is the cost of the reactor at the 2.5 M size, the cost of the reactor can also be greatly impacted by the cost of the fuel the reactor uses. Fuels like Uranium can actually be more expensive than the reactor itself! Due to the complex nature of reactors, smaller sized reactors can have the same cost as larger reactors, cost and performance are not necessarily related.
  • Core Temperature (Kelvin) - This is operating temperature of the reactor. Reactors with a higher core temperature typically allow for higher ISP (Specific Impulse) values than cooler reactors which can be seen by comparing the Molten Salt and Gas Core reactors. A higher temperature reactor also plays a factor in the fuel selection process since higher core temperatures allow fuels to go through a thermal decomposition process which provides more thrust for a given fuel. The power output of the Dusty Plasma and Pebble Bed reactors is dependent on the core temperature of the reactor, as the temperature increases the power output will also decrease. These reactors are also passively safe since their power output will decrease with increased core temperatures, but as a side effect they are not very good at producing electric power since all WasteHeat needs to be expelled from the vessel using radiators.
  • Max ISP thermal - This describes the reactors maximum ISP it is based directly on core temperature. As the core temperature increases through new reactor technology or fuel modes, the ISP will also increase. Fuel selection and Reactor technology also play a major role in the ISP of a propulsion system.
  • Max Power (GW) - This describes the maximum power output in terms of heat generated. The heat is used by KSPI systems to generate thrust or power. Also note that it is affected by Reactor Technology upgrades.
  • Thermal Thrust(GW) - The thermal thrust is the maximum amount of thrust a reactor can generate when combined with a thermal engine. The engines section shows the method in which it uses to generate thrust and engines with the 'Thermal' identifier use this value. Thrust has a direct correlation with Isp and Power, In general, the higher the isp, the lower the thrust.
  • Empty Mass (t) - This is the mass or weight of the reactor when no fuel is present.
  • Max Fuel mass (t) - This describes the maximum amount of fuel that can be held in the reactor in terms of weight. For Molten Salt reactors this also determines how fast the reactor will become poisoned by Anticides. Even though only a fraction of the nuclear fuel is used, it can become effectively useless due to Anticides buildup which prevent Fission from happening.
  • Base Power Req - This value describes the amount of energy required to start and maintain a fusion reaction. This only applies to fusion based reactors. More advanced fusion reactions require increased amounts of power to start and sustain the reaction. Note that the amount of required power can be higher than the amount of produced power if you don’t have sufficient electric generators (both Thermal and Direct energy converters). This is covered in more detail in the reactor fuel section. Electric Energy technology or Wasteheat processing reduces the need for thermoelectric power generators.
  • Thermal Propulsion Efficiency - The thermal efficiency determines how efficient a thermal reactor is at converting energy into thrust. Lower values here will mean the reactor will produce less thrust for its provided power (GW).
  • Thermal Power Efficiency - This value describes how efficiently a power generator uses the provided power (GW). Lower values indicate a less efficient conversion and increased WasteHeat production.
  • Heat Transfer Effectiveness - This is the efficiency of heat transfer from a reactor to other parts. Some reactors are much more efficient at transferring heat due to the type of reaction materials used. This is relevant for engines which are not required to be connected directly to the Reactor. For every part the energy has to pass through some efficiency is lost. The final efficiency penalty is simply the sum of all parts (except the first one) it passes through. An exception to this is the non-androgynous docking port, which are optimized for thermal transfer.
  • Minimum Utilization - The minimum utilization shows the lowest operating state for a reactor. If the reactor shows 10% minimum utilization then it can provide anywhere from 10% to 100% of the reactors output scaling depending on requested power.
  • Leaks Product - [Feature not yet implemented] If a reactor shows that it leaks product, then the products of the resulting nuclear cannot be recovered and is said to be leaking. You will see a decreased mass of the reactor products over time.
  • Fuel can be pumped - This explains if reactor fuel can be transferred from other parts of the ship while the reactor is operating.
  • Can use Magnetic Nozzle - This explains if the reactor is capable of producing charged particles. Charged particles are a product of some types of nuclear reactions and can be used as propellant to provide thrust when paired with a magnetic nozzle. The highly energetic charged particles can also be efficiently converted into electrical power user direct energy converter. Note that charged particles propulsion provide very high Isp and an often overlooked advantage is that the Magnetic Nozzles reduces WasteHeat and that charged particles can be transferred throughout the vessel without loss (except for 1% power cost).
  • Heat Throttling - The heat throttling of a reactor simply means that when the reactor temperature increases the power output decreases. Additional radiators can be used to offset the loss of power due to increased reactor core temperature. Thermal and Magnetic nozzles also reduce WasteHeat buildup, allowing heat throttled reactors to perform at maximum capacity.
  • Buoyancy Effects - This describes the reactors ability to provide thrust while under acceleration. The reactor buoyancy effect will decrease the power output when the reactor is subjected to G-forces.
  • Tritium Breeding - This is a process that allows the reactor to produce Tritium which is used in a fusion reactor. Tritium breeding requires a compatible reactor as well as a supply of Lithium and a tank to store the Tritium which is created from the free neutrons. Tritium is the 3rd most valuable fuel in KSPI and is one of the required fuels to power the Vista Engine. Tritium will decay into Helium 3, which is the second most valuable resource in KSPI and can be used for efficient aneutronic Fusion.

Reactor Fuel Modes This is an overview off all fuel modes and there effects on performance

Reactor Fuel Modes
Fuel Mode Type Reactors Tech Requirement Requires Science Lab Core Temp Modifier Power Multiplier Fuel Efficiency Power Requirement Multiplier Fuel Products Charged Particles Ratio Brems-strahlung Neutron Energy Ratio
Uranium Oxide Fission NERVA / JUMBO Nuclear Propulsion no 100% 1 85% n.a. EnrichedUranium DepletedUranium ** 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Hexafloride Fission Molten Salt / Gas Core Nuclear Power no 100% 1 15% n.a. UF6 DepletedFuel 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems yes 80% 0.8 80% n.a. UF6 80%DepletedFuel + 10%Plutonium 10%DepletedUranium 0 n.a 2%
MOX Plutonium Burnup ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems yes 115% 0.9% 30% n.a. 7%Plutonium+ 93%Anticides DepletedFuel 0 n.a 1%
Thorium Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Power no 138% 1.38 15% n.a. ThoriumTetraflouride Anticides 0 n.a 2%
Thorium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems yes 69% 0.69 99% n.a. ThoriumTetraflouride + Anticides 96%DepletedFuel + 2%Anticides + 2%Plutonium 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Nitride Pellet Fission Pebble Bed Nuclear Fuel Systems no 100% n.a. 5% n.a. UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 0 n.a 2%
Uranium Nitride Nanoparticle Fission Dusty Plasma High Energy Nuclear Power no 100% n.a. 97% n.a. UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 83.5% * 0.46 n.a 2%
D-T Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Fusion no 100% 1 99% 1x LqdDeteurium + LqdTritium Helium4 20% n.a 80%
D-He3 Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Fusion ** no 141% 1.04 97% 2.000x LqdDeteurium + LqdHe3 Helium4 + Hydrogen 95% 15.9% 5%
p-B11 Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Advanced Fusion no 186% 0.494 70% 3.46 Hexaborane Helium4 + Hydrogen 99.9% 63.7% 0.1%
T-T Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Advanced Fusion no 200% 0.642 95% 4x LqdTritium Helium4 20% 25% 80%
D-D Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Advanced Fusion no 211% 0.717 95% 4.472x LqdDeteurium Helium4 41.8% 25% 66%
Helium3 Catalyzed D-D Fusion Fusion MCF * Advanced Fusion yes 211% 0.693 95% 4.472x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + Tritium 49% 25% 46.2%
Tritium Catalyzed D-D Fusion Fusion MCF * Advanced Fusion yes 211% 0.610 95% 4.472x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + Helium3 29% 25% 94.5%
D-Li6 Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Exotic Fusion Reactions no 224% 1.27 60% 5.66 LqdDeteurium + Lithium Helium4 90% 82.6% 10%
p-Li6 Fusion Fusion MCF * Exotic Fusion Reactions yes 238% 0.227 60% 5 LqdHydrogen + Lithium Helium4 + Helium3 99.9% 82.6% 0.1%
He3-He3 Fusion Fusion MCF / ICF * Exotic Fusion Reactions no 265% 0.73 80% 6.3x LqdHe3 Helium4 + Hydrogen 100% 40.8% 0%
p-D Fusion ** Fusion MCF Unified Field Theory yes 283% 0.31 50% 8x LqdHydrogen + LqdDeteurium Helium3 0% 0% 0%
p-N15 Fusion ** Fusion MCF Unified Field Theory yes 300% 0.284 99% 9 LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen Helium4 + Carbon 100% 0% 0%
Microfusion Fussion-Fision Hybid AIM Exotic Fusion Reactions n.a. 100% 1 97% n.a. Deuterium & LqdHe3 UraniumNitride & AntiMatter Helium4 + Hydrogen + DepletedFuel 95% 15.9% 5%
AntiMatter AntiMatter Antimatter Antimatter Power n.a. 100% 1 22% n.a. AntiMatter none 80%   0%

 

* MCF = magnetic confinement Fusion, ICF = Inertial Confinement Fusion ** not implemented yet.

 

Type - This field describes the technology behind the engine. The technologies used in KSPI are based closely on real life engines or scientific theories. Note the distinction between Thermal and Magnetic. Thermal engines have limited Isp but benefit from thermal decomposition, giving it extra thrust and improved Isp. Magnetic engines first need to Ionize the propellant. Some engines like the Vasimr and Atilla engine use a combination of the 2 techniques.

Method- This describes the engine's power input used to generate thrust. Engines can use Thermal (GW) power from a reactor, magnetic types use charged particles, quantum vacuum uses the vacuum of space to produce thrust and Fusion uses an internal fusion reaction to produce thrust.

ISP (LqdHydrogen)- This section shows the ISP (fuel efficiency) an engine produces when using LqdHydrogen as the propellant. Different types of propellants can provide different thrust values in an engine which is covered in more detail the Propellants section. Efficiency - The efficiency of an engine is how much of the thermal power (GW) is used to produce thrust and the remainder is expunged as Waste Heat. A low efficiency engine may require additional radiators to radiate the heat into the surrounding environment. The efficiency of electric engines is highly dependant on the efficiency of the propellant used.

Variable ISP - In KSPI some engines can have a variable ISP when operating. The ISP of an engine decreases as it produces more thrust. Higher thrust values also decrease the energy conversion efficiency.

Gimbal - This describes if the engine has gimbal capability. Gimbaled engines can use thrust vectoring to control the attitude of a vessel. Note that RCS engines do not gimbal but are linked with KSP RCS system.

Functions in Atmosphere - This is another self-describing value which explains if the engine can produce thrust when in an Atmosphere. Some engines rely on the vacuum of space or other methods to produce thrust and cannot be used in an Atmospheric environment. Many of the thrusters in KSPI are affected by static pressure. Which means the engine has to overcome the pressure of the atmosphere before producing usable thrust. Static pressure can be overcome by using a higher thrust propellant or by using a smaller nozzle.

Propellant- The propellant section explains which propellants are compatible with a given engine. Note that some engines can be upgraded to allow for additional propellants than is initially unlocked.

Electric Power Need - This section explains if Electrical Power (measured in MegaJoules) is required for the engine to operate. Engines can require partial or full electric power, as well as mixed types that also use charged particles. Some engines like the RistoJet RCS, will switch to unpowered mode when insufficient power is available. These engines can therefore be used without KSPI reactors.

Special- The special column covers any extra information about an engine that does not fit into a specific category on the chart.

Thermal Thrust Bonus - This describes an engines ability to produce extra thrust depending on the propellant used. The temperature of the thermal engine also plays a factor on the thermal thrust bonus when factoring in thermal decomposition of a fuel. (More below in the Propellants section)

WasteHeat effect- This explains how much Waste Heat is generated when firing a particular engine. Engines can both consume WasteHeat as well as produce WasteHeat depending on the engine technology used.

Operating cost - This gives a general overview of the operating cost of running a engine. Electric engines are more expensive than thermal engines, since thermal engines have require less radiators. Vista Engines are very expensive to operate due to their high rate of consumption of Tritium.

 

Generators Generators are electricity production parts in the KSPI mod. Generators come in 2 different types and function differently. Generators in KSPI generate both electric charge and MegaJoules. Generators must be directly connected to a reactor to generate electricity and can only use power from one reactorGenerator at a time. Radiators are required by the Generator to expel WasteHeat and will not function without them.

 

  • Thermal Generators - These generators convert thermal power from a reactor into electrical power and waste heat. Their efficiency determines what percentage of that thermal power is converted into electricity. The rest becomes waste heat. Typical thermal generators in space use closed cycleBrayton gas turbines. For traditional molten salt-based fission reactors, this type of generator gives a maximum theoretical efficiency of 31%. Upgrading the electric generators changes them from Brayton Cycle Turbines to a KTEC Solid State Generator heat engine with no moving parts - this ups the theoretical efficiency to 60%!
  • Charged Particle Generators - This type of generator produces power directly from the use of charged particles which are created in great quantities by fusion reactors. Charged particle generators have much higher efficiencies than their thermal counterparts. These generators will produce varying amounts of power depending on the reactor and fuel modes used

 

The Thermal Generator and Charged Particle generators can both be used at the same time on reactors that produce both charged particles and thermal power. This maximizes power potential and lower your utilization and therefore minimise WasteHeat production and reactor fuel consumption.

Radiators Radiators are used in KSPI to expel excess WasteHeat from a vessel. WasteHeat is produced by reactors, generators, microwave receivers and solar panels and will build up over time. Once WasteHeat builds up in a vessel to 95% capacity than reactors, solar panels and microwave receivers will automatically power down. If WasteHeat is allowed to reach 100% then the parts may start being destroyed from too much heat. Non retractable solar panels are exempt from the WasteHeat mechanic. The Thermal Helper addon included with the KSPI installation can be used to estimate a reactor’s WasteHeat output. The values in the addon will dynamically update depending on the connected components. The Thermal helper is only accessible from the VAB/SPH.

Radiators
Name Unlocking Technology Foldable Mass Resize Scaling Factor Radiator Area Temperature Special
Inline Radiator       3     Build in Reaction Reaction Wheel
Small Flat Radiator Heat Management Systems no   2   1600 / 3500 Physicsless
Foldable Heat Radiator Heat Management Systems yes 0.8 2.25 400 / 680 1600 / 3500 Contains Folding automation technology
Large Flat Radiator Specialized Heat Management no   2   1600 / 3500 Can be used for landing stability

 

Availability KSPI parts and upgrades with CTT technodes:

  • Nuclear Power: small Molten Salt reactor
  • Large Scale Nuclear Power:
    • small and large upgraded Molten Salt reactors (upgraded)
    • small Particle reactors (0.625m, 1.25m, 1.875m) and large Particle reactors (2.5m, 3.25m)

    [*]Improved Nuclear Propulsion:

    • Thermal Rocket Nozzles (all sizes)
    • Thermal TurboJets (all sizes)

    [*]High Energy Nuclear Power:

    • Gas Core reactor and Dusty Plasma reactors and
    • Molten Salt and Particle reactors----> Mk2 Molten Salt / Particle reactors

    [*]Advanced Nuclear Propulsion:

    • Magnetic nozzles
    • Thermal TurboJets ----> hybrid thermal rockets

    [*]Fusion Power: Dusty Plasma / Gas Core Reactor --> Upgraded Dusty Plasma

    [*]Meta Materials: All Radiators: Mo Li Heat Pipe ----> Graphene Radiator

    [*]Ultra High Energy Physics: Antimatter reactor --> Upgraded Anti Matter Reactor

    [*]Exotic Reactions: Tokama Fusion Reactor -> Upgraded Tokama Fusion Reactor

     

 
Propellant Unlock Technology Chemical Thermal ISP multiplier EngineThrust Multiplier Thermal Decomposition Full Decomposition Energy Soot Effect Toxic Thermal / Electric Propellant Average Density ISRU
Liquid Hydrogen Nuclear Propulsion H2 1 1     -0.01   Both -- ++
Methane Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CH4 0.3503 - 0.78 1 - 1.6 1000K - 3200K 19.895 0.25   Both + +/-
Hydrazine Experimental Nuclear Propulsion N2H4 0.744 1.4     -0.01 yes Both ++ -
Helium Improved Nuclear Propulsion He 0.7 1     0   Electric - +
LiquidFuel Nuclear Propulsion ? 0.744 1     0 *   Both ++ --
Ammonia Efficient Nuclear Propulsion NH3 0.63 1.4     -0.01   Both + -
Hydogen - Fluorine * Exotic Nuclear Propulsion H2 + F2 0.7 2.2     0   Thermal afterburner +/- -
Hydrolox (Hydrogen + Oxygen) Improved Nuclear Propulsion H2 + 02 0.63 2     -0.01   Thermal afterburner -- +/-
Methalox (Methane + Oxygen) Improved Nuclear Propulsion CH4 + 02 0.25 - 0.55 ? 1 - 2 1000K - 3200K ? 19.895 ? 0.1   Thermal afterburner + +
LOX (Liquid Fuel + Oxidizer) Improved Nuclear Propulsion   0.417 1     0   Thermal afterburner ++ ++
Water Improved Nuclear Propulsion H2O 0.3333 - 0.4714 1.2071 2000K - 4200K 2.574 -2.5   Both ++ +
Kerosine Improved Nuclear Propulsion   0.21888 - 0.42477 1.459 1000K - 3200K 12.305 0.4   Both + ++
Liquid Carbondioxide Improved Nuclear Propulsion CO2 0.2132 - 0.4085 1.459 3200K - 7000K 12.305 -2.5 - 0.33   Both +/- +/-
Liquid CarbonMonoxide Improved Nuclear Propulsion CO 0.3273 - ? ? 4000K - 10000K 6.1525 0.5   Both +/- -
Liquid Nitrogen Improved Nuclear Propulsion N2 0.3273       -0.01   Both ++ +/-

* Not implemented

ISRU scoop: KSPI offers the ability to scoop gas directly from the atmosphere (or just above it) into resources which can be used for propulsion or ISRU refinery processes. The rate at which you can collect depends on the density and abundance of a gas. Note that you can also collect resource just above the atmosphere and that light gasses as Hydrogen and Helium gradually become more abundant the higher you get

ISRU scoop
Planet/Mun Ar CO2 N2 H20 02 NH3 CH4 He He3 H2 D Ne
Eve 1% 62% 37%                  
Kerbin 1% 0.035 78% 2% 21%   0.002 0.005   0.0005   0.018
Duna 1.7% 96%     1.3%              
Acleptus 1.5% 48% 39% 1% 10.5%              
Jool           0.2% 0.3% 9.7% 0.0137% 89.8% 0.000137%  
Laythe   0.6% 79.4% 2% 18.6%              
Sarnus       0.1%   0.012% 0.4% 3% 0.03% 96%    
Ulrum               15% 0.15%      
Neidon               13% 0.13% 85%    

ISRU Refinery: The ISRU Refinery allows you to process resources into other resources

ISRU Refinery
Process Required Resources Resource Products Tech Level (*)
Ammonia Electrolysis LqdAmmonia LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen 1
Water electrolysis Water LqdHydrogen + LqdOxygen 1
CO2 Electrolysis LqdCO LqdCO + LqdOxygen 1
Methane Pyrolysis (*) Methane LqdHydrogen + Carbon 1
Water Gas Shift Water + LqdCO LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 2
Reverse Water Gas Shift LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Water + LqdCO 2
Sabatier Process LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Methane + LqdOxygen 2
Antraquinonene Process LqdHydroden + LqdOxygen HTP (Hydrogen Peroxide) 2
Haber Proces LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen LqdAmmonia 3
Peroxide Process LqdAmmonia + HTP Hydraine + LqdOxygen 3

(*) not implmentented yet 7a4f9yb.jpg

Interstella Fuel Tanks
Title Technology Volume (Liter) Bonus Mass (mT) Boiloff Exposure Power Req (kW) Breaking Force Special
IFT X48 High Performance Fuel Systems 48000 15% 6 28000 70 250  
IFT X24 High Performance Fuel Systems 24000 12% 3 16000 45 250  
IFT X16 Advanced Fuel Systems 16000 8% 2 14000 35 200  
IFT X12 High Performance Fuel Systems 12000   1.5 10000 25 200 NoseCone
IFT X8 Advanced Fuel Systems 8000 5% 1 8000 20 200  
IFT X10 Large Volume Containment 11000   0.8 8000 20 50 Radial
IFT X2 High Performance Fuel Systems 2000   0.25 2000 5 190  

space

 

RCS: 2dluoh5.jpgv5dfd0.jpg From left to right: Corner ResistoJet RCS, 5 way ResistoJet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS (Curved), Linear Arjcet RCS, Arcjet RCS Tank

Engines:

Interstellar offers 11 different type of engines, each with their own advantages and disadvantages.

Thermal Nozzle is the first engine available. They directly use the thermal heat generated by the reactor to heat-up propellant. The Advantage is that this is very efficient, as minimum amount of power is lost, and many propellants can be used. The disadvantage is that Isp, which is lower than other form of propulsion, it dependent and the core temperature of the reactor and used propellant. On the plus side many propellants can be used and thermal nozzles benefits for the energy released by decomposition when propellant are subjected to high temperature. This means propellant like Ammonia and Hydrazine give a significant bonus to thrust and Isp. Although it offers you you to use many resources as an propellant, it might be wise to avoid propellant that contain carbon, as they tend to to produce clog the heat eachanges with soot, which lowers your maximum thrust and causing overheating. For optimal efficiency, connect a thermal nozzle directly to an reactor, but if desired you can put other parts between the thermal nozzle and reactor at the cost of lower efficiency.

Thermal Turbojet becomes available at the same time as thermal nozzle. Their advantage is that they allow high amount of propulsion, without any propellant, that is they use the air as an propellant. This means you can save a lot of mass on propellant. The downside is that it only function inside an atmosphere, on the plus side, this includes any atmosphere, even those without any oxygen. Do note that in order to travel fast though the atmosphere, you need precoolers to cool the compressed air to a temperature that prevent the turbojet from overheating.

Arcjet are the first electric engines offered by Interstellar. Instead of thermal heat, they use electric power to heat a propellant to high temperature. The advantage is that you can use any non oxidizing propellants and enjoy the same decomposition propulsion bonus. One of the big disadvantage is that electric propulsion is less efficient as a lot of power is lost by converting the power into electric power and then convert into heat again. This is compensated by its ability control it's trust at the cost of Isp and the ability to use multiple reactors to power the same set of engines. Arjcets can be connected any where on you vessel, just make sure it is fed with desired propellant, and the reactor has access to radiator to lose its waste heat. [TABLE=class: grid, width: 1600]

Engines
Type Technology Method ISP (LqdHydrogen) Efficiency Variable ISP Gimbal manouverability Functions in Atmosphere Functions in Vacuum Propellant Electric Power Need Jet Engine Special Thermal Thrust Bonus Wasteheat effect   Operating Cost
Nuclear Turbojet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no very high full no Atmospheric Air none Turbojet build in precooler & build in reactor no Consumes   very low
Nuclear Ramjet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no high full no Atmospheric Air none Ramjet build in precooler and air intake no Consumes   very low
Thermal Launch Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 813s- 8000s 100% no high partial yes any NTR propellant + Oxygen as afterburner none   Can overheat when clogged full Consumes   low
Thermal Ramjet Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 813s- 8000s 100% no average partial yes and includes ramjet mode  

 

none

Ramjet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes  

 

low

Thermal Turbojet Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 813s- 8000s 100% no high partial with propellant thermal, full in jet mode yes Atmospheric Air or NTR propellant none Turbojet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes   very low
5 way Resistojet RCS Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 544s (heated) 80% partial RCS partial yes Any propellant partial   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High   low
VTOL Resistojet (*) Ion Propulsion Thermal 1000s 80% no high yes yes Any propellant yes   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full Low   average
Linear Arcjet RCS Advanced Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 2000s (heated) 52% no RCS partial yes Any propellant partial   Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High   average
ATILA Advanced Ion Propulsion Magnetic/ Thermal 2854s - 5704s (*) 50-80% yes average partial yes Any propellant yes   Cannot use oxidizing propellants partial Average   average
MPD Plasma Propulsion Magnetic 11213s ionisation efficency no average partial yes Any propellant yes   Efficency depend on propellant no Average   average
VASMIR Advanced Electromagnetic Systems Magnetic / Thermal 2956s - 29,969s 30-60% yes low partial yes Any gas/ liquid propellant yes   Efficency depend on Isp partial High   average
Quantum Vacuum Thruster Specialized Plasma Generation Quantum Vacuum not applicable 10% no low yes yes vacuum plasma from nothing yes   reactionless propulsion no Very High   high
Magnetic Nozzle Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Charged Particles/ Magnetic 12.000 - 1.200.000 100% yes none no yes LqdHydrogen + Charged Particles low, 1% charged power   Requires charged particles no Consumes   average
VISTA Fusion Rocketry Fusion 15.500 - 27.200 > 10000% limited low no yes LqdHydrogen + LqdDeuterium + LqdTritium up to 2.5 GW   Deadly radiation and Safety Features n.a. Extreme   very high
DEADLUS ICFE drive (*) Advanced Fusion Fusion 1.000.000 > 10000% none none no yes LqdDeuterium + LqdHelium3 up to 5 GW   Aneutronic n.a.  high    extreme

(*) not yet implemented

Note that do not consider myself the person that have to determine the future of KSPI, it's just that nobody else seems to want to do it. I would be more than happy to share that responsibility. Anyone that actively want to develop KSPI is free to do it. It would appreciate it as it would allow me to focus more on advanced features I have ideas about. Also notice I haven't had the time yet to play a serious KSP 1.0 campaign yet. But now my hands are full just making KSPI-E functional again. I think KSPI could develop into something much better. The simply truth is, KSPI is too big for a single developer. I don't have the time nor the skills to implement everything that it deserves. I'm especially frustrated about the lack of artist support. Many of KSPI models and effects look dated and ugly compared to more resent mods. There have been some artist and programmers offering their help but they often go AWOL after a short time. I'm not sure If I can keep it up myself indefinably. I would prefer to create a team of developers that works on KSPI together. I guess that's the only way to ensure KSPI Future

Edited by FreeThinker

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Reactor Family (2.5m) Reactor Cost Unlock Technology Primary Upgrade Technology Secondary Upgrade Technology Third Upgrade Technology Core Temp. (Kelvin)

thermal ISP (s)

Max Power (GW) thrust thermal (kN) Empty Mass (t) Max Fuel mass (t) Build In Nozzle Base Power Req (MW) Thermal Propulsion Efficiency Thermal Power Efficiency Charged Power Efficiency Heat Trans Effic Min Util. Leaks Product Fuel transfer and Efficency Magnetic Nozzle Efficiency / ISP (s) Special Electric Power (KW) Tritium Breeding

Reactors

Nuclear Candle 5,000 Nuclear Propulsion Nuclear Power Improved Nuclear Propulsion   1730 2076 2491 873.66 0.0100 0.0150 0.0225 2.33 0.15 t 0.05 thermal   100% 0%   10% 100% no no no 0.625m Build In Radiator 50 no
Nuclear Turbojet 10,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion   1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.400 0.600 0.900 102 / 136 / 171 6 t 0.03 thermal   100% n.a   n.a 0.1% no no no   50+50 no
Nuclear Ramjet 15,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion   1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.600 0.900 1.350 102 / 136 / 171 8 t 0.03 thermal   100% 80% (1)   80% 0.1% no no no Build In Air intake 50 no

Sollid Core

25,000 Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Experimental Nuclear Propulsion 2000 / 2240 / 2508.8 / 2809.9 / 3147 982.19 1075.93 1178.62 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 / 4.5  / 6.75 267.64 / 369.37 509.79 12 t 0.1 thermal   100% 80% (1)   80% 0.1% no no no

requires 10 sec for full Throtle

80+80 no
Molten Salt 100,000 Nuclear Power Nuclear Fuel Systems Improved Nuclear Power   1100.0 1555.6 2200.0 696.49s 828.26s 984.99s 0.500 0.866 1.500 147 / 174 / 206  8 t

6t molten salt

 

none   100% 100%   95% 10% no no no

Recycling with Lab

 

Built In ThermalGenerator yes
Pebble Bed 150,000 Improved Nuclear Power High Energy Nuclear Power Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 1451 / 2000 / 2800 800s / 939s 1111s

1.77 / 2.66 / 4 / 6

1020 / 1302 / 1823 8 t 1t pebbles none 100% 100%   80% 4% no yes pumped no Heat Throttling 50
Nuclear Lightbulb 250,000

Efficient Nuclear Propulsion

Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion   7890 / 12562 / 20000 / 1865s / 2354s / 2970s 2.3 /  3.45 / 5.175 368.00 427.83 496.03 16 t 0.1t U235 thermal   100% 40% (1) n.a. n.a. 2% no pumped no Limited to non oxidizing propellants 50 + 50 no
Open Cycle Gas Core 300,000 Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion     25124 /  50247 3328s /  4707s 3 / 4.5 154.62 / 247.39 9 t 0.04 U none   100% 40% (1)   90% 20% yes 1-100% depending on gravity no Buoyancy effects   no
Dusty Plasma Bed 400,000 Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion     4100 1344s 2.00 / 3.00   12 t 0,065 none   60% 60% (2) 46% 80% 40% yes pumped

45%

52700 - 527000

 

    yes
Closed Field Magnetic Confinement 800,000 Fusion Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 2500

1050

2.66 / 4 / 6 / 9 / 13.5   18 t 3t Li none Q10 / Q20 / Q40 / Q80 / Q120 n.a. 100% 100% 80% 0% no pumped 100%

60%

15.000 - 1.500.000

3.75m size

Fuel Recycling

  yes
Magneto Inertial Confinement Rocket 500,000 Fusion Rocketry Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 180.000 K 3770s / 5200s  / 6500s 1.33 / 2.0 / 3.0 / 4.5 / 6.75   6 t   thermal  Q150 / Q200 / Q266 / 100% lithium only none . none 0% 0% yes

pumped

30% / 40% /53%

20% propellant  limited to Lithium or Aluminum   50%
Tokamak 800,000 Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory Ultra High Energy Physics 315.000 K Li: 6800s H2: 11800s 4 / 6 / 9 / 13.5    24 t 3t Li thermal  Q20 / Q40 / Q80 / Q120

Li: 100%     H2: %CP

100% 100% n.a. 0% yes pumped  100%

80%

3.75m

  yes
Crossfire Fusion Reactor   Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory   2500 1050s 1 / 1.5 / 2.0         100 / 150 / 200                 Use build in direct conversion  
VISTA 1.200,000 Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory Ultra High Energy Physics   n.a. n.a. 28.125 / 112.5 / 450 15-75(5) 30-300(10) 60-1200(20) 12 t   magnetic Q45.6 /  Q91.2 / Q182.4 n.a. none . none n.a 0% yes pumped

15.500 - 27.200

Kills Nearby Kerbals   no
DAEDALUS ICFE drive 1.500.000 Exotic Fusion Reactions Unified Field Theory Ultra High Energy Physics   n.a. n.a 200 / 300 / 450                                
Antimatter Initiated Microfusion 2.000,000 Antimatter Power Antimatter Power Unified Field Theory   n.a. n.a 8 / 12 / 18   6 t   none   n.a. n.a.   n.a 0% yes pumped 13.500s - 61.000 95% Charged Particles   no
AntiMatter 3,000,000 Antimatter Power Ultra High Energy Physics Unified Field Theory   100000K  150000K  220000K 6641s / 8133s / 9850s 20 / 30 / 45   16 t   none   100% 100%   80% 0% yes pumped yes Total fuel Annihilation   no
         

 

Edited by FreeThinker

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