Jump to content


  • Content Count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

Posts posted by ProtoJeb21

  1. Progress report:

    • The textures for Karkinos, Onoi, Aine, and Enyalius are done
    • Nephelion might be completely re-worked; the other gas giant textures and Scatterer are finalized
    • The rocky/oceanic planets all have working realisitic atmospheres; Aine might need to be revamped a bit due to issues with its water content
    • Flight view surfaces of Karkinos and Onoi need work
    • Flight view surfaces of Aine and Enyalius are just about done
    • All of the gas planets except for Kai need new realistic atmospheres
    • WIP rings for Atlantiades



  2. I finally have nicknames for the C18-5 planets. Since the system is within the constellation Cancer, the planets have been named after names given to the constellation by the Greek astronomer/mathematician Eratosthenes.

    Karkinos (C18-5b)


    Onoi (C18-5c)


    Kai (C18-5d)



    Onoi/C18-5c has gone through like four different textures so far. I can never get something that I'm truly satisfied with. While I am mostly happy with the surface texture, this iteration of clouds didn't come out that great. I'm giving the planet a thick atmosphere, a mix of volcanic outgassing and its primordial envelope, mainly comprised of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, with small amounts of other volcanic gases (CO, CH4, SO2) and traces of hydrogen and helium. For a planet of this temperature (Teq=885 K for 0.3 albedo), the available cloud-forming molecules include sulfides and chlorides.

    Kai/C18-5d will probably get a texture revamp. I used to think that more methane in an atmosphere would lead to a purple hue, but in reality, it'll just be deeper and deeper blue, so I'll probably change it to an indigo color. It too is hot enough for sulfide/chloride clouds; right now it has faint bands and a mostly uniform purple color.

    Karkinos/C18-5b is basically done. I just need to get the surface working properly, because for some reason, the surfaces of the planets I make love to break in flight mode. However, the overall texture and the atmosphere are both finalized. Karkinos has an equilibrium temperature in the range of 1150-1200 Kelvin, and a substellar point temperature potentially as high as 1500-1600 Kelvin.

  3. This is a planet pack that will include systems that I have found, helped find, or studied from NASA's K2 and TESS missions. The current name is probably going to be replaced with something better; I didn't really know what else to call it as of now. Also, this is NOT AN APRIL FOOL'S PRANK despite the date.



    I've been finding/studying transiting exoplanets using data from the K2 and TESS missions for the last several years now. Both missions looked at thousands upon thousands of stars at a time to search for tiny, periodic dips in starlight caused by orbiting planets passing between their star and our line of sight. The data is publicly available on MAST (Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes), and I used the program package LcTools to analyze it and search for transiting planet candidates. Me and several other citizen scientists found quite a lot in K2 data on the Zoonivese project Exoplanet Explorers back in 2017-18, and I've been studying TESS data since late 2018. I helped with the discovery of TOI-700d, the first small habitable zone planet from TESS, and TOI-451, a 3-planet system in the 125 million year old Pisces-Eridanus stream. Over the last two months, I've gone back through K2 Campaigns 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 to record all possible planet candidates and refine their parameters to the best of my ability.



    This pack will include many of the systems I have found and studied (but not all of them, because single planet systems with a hot sub-Neptune aren't very interesting). All systems will be scaled-down to KSP scale (1/10th the radius, 1/100th the mass, 1/10th the orbital distance) and will be three orders of magnitude closer to the Kerbol system than they are in real life. Most of the systems from my K2 surveys are hundreds of parsecs away; even 1/100th scale would be too far. With the exception of some TESS planets, the masses and compositions will be hypothetical, but are calculated to be as realistic as possible given what is known about these worlds. Most of these planets are unconfirmed, and it's possible that some might be determined to be false positives in later analysis. If that happens, I will still keep the planets in the mod, but it will be in the flavor text that the planet is a false positive.

    For the first updates, I will only be adding and working on systems from my K2 surveys. TESS systems and other Exoplanet Explorers systems will come later. There will also be hypothetical moons added to many planets to make the systems more interesting and rewarding to explore.


    CELESTIAL BODIES (upcoming v0.1)

    • EPIC 212505650/C17-2: A small red dwarf about a quarter the size of the Sun, but unusually cool at just over 2900 K. It has a single Super-Earth candidate. Nicknamed Egobail.
      • C17-2b/Aine: 1.986 R_Earth, 10.544 days, 1.24 flux. In the inner HZ and is rendered as a green ocean world with small islands in-game. Dangerously close to the runaway water vapor greenhouse limit.


    • EPIC 247094147/C13-7: An M2.5V dwarf about a third the size of the Sun. Nicknamed Pandora. Planets coming later.


    • EPIC 211506851/C18-5. A Sun-like star about 92% the radius and 93% the mass of the Sun, and is 69% as luminous. No nickname yet. The three planets are in a 6:3:2 resonance chain.
      • C18-5b/Karkinos: 1.382 R_Earth, 3.386 days, 1120 K (Teq). A scorched Super-Earth with a thin atmosphere and a molten day side.
      • C18-5c/Onoi: 1.565 R_Earth, 6.855 days, 885 K (Teq). A hot volcanic Super-Earth close to the lower boundary of the Fulton Gap
      • C18-5d/Kai: 3.096 R_Earth, 10.534 days, 767 K (Teq). A Hot Neptune. Made more massive in-game to help with gravity capture in the system.


    • EPIC 211939692/C18-16: A large F-class star 30% bigger than the Sun and 3.25x brighter. It has five planets, three of which are long-period candidates with a single transit event. Nicknamed Silenus.
      • C18-16b/Achlus: 2.632 R_Earth, 26.85 days, 796 K (Teq). A hot sub-Neptune.
      • C18-16c/Nephelion: 2.912 R_Earth, 39.55 days, 700 K (Teq). A hot sub-Neptune.
      • C18-16d/Atlantiades: 4.357 R_Earth, ~229.07 days, ~390 K (Teq). A single transit Warm Neptune near Venus' orbit in our Solar System.
      • C18-16e/Despoina: 3.636 R_Earth, ~365.95 days, ~333 K (Teq). A single transit Warm Neptune near Earth's orbit in our Solar System
      • C18-16f/Enyalius: 2.351 R_Earth, ~839.2 days, ~253 K (Teq). A temperate single transit sub-Neptune near where Mars orbits, and is within the HZ - if it exists


    • EPIC 251329823/C16-35: A high-end orange dwarf with two extremely hot and close-in Earth-sized planets, as well as a more distant single transit candidate. Nicknamed Algeos.
      • C16-35b/Ponos: 1.064 R_Earth, 0.889 days, 1542 K (Teq). USP planet with a day size hot enough to melt iron and titanium.
      • C16-35c/Achos: 1.173 R_Earth, 1.586 days, 1272 K (Teq). Scorched rocky planet, unusually close to an USP planet.
      • C16-35d/Ania: 2.811 R_Earth, ~70.262 days, ~359 K (Teq). Single transit warm Sub-Neptune. Orbit could be much longer.


    • EPIC 248657359/C14-26: A K2V orange dwarf with a massive single transit event from a long-period Jupiter-like planet. Nicknamed Alaunus
      • C14-26b/Taranus: 10.549 R_Earth, ~705.53 days, ~155 K (Teq). Single transit Jupiter-like planet candidate. Envisioned as a dense Super-Jovian in-game. Will have a lot of moons to explore.











    Initial Release v0.1:

    • The C17-2, C18-5, C18-16, and C14-26 systems with their known planets
    • The C16-35 system (tentatively)
    • Several other stars, no planets yet
    • EVE and Scatterer compatibility 

    v0.1.1 and v0.1.2

    • Moons for Atlantiades, Despoina, and Enyalius
    • A system of 9 moons around Taranus
    • Additional star lighting improvements, if needed
    • Finalized C16-35 planets

    Near future updates:

    • The three planets of C13-7
    • The two-planet system C17-4AB
    • The three-planet system C15-8
    • Moons in the C16-35 system



    The latest stable version of Kopernicus

    Environmental Visual Enhancements - Planetary clouds

    Scatterer - Atmosphere and ocean scattering






    Thanks to:

    • @prestja and @R-T-B for maintaining the current versions of Kopernicus
    • @blackrack for EVE-Redux and Scatterer
    • @OhioBob for his fantastic and incredibly helpful realistic atmospheres calculator
    • @OhioBob, @WarriorSabe, and @JadeOfMaar for help with realistic atmospheres, planet surface/atmo ideas and their feasibility, and more
  4. 2 hours ago, StarCrusher96 said:

    Do you got suggestions for other parameters? I'm interested in what's happening up there :)

    Liolan (Tau Ceti f) really needs to be puffed up. There's no need to alter any of the other planets; I really like the variety of compositions for the <2 Earth mass planets. Maybe there could be some more Super-Earths, Mega-Earths, and Mini-Neptunes in the 1.5-2.5 Earth radius range for future systems for variety? They would be a lot more difficult to land on or take off from, but if they're far enough from the star, there's opportunity for a lot of big moons.

    Although if I ever publish a planet pack with a bunch of systems from my K2 Campaigns 13-18 survey, there'll be no shortage of 1.5-2.5 Re planets lol. At least 60% of the planets from just Campaigns 16, 17, and 18 are in that size range, and while I haven't finished refining parameters for the other three Campaigns' candidates, the percentage of 1.5-2.5 Re planets appears to be a little higher. There are even a couple of planets that are decent candidates for being Mega-Earths.

  5. Here are a bunch of the GU objects above 0.85x Earth radius on the exoplanet mass-radius relationship diagram. Smaller planets won't fit, and I didn't include the TRAPPIST analogue planets because their real-life counterparts have already been plotted on such diagrams. Also, the 0.9-1.1x Earth radius section is way too crowded. All planets were converted up to IRL scale (10x the radius and 100x the mass).


    Teeb, Tide, Infurus, Atlas, Phobor, and Liolan are all >50% iron by mass and are technically iron planets. Teec, Blalo, Narath, Kaith, Eolus, Sicar, and Aquel have a relatively Earth-like mix of silicates and iron.

  6. Are you planning to add analogues of the other potential planets around your Tau Ceti interpretation?  While only 4 are confirmed so far, a couple of recent studies have brought up the possibility of a Jupiter analogue, another planet in the HZ, and the original three inner candidates actually being real.

    A 2018/19 study using Gaia astrometric data (Kervella et al) noticed a shift of around 11.3 m/s, which could be from a Jovian-mass planet (1-2 Mj) in an orbit anywhere from 3 AU to 20 AU from the star. Unfortunately, that's as much constraint as they were able to obtain, which isn't much. Since the debris disk is roughly between 6.2 AU and 52 AU (with a high amount of uncertainty), I would have to guess that either this "Tau Ceti i" orbits around 3-6 AU and closer than the inner limit of the disk, or it orbits further out and has carved a so-far unseen gap. 

    A more recent study, Dietrich and Apai 2020, used the DYNAMITE algorithm to explore the architecture of the Tau Ceti system. DYNAMITE takes into account exoplanet population statistics and information of the target system to predict the orbits of additional planets, and has been used successfully on a few dozen TESS systems by the same authors of this paper. When taking into account the orbits of Tau Ceti g, h, e, and f, DYNAMITE predicts three additional planets, which correlate with the Tau Ceti b, c, and d signals from Tuomi et al 2013. While Feng et al 2017 could not confirm those signals and found a multitude of problems with them, this study provides statistical support that they could exist. Additionally, DYNAMITE predicted PxP-4, the planet you based Aquel on (which I originally thought was a best-case-scenario version of Tau Ceti e until scrolling up a bit).

    Another thing worth noting is the potential compositions of the Tau Ceti planets. D&A20 mentioned that planets at the orbits of Tau Ceti b, g, and c receive enough radiation that their original hydrogen atmospheres were likely eroded away billions of years ago. However, starting at Tau Ceti h, the insolation from the host star isn't quite enough to have destroyed these original H/He envelopes, so it's a coin toss as to whether or not they're rocky, especially with their true masses likely being in the range of 4-7 Me. I would like to point out that Tau Ceti is quite a metal-poor star, and similarly metal-poor stars appear more likely to host large rocky planets (exceeding 1.6 Re or 6 Me). A couple examples include LHS 1140 and HD 48611 (TOI-214). The theory is that the protoplanets around metal-poor stars take longer to form, so by the time they get large enough to accumulate thick H/He layers, the hydrogen gas in the inner part of the disk has been blown away.


    Also, your Tau Ceti f analogue is ridiculously dense. Like, it's compatible with a composition of 75-80% iron. Is it going to be made "puffier" in the update? A gaseous Sub-Neptune of 6.7 Earth masses should be around 2.35 Re (scaled down to 1,497.185 km for KSP scale).

  7. The latest version works perfectly fine with 1.11.2 for me.  My planet pack I was developing in August (I believe KSP was in v1.10) loaded up correctly, I was able to make a new star system without any issues besides me messing up file paths, and even the enormous Galaxies Unbound mod worked.  Every object and custom orbit icon loaded, and the custom ground scatter worked too. I haven't tried to see if Kittopia still works with 1.11/1.11.2, though.

  8. @R-T-B The planet pack I'm developing ran into an error with 1.10-1. I got a message once the game loaded that "Kopernicus was not able to load the custom planetary system due to an exception in the loading process". Here are all of the recommended log files: https://www.dropbox.com/s/pqau27lp7cfzx6v/Logs-Kopernicus.zip?dl=0

    I love how Kopernicus now automatically creates a zip file with a copy of the KSP log file, the planet log files, and ModuleManager.ConfigCache. This is going to make bug reporting far easier.

    NOTE: all 8 of the terrestrial planets currently lack a color and normal map, and are currently only using a flat height map. This is just the first test to make sure they load in properly. A proper height map will be given to each later on, and I will build the color and normal maps via KittopiaTech (assuming it will work).

  9. As I should've anticipated from the name of the patch, Kopernicus 1.9.1-9 does not work in KSP 1.10.1 (although the Nyan Cat loading screen does). And I had just spent the last hour or so prepping the configs for a system of nine planets I'm working on.

  10. 19 minutes ago, Mythical Donuts said:

    While Kittopia's only officially up to 1.8.1, it works on 1.9.1, not too sure about 1.10.1 (I know there's a few errors with kop and that version). PQSMods have had a few changes, but I'm not sure of the extent your knowledge of them goes. If you were just using VertexHeightMap, VertexColorMap, VoronoiCraters, HeightColorMap, VertexHeightNoise and VertexSimplexHeight/Absolute, then you should be fine. Also, the time warp altitude thing hasn't been removed, just it defaults to 0 for all values. I'm a fan of your older mods, and I'm excited to see where you go if you decide to make more.


    Oh, and using SE textures is regarded as being very low effort and lazy, plus they tend to not look very good considering the artstyle and scaling differences. I'd recommend just keeping at it for making textures, the only way to get better is to try. Or, you can circumvent it entirely by only using PQSMods to make planets, without height or color maps. Another option is that you can use the Tangram height mapper to splice and stick together sections of Earth's height map to make your own.

    My main method of creating planet textures — well, the main method from when I was actually making Kopernicus planet packs — was to customize a planet in SE, export its height map, and use that as a base to create a better height map using a variety of PQS mods (vertexsimplexheight, vertexsimplexheightabsolute, vertexheightnoise, vonoroicraters) and a color map via vertexheightcolor. The reason for an SE height map as a base is because it can include some smaller details and ideal continent/ocean shapes that are difficult to replicate with PQSMods. For example, often I want only a few areas of some mountains, but PQSMods will generate mountains and hills all over the surface and not in specific areas. Custom SE height maps give me the specific terrain details, and PQSMods help refine it. 

    I only mentioned using pure SE textures as a last resort option. They might look cool from a distance, but most surface details scale terribly from SE to KSP (hence why I try to refine the height maps I get and make sure they’re the maximum resolution possible). And trust me, I know plenty well how poorly SE textures are received in the Kopernicus community. 

  11. So, just for clarification, since I've been absent from the Kopernicus community for ages:

    • Has the time warp altitude limit feature been removed now that there are no longer altitude limits for the stock bodies (except for the minimum time warp altitude)?
    • Is KittopiaTech permanently not working? Will there ever be a feature to generate and update textures/height maps like it?
    • Have PQSMods remained the same since 2018/19?

    I'm under the assumption that the latest patch(es) work for KSP 1.10.1, but since I'm hoping to develop a new planet pack in the coming weeks (I'm almost finished calculating the physical, orbital, and atmospheric parameters of all objects I currently plan to add), I'm mainly concerned about whether or not Kittopia can ever be used. I suck with custom terrestrial planet textures, and I can't even fall back on Space Engine textures for two reasons: I'd need to spend $60 on SE Pro for the texture export feature, and the latest update broke the game for me and now 99% of all objects won't load due to an issue with shaders.

  12. Today I rode out my second tropical storm of the year so far, Isaias. I live in CT and don’t often get tropical cyclones, but the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season has seen record levels of activity prior to August 1st, and many of these storms have impacted land. TS Fay formed off of the VA coast and tracked into the tri-state area in mid July. It weakened rapidly after making landfall in NJ and only brought mild rain and moderately gusty winds. 

    Isaias turned out to be a far more significant storm. Heavy rainfall started in the late morning, with winds maxing out from 1-4pm. I couldn’t measure them directly but I wouldn’t be surprised if gusts were confirmed to have consistently hit 50-60 mph. I lost power for about 10-15 minutes, and then it was on and off for an hour or so. Unlike Fay, there was moderate wind damage, with a couple of large branches falling in my neighborhood and debris from trees being scattered everywhere. At least 40% of my town lost power. No fatalities in the state, as far as I know. 

    It’s cleared up now but some occasional gusty winds are still present. Somehow, my crippled tomato plant survived. A thunderstorm caused the stems to crack in early July, and it survived both Fay and Isaias without taking additional damage. I was sure that half of it was going to get torn off. Now I’m just hoping we don’t get yet another tropical cyclone this year in the Northeast, but since it’s 2020 and this season is expected to continue being extremely active, we probably are going to get something else eventually. 

  13. Some positive news from the United States. After the massive spike in new cases per day starting in early-mid June, it’s started to level off over the last two weeks, with a mean of ~65k cases/day. Yes, that’s really high, but the increasing trend appears to have stopped. It took a nosedive to only 47k new cases yesterday, the lowest daily total in weeks. The Big Four of this second wave — Arizona, California, Florida, and Texas — have either leveled off or have shown a slight decrease in new cases per day, signaling that their exponential COVID growth has ended. The Northeast states have remained stable throughout all of this (Connecticut has kept a daily positivity rate of 0.5-1.2% since June), and some other states are showing signs of slowing down; these include Oregon, Idaho, Arkansas, Ohio, Alabama, and more. 

  14. We’ve got some trouble on the horizon for the May 27th launch date: several models try to quickly spin up a weak tropical cyclone around Florida between Wednesday and Friday, and the European model is forecasting a lot of rain for Florida duding that time frame. The Euro, GFS, and CMC are also on the fence about maybe another tropical cyclone forming more in the open Atlantic at the end of May/start of June, which I heard could impact booster recovery, depending on if the launch is delayed. 

  15. 4 hours ago, tater said:

    This was great to see:


    India and Bangladesh were thankfully spared from the Cat 4+ landfall some models were showing (mid-level shear disrupted the storm during an eyewall replacement cycle and prevented it from ever recovering), but the biggest issue was not the maximum wind speeds, but rather the storm surge. Amphan had a very large wind field prior to landfall, which had expanded due to the EWRC, and this area is always extremely vulnerable to surge because of the V-shape of the BOB and how low-lying it is. You don’t need an ultra-powerful storm for destructive surge; just look at Ike (Cat 2 landfall) and Sandy (Cat 1, technically post-tropical at landfall).

    I don’t know how things have folded out near Amphan’s landfall, but it’s not going to be good regardless. 

  16. 2 hours ago, Scotius said:

    Astronomers are a bit sceptical it will live up to (our) expectations. I too am worried it started the show prematurely, and will fizzle out soon. Hopefully, there is big, rich in volatiles nucleus hiding in the coma :)

    After ISON, we all have a good reason to be skeptical about the next bright comet. The media ran with the “comet of the century” stuff for almost a year before perihelion, and look what happened. Predicting comets something like ten months out won’t end well. 

  17. The rather newly discovered Comet ATLAS has been brightening faster than initially expected, and now it’s believed it could reach naked eye brightness by the end of May, possibly reaching or even exceeding the brightness of Venus. What’s more exciting is that this could FINALLY be a bright comet visible in the Northern Hemisphere, best observed in latitudes 40-60 N. There’s always a chance it could be a bust like ISON, but since we’re only two months away and not 10+, I think ATLAS has a better shot of living up to the (pretty new) hype. 

    Here’s one of the articles published in the last few days about ATLAS’s peak and how to observe it: https://astronomy.com/news/observing/2020/03/comet-atlas-may-soon-be-visible-to-the-naked-eye


    UPATED 4/7/20: Atlas has died of corona

  18. 7 hours ago, Shpaget said:

    Ok, so the Apocalypse Bingo keeps on going.

    Croatia has so far in 2020 experienced:

    A meteor
    A pandemic
    An earthquake
    Multiple fires
    And a newest entry - a dangerous dust cloud.

    A dust cloud from Karakum desert is making its way across the Europe and is currently over these parts. The rest of Europe soon to follow.


    Be glad you’re not in the eastern CONUS or the Caribbean, because signs are pointing towards potentially yet another active Atlantic hurricane season, maybe the most active since 2017. What’s worse is that early signs indicate activity might be increased closer to land, like within the Gulf of Mexico and the majority of the Caribbean. 

    2020 is gonna be a rough year for everybody...what’s next? Volcanoes? Aliens? Godzilla? 

  19. 10 hours ago, Shpaget said:

    Thunderfoot made a video that illustrates the importance of isolation and quarantine.


    This sort of thing should be shown on TV twice per day. Over here we have some local idiots (that ironically happen to be government officials) that don't abide by the rules and have parties.

    It should definitely have been shown to the idiots who held a party of 50 people in SW Connecticut and got over half the attendees infected with COVID-19. People like that are part of the reason why Fairfield County has 270 cases out of 415 in the entire state (the other reason is that we are right on the border with New York, which just surpassed 25,000 confirmed cases). 

  • Create New...