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Everything posted by ProtoJeb21

  1. K2-149 It's time for the biggest reveal of the week, just in time for Christmas Eve: a possible seventh planet around K2-149, hereafter designated K2-149h until further notice. But before I go into this new discovery, I need to present a bit of context behind it. Over the last three-ish weeks since TESS Sectors 1 and 2 data became public, I've developed an improved method for measuring the radius of transiting exoplanets in TESS and K2 data. First, I detrend the target light curve with LcViewer to a very specific level, where all stellar variability is no longer apparent and the
  2. EPIC 201299484 EPIC 201299484 and EPIC 210736056 are two very similar systems found by Vidar87 last year, with a Venus-like planet and a temperate ocean world orbiting a small (<0.3 Rs) red dwarf. However, with better TESS parameters, the two systems aren't as twin-like as they were before. EPIC 201299484 was found to be significantly larger and hotter, at 44.1% the radius and 46.6% the mass of the Sun with a temperature of 3601 K, giving it just under 3% the Sun's luminosity. This has resulted in the two planets to be larger and hotter as well, but that doesn't seem to be too muc
  3. Since the winter solstice has just arrived the other day, it's only fitting that I talk about some of the chillest planet candidates I've found. Over the next few posts, I will go over the results of my recent re-analyses on three potentially habitable red dwarf systems: EPIC 201663913, EPIC 201299484, and EPIC 210736056. I'll also present my findings from another re-analysis of K2-149, including a potential seventh candidate. Since there's so much to cover, I'll do EPIC 201663913 in one post, and the other three systems in a second, which should be out tomorrow. I may give K2-149 its own post
  4. For once, I'm doing a post here on schedule! I promised I would write about my TESS candidates this weekend, and here they are. For this post I'm only writing about the ones I am by far the most confident about and are unlikely to be eclipsing binaries. Believe it or not, EBs have been even more of an issue than before with the K2 mission, likely because TESS is looking at a greater amount of brighter and larger stars than Kepler was. That doesn't mean I don't have any cool red dwarf candidates, and the increased difficulty doesn't mean I don't have interesting finds to share. TIC
  5. I’ve been pretty inactive on the forums lately because TESS Sectors 1 and 2 data was released on Friday, and Planet Hunters was revived as well. Over the last week I’ve been searching for new planets, and me and a few other citizen scientists have found some pretty significant and bizarre finds. I’ll make a post on these planets this weekend.
  6. That was just about as good as a Mars landing could go. I didn’t even expect a first picture this quickly.
  7. I’m actually kind of embarrassed to ask this, but how do I use the new version of KittopiaTech for KSP 1.5.1? Not only is the setup pretty new to me, but I can’t access the ScaledVersion section in the menu, and I don’t know where or how to update a planet’s scaled space with this new version.
  8. Here in New England, we have some absolutely great weather for Thanksgiving. Clear and gorgeously sunny skies, no chance of rain... ...and temperatures that won’t get above 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Today is WAY too cold for this time of year. The high won’t get any higher than 20 F (-6.7 C) with winds chills as low as 6 F (-14.4 C). Things will get even worse later today, with temperatures dropping to as low as 10 F (-12.2 C), and wind chills may get close to 0 F (-17.8 C). Seriously, it’s only November. Why is it now as cold as January here?!
  9. I will be updating the EPIC 220221272 with larger parameters calculated by fellow citizen scientist Mark Omohundro. While EPIC 220221272 f is no longer potentially habitable (although it could still be some weird steamy ocean planet), all the planets are significantly larger and now more dynamic and interesting. EPIC 220221272 b likely has retained an atmosphere, while EPIC 220221272 c, d, and e all likely have significant geological activity and thick terrestrial atmospheres. All the planets likely migrated inwards from near the Frost Line, so they all would’ve formed with about 5-20% water b
  10. I always think that, when a bizarre Hot Jupiter with star-like temperatures or glass rain or clouds of sunscreen is discovered, we have reached a limit to how utterly weird these planets can get. Time and time again, I am proven wrong. HATS-70b continues this trend. This Hot Jupiter is so large and so hot it can’t even really be called a Hot Jupiter. HATS-70b is a 13 Jupiter mass object orbiting a luminous A-class main sequence star every ~1.8 days, resulting in an equilibrium temperature in excess of 2,700 K and an insolation nine thousand times greater than Earth. Something like this w
  11. I spent several hours today updating the OP with multiple systems found by me, Vidar87, and shutcheon from Exoplanet Explorers, including K2-183, K2-155, and K2-229. The Planet Candidates section presents what we currently know about these worlds in an easy-to-read fashion that is far easier to understand than going back through all the posts in this thread and reading about the ones pertaining to a specific system. Seriously, don’t do that; some of the systems in the Planet Candidates section in the OP have barely been mentioned in the rest of the thread.
  12. My computer had other ideas. The battery isn’t working right and now it’s too slow to run KSP with a ~1 GB planet pack.
  13. Then what was it from? MAVEN? Mars Express? Or something else that was misinterpreted?
  14. The phase “Super-Earth” is usually used for any planet between the size of Earth and Neptune, either if they’re entirely rocky or have some amount of volatiles. I like to use it for planets between about 1.2 and 1.75-2.00 Earth radii, or 2-10 Earth masses, unless the planet is revealed to be volatile rich (Kepler-138d is a good example). Most Super-Earths are not in any way friendly for life, although in the case of Barnard b, it could have a subsurface ocean like Europa or Enceladus due to its likelihood of being more geologically active.
  15. I read about that project when I was a little kid and thought it actually launched, so for years I was waiting for it to arrive at Barnard’s Star. Eventually I found out it was nothing more than a proposed spacecraft that never say the light of day. Bummer. I think the potential for this to be directly imaged makes up for the fact that we likely aren’t visiting the system anytime in the next half a century. Not only could the surface be resolved in pre-New Horizons Pluto quality, but looking for little blobs in or around the disk of Barnard b could reveal orbiting moons. It’s certa
  16. I can’t believe just a few days ago we were talking about the hopes of imaging Super-Earths, and now there’s Barnard b, a nearly perfect candidate for direct imaging. It’s very nearby, orbits a very faint and small star, and has a pretty wide orbit. I used to think that we wouldn’t get a direct image of a Super-Earth until the 2030’s at the earliest, but if Barnard b does exist — and most evidence says yes — it could be imaged in the mid 2020’s by the new Extremely Large Telescope or the JWST. Unlike every other exoplanet in our solar neighborhood, Barnard b orbits far enough away that it prob
  17. A likely planet candidate has been found orbiting the nearby red dwarf Barnard’s Star using over 20 years worth of data from nearly every major exoplanet hunting spectrograph. This planet, Barnard b, is an extremely rare Super-Earth at the system’s frost line, where water in the protoplanetary disk turns from a gas to a solid. It’s about 3.2 times the mass of Earth and takes over 200 days to complete a single orbit. While radial velocity data isn’t expected to confirm this candidate — the discovery team basically used all that they could possibly use — Barnard b appears to be a promising targe
  18. Not even Stan Lee himself was spared by Thanos. F
  19. Yesterday I was dragged along to see The Grinch with my family. I didn’t want to see it because I was worried Illumination would mess it up with pop culture references and adding significant changes to the story. However, I was pleasantly surprised that it stayed pretty true to the original. It wasn’t one of the best animated films of the year — there are certainly some problems with the writing, and some of the humor doesn’t work — but I generally liked it, and it can stand rather well on its own. Unlike the Jim Carrey one, this adaptation is less over-the-top, keeps the spirit of Dr. Seuss,
  20. It turns out I messed up my calculations for the equilibrium temperatures and insolation of the K2-149 planets. I mistakenly used 0.043 L for the luminosity of the star, instead of the actual 0.049 L provided by Hirano et al 2018. My new results are below. - K2-149b: 416 K, 7.093 flux. - K2-149c: 368 K, 4.348 flux. - K2-149d: 336 K, 3.042 flux. - K2-149e: 305 K, 2.051 flux. - K2-149f: 280 K, 1.454 flux. - K2-149g: 227 K, 0.629 flux. Overall, there aren’t any huge changes to the planets. K2-149b, c, and d are just about the same as my initial calculatio
  21. I’ve completed my re-analysis of K2-149, and the results are not what I expected. First I tried using the SFF data for the star, which isn’t as well-processed as the EVEREST data but does show multi-planet systems better. I deleted all the original signals and used the Box-Least Squared (BLS) algorithm to find better orbital periods for the planets after de-trending the light curve. Unfortunately, while K2-149b and K2-149c came out fine, the other four had problems. K2-149d and e turned out significantly larger than expected due to stellar noise messing up their transits. Meanwhile, I co
  22. I find vacuum planets to be somewhat easier than atmospheric ones because I don’t need to tediously put in dozens of atmospheric pressure and temperature curve values. I’m not too sure if I would have any good tips for making them, since for me it’s kinda straightforward. What problems do you have with atmosphere-less bodies?
  23. I’m definitely going to check this out this weekend, although I’m pretty sure my CPU is not going to like it.
  24. That is amazing. I wish I could make planets like that (I can certainly find some lava-covered abominations around other stars, but making any of them look good in KSP is not my strong suit).
  25. First off, I’m not dead. I’ve been finding planets but haven’t been posting them here. Secondly, this weekend I’m starting a more in-depth re-analysis of the K2-149 (EPIC 220522664) system. In case you don’t remember, this is a high end red dwarf with one confirmed planet and five other candidates found by me, Vidar87, and shutcheon on Exoplanet Explorers last October (wow, it’s been a full year already). The exact physical parameters of the five other candidates have been dubious for a while, but I plan to refine them to the best of my ability. I will incorporate better light curve pro
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