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  1. Real helicopters are unstable. If any gust tips one off of vertical, it starts to drift sideways and then swings back and forth in oscillations that grow. 'Dynamically unstable' is the term. Quad copter drones use differential pitch to get differential thrust on the four rotors. This can be done in KSP but is not very convenient. KSP version 1.9 and later let you enable pitch, yaw, and roll, control on the propeller blades, which makes them change their angle of attack as they rotate, giving more lift on one side of the disk than the other (like the cyclic control on a helicopter). This is easier to use in KSP because pitch yaw and roll are controlled by SAS. With four small rotors, the differential lift won't have as much lever arm as differential thrust, but it might still be plenty to stabilize your lifter.
  2. I learned arithmetic in the US in the 1970s, never saw the acronym 'PEMDAS', but was taught effectively P, E, MD, AS where ×÷ share the same priority, computed left-to-right. Nevertheless, when I see the implied multiplication 1/AB, I understand it to mean 1/(AB). In compound units with a product dot in the denominator, like Wb/A·m or W/m·K, I understand Weber per (Amp-metre) and Watt per (metre-Kelvin), as if multiplication was higher priority than division in that situation. I suppose humanity could decide on a convention to take P,E,M,D,A,S literally, but I don't recommend it because: Calculators and programming languages tend to group ×÷ in the same priority, done left to right, and likewise +− . P,E,M,D,A,S taken literally would give 1 − 2 + 3 = −4
  3. The efficiency in terms of thrust per fuel-burn (the ISP) is constant for KSP engines (wiki link). I suppose the idea is that when the ramjet catches more air, proportionally more fuel is burned. So that means you are looking for the conditions to give you the best speed per thrust, which in cruise is the same as speed per drag. The attitude (pitch) for lowest drag in level flight is called the best-L/D angle (best lift / drag). This angle of attack also gives you the best glide ratio, so you can find it experimentally by finding the pitch that lets you glide the furthest with engines off. For typical KSP aircraft this attitude has the nose pointing near the top of the prograde marker. At low altitudes, the best-L/D speed is pretty slow. At higher altitudes, the best L/D angle relative to prograde stays fairly constant until you near the speed of sound, at which point you need to point a bit closer to prograde to reduce the extra parasitic drag (as modelled by KSP). Then to make drag as low as possible to climb as high as you can to the thinner air, until you find you need to pitch up further than best L/D angle just to stay aloft. If That generally means to fly near the ceiling altitude of the aircraft, full throttle. A good fuel-per-distance design would have enough wing area that you are below the speed of sound in this configuration, to avoid the extra drag at and above the speed of sound. There have been some fuel-efficiency challenges (link link link) but none I can see specific to the Whiplash engine.
  4. One well-regarded series is this one. It uses older versions of KSP so the user interface will be slightly different to what you have, but the ideas are all the same. One change with newer versions, experiment storage containers, gives you another option for carrying 'science results' back home, so you might look at that on the wiki and decide if you want to use it as you follow the tutorials made before it was in the game.
  5. This suggestion was made to the KSP2 developers early along, so they probably at least considered making a more flexible attachment system. Given what KSP1 does with struts and docking ports, I think the User Interface is the trickiest part of making a non-tree structure KSP. Any system that has the user place a parts one at a time on an existing craft gives a singly-connected (tree) structure: the new part is connected to the single part on which it was placed. 1) The ReCoupler mod automatically connects nodes that are within 10cm (adjustable) of each other, and uses colour-coded highlighting to show the user what is going on. 2) Stock KSP1 lets us connect struts between parts. These count as extra parts, even though they don't move independently of their parent. They automatically disconnect if decoupling leaves them as the final joint between parts (which is usually convenient, but not always). If we could also make a "weld" between two parts, that would not disconnect, that would have allowed more natural construction of ring structures. Slightly off-topic, the mod QuantumStruts gave a nice variant of the KSP1 struts, which automatically (re)connected upon docking. The same behaviour could be re-imagined as a mechanical (not quantum) mechanism to help us build more rigid space stations.
  6. I believe your expectation is correct. I don't think anything outside the sola system other than stars are bright enough to for human eyes to see in colour. A telescope can collect a lot of light with its big collecting lens or mirror, and send it all through the pupil of an eye, but there is a rule in optics that demagnifying the aperture always comes with magnifying the image by the same factor. So the extra collected light from a nebula is spread over more the human retina, resulting in the same too-weak intensity on each of our colour-sensitive cones. No way to perceive the colour of nebulae with our eyes in real-time; we need long exposures on film or image sensors. The Trapezium part of M42 is near some young bright stars, which I assume are hiding the background starfield in zoomed-in images of those bright stars and nebula. And that silhouette image seems to represent a craft painted a very flat black (or rendered with an inappropriate ambient light setting). The sum of far-away stars does of course produce ambient light in interstellar space (lighting the nebulae, for example). While not having been in interstellar space personally, I would expect a white craft to be look nearly as bright in that ambient light, as a blurred average of the stars in its background. If there was a mirror on the craft, I would see the starfield behind me in that mirror, which on average is as bright as the starfield in the background of the craft. If the mirror is frosted, the starfield is blurred, so I see uniform illumination in the mirror with the same average brightness. If we have white paint instead of a frosted mirror, that paint scatters probably only 80% of the ambient light, so I expect the craft would be a bit dimmer than the average of the starfield in the background.
  7. For each of the mods mentioned in the original post, I know I've seen some version of the mod that will work with any given version of KSP since 1.73. There is also an old thread with discussion on this topic -- after 1.12 was released so recent enough to be relevant.
  8. Felipe Falanghe, who started the game, wrote the main theme. The credits are in the readme.txt: KSP Main Theme: Written by Felipe Falanghe Arranged by Víctor Machado Stratejazz: Written & arranged by Felipe Falanghe Other Tracks: Arcadia, Bathed in the Light, Brittle Rille, Dreamy Flashback, Frost Waltz, Frost Waltz (Alternate), Frozen Star, Groovy Grove, Impact Lento, Wizardtorium Written by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 Additional Music: Víctor Machado
  9. Yes, the off-by-one bug in the days and years has been there since the manoeuvre editor was introduced.
  10. Well, conceptually the radius of the SOI is related to the central mass, but in the implementation there are separate parameters sphereOfInfluence and gravParameter to express the central mass. (I don't think anyone has set those parameters independently using Kopernicus, so maybe KSP1 computes sphereOfInfluence based on gravParameter behind the scenes.) Someone could program a game to check if a craft is inside an arbitrarily large SoI, and then when it is time to calculate Kepler orbits, apply gravParameter=0, so the potential energy is a flat plateau inside the SoI, and the Kepler orbits degenerate into straight lines in a frame of reference moving with the SoI. Someone else mentioned a harmonic potential, like a linear spring pulling toward the centre of the SoI, so the force gets weaker as you get closer, which also has orbital shapes that you can write out with sines and cosines. I would not guess that either of these SoI solutions would add to the fun of a game. With KSP1 and Principia, I enjoyed trying to get a craft to pseudo-orbit the L4 point, mostly because that pseudo-orbit is so strange. I never considered placing something in an orbit identical to Mun's but 60° advanced and calling that 'L4'. So I agree that Lagrange points require N-body gravitation. Only our craft need to feel gravity from N bodies at once (so the "restricted N-body problem" you referenced). And to play with Lagrange points, and experience other complicated motions around Rask & Rusk, our craft need only feel gravity from N=2 planets at once.
  11. If you want to make them work like aircraft airbrakes, use the orientation your second picture. Actuators don't fail in KSP, but the way that part looks it is easy to imagine the actuator failing, so you might be more comfortable if the airbrakes look like they would retract if they fail. Or, in your case you might prefer them to stay deployed if they fail so might want them in the orientation in your first picture. The orientation makes very little difference in their drag, as implemented in KSP, for this particular part.
  12. The wiki (link) says that the [Option] key serves this role on a Mac keyboard. I can imagine it might be right-Shift (which KSP can distinguishe from left-Shift) if using non-mac keyboard on MacOS
  13. Sorry to see that no-one has recognized the problem yet. Telling us the version of KSP and operating system (Linux, MacOS, etc) might help someone here recognize it. There is a text file "KSP.log" written in the directory where KSP.exe is, and that file might show an error message at the end that. The bug-reporting guide has instructions on where to find another copy of that log file, that sometimes has a few more lines in it : https://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/index.php?/topic/83213-stock-support-bug-reporting-guide/
  14. The settings screen does show an apostrophe, with the default settings for an English-language keyboard, but that is a lie. The default key to reset the focus in map mode, is actually ` back quote at the upper left of the keyboard.
  15. There is a suspicious, and very difficult-to-parse, entry in the changelog: * Fix Ap and Pe markers appearing in future patches in space not aligned to current patch rendering when in career games that have yet to have patched conics available. I remember that I depended on switching to map view to see the apoapsis, in order to learn how to get into orbit in KSP. Just to let the OP know, many players here recommend that new players start in "Sandbox" "Science" mode. "Career" mode makes the early game difficult -- and difficult in a not-fun way, when you are still learning the game.
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