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  1. If we want to create a self-sustaining and developing population on a colony in another planet, how many colonists (minimum amount in a single colony ship) that must be sent there? Assuming that the infrastructure, resources and logistics to go there is available. Also, what's the qualifications that must be passed in order to become colonist?
  2. What is the connection between the ambient air temperature with it's relative humidity? If the temperature drops, does it means the relative humidity rises? And also, if the temperature rises, does the relative humidity drops? Is it possible to have 0% or 100% relative humidity?
  3. What I'm gonna do? Since there's around 330 million people in US alone, just gather all of the infinite batteries, connect all of them into a a network of cold temperature superconductive power line, which then connects into a field of high-energy supercapacitors to power a mass driver for sending things to space in one shot (idk the power requirements for that, someone please double check it with laptop battery power output x US population before putting the result into railgun formula of lorentz force that provides propulsion for the payload (assume 1 ton), and ignore the rails getting disintegrated during use, we do it for the lolz)
  4. Is there any expiration date for unused nuclear fuel rod? Assuming the fuel rod is still brand new, how long can it be stored while still could be used in nuclear reactor?
  5. Is there any method to determine nuclear bomb's yield based on the depth of the crater it forms at ground zero? More specifically a crater depth of 600 m (assuming that it forms a perfect hemispherical-shaped crater with a diameter of 1200 m), the blast takes place on ground level, not airburst, location of ground zero is large city, soil condition is typical soil of large cities
  6. Is it possible to build a nuclear reactor cooled without any pumps and rely solely on natural convection of it's cooling water (hot water rise to be cooled on radiators before fall back into the reactor when it's cooled). Is it practical from functionality perspective?
  7. Submarines use passive sonar to find other surface ships and submarines by the noise they make. Could a modern-day submarine find wooden age of sail ships on the surface solely by passive sonar? (No periscope, no active sonar, no raising radar mast) Especially considering age of sail ships don't have propellers. Going further, here's some variation: 1. Age of sail ship does not move, is it more difficult to detect using passive sonar? Assuming the crew also stays quiet and doesn't act like Black Pearl crew. Does moving without propellers (only sails) could make the noise that's high enough to be detected by passive sonar? 2. Could the modern submarine detect it using active sonar? If it raises the periscope, how visible the submarine is for the age of sail observer when it's observing the age of sail ship from minimum distance for direct visual contact? Assuming the observer only use age of sail era telescope 3. If the crew of age of sail ship DOES act like black pearl crew, aka being noisy pirates, could it be detected by passive sonar?
  8. Does big-caliber guns still have place in current day naval warfare? Like 200mm caliber guns of heavy cruisers and above, up until battleship-caliber gun of 300mm-400mm, or does the missiles have taken their place in naval warfare that they become insignificant today? What's the maximum caliber of modern naval guns (as in the one intended to be used on ship-to-ship combat) that's in service today?
  9. What are those circular thing on most Soviet and Russian submarine that looks like the logo of Umbrella Corporation? Is that a hatch?
  10. Realistically speaking, is it economical to destroy a capital ship armed with CIWS by overwhelming it with more missiles than what it can handle? judging from the cost of the capital ship vs total cost of the entire missile massacre used
  11. Ah yes I forget about that. Thanks for reminding me
  12. While we're talking about space combat, let's take a look on capital ships. A lot of capital ships in sci-fi has main battery weapons that mirrors naval combat, which isn't surprising since many of the naval terms is applied to spaceflight (port, starboard, hatch, -nauts in astronaut, etc.). Most of these sci-fi main battery guns are either firing physical or energy shots. If we're looking at the one with physical projectiles (shells, railguns, coilguns, mass accelerator), realistically speaking, if such a weapon with capital-ship grade caliber (300mm and above) are mounted on capital ships for space combat, should it also include some mechanism to counteract recoil? Since at that caliber, those cannons are basically reaction engine, and the effect of recoil/ kickback is much more pronounced in space, probably enough to rip the whole turret off of it's mounting when they are fired full salvo (on earth, cannon recoil are absorbed by water on the opposite side of the ship). I am thinking a counter-thrusters that'll be fired at the same time the cannon is fired (one scene on Expelled From Paradise is a good example, firing giant linear cannon in orbit requires all of the back thrusters to fire in unison at full power for a few miliseconds the moment the cannon is fired), or reinforcing the barbette of the turret in order to handle the recoil, or compensators with reciprocating barrel for minimizing recoil
  13. This is basically a repeat of a Soviet vs German in world war 2, but in space, which is more like Kushan vs Kadeshi in Homeworld. The first thing is, depending on what you describe as superior, it could mean superior general quality (better guns, armor, thrusters), in which quantity will win by overwhelming it or specific superiority, such as being superior in dealing with swarm attacks (multiguns, multi-target tracking) in which quality will win. I'll reiterate the battle between Kushan and Kadeshi in Homeworld, which is basically this situation. The Kadeshi uses swarms of cheap strike fighters to overwhelm the Kushan, they are very fast and armed with rapid fire energy weapon that can tear off opposing strike fighters with ease, and they outnumber Kushan by a factor of 10. However, their small size and cheap nature also means they have practically nothing else, so they are only good against strike fighters, and need time to destroy anything corvette-sized or larger, which is where their multibeam frigate comes in, appearing in much fewer numbers but can destroy capital ships. Now this scenario depends on the player how it turns out. If you're a newbie and think that their strike fighters can't reliably damage anything larger than corvette, and focus on building that, you'll definitely lose since Kadeshi can pump out fighters faster than you can produce frigate-class ship or larger. By the time you attempt to brute force your way by forcing your fleet to push through the swarm, you'll either: 1. Managed to destroy their mothership, at the cost of heavy damage to your fleet and immense resource drain on your side 2. Gets obliterated and cannot build replacement forces in time to defend your mothership before being overwhelmed That's the definition of when it's just "superior", which is not very cost effective in terms of resources for Kushan. Now let's see the "specific superior". Experienced players will instantly knows that fighting the swarm is futile, and going straight to their mothership is risky. In general, there are 2 main intended ways of completing this mission: 1. Players will notice that Kadeshi swarm fighters still needs refueling (you can't fire that breakneck thrusters forever) and noticed that they always come in squadrons that accompany a fuel tanker ship. Destroying or capturing this ship will cripple several squadrons at once as they floats aimlessly in space once their fuel is depleted, making it much easier to push through into their mothership 2. Alternatively, if player pays attention to the battle chatter as it drags long enough they'll notice that Kushan has finished enemy analysis to build a multigun corvette, which is hard to destroy by Kadeshi swarm fighters and posses enough guns to multi target several fighters at once. This corvette allows you to tear your way through their swarm While their rarer but much more powerful multi beam frigate poses credible threat to your mothership, and sometimes hard to find (which is neat, because it reflects their doctrine, overwhelming their enemies with fighters while the frigate moves to kill the mothership, which is why they disguised the frigate to look like their fighters, albeit slightly larger and slower, which means they can't afford to lose it, since it's limited in number and isn't spammable, so they had to make it hard for the enemy to find it amidst their swarm fighters), savvy commander can spot them easily not by visual, but by movement (they fly straight instead of doing maneuvers) and either destroy it before it's reaching the mothership or hijack it for their own use This is just an example of quantity vs quality in space battle. In the end it's not only numbers of units that matters, but also the strategic decision of cunning field commanders that makes the day
  14. Is it possible for human to survive atmospheric reentry in free-fall? Most manned reentry capsule in use has blunt body shape with heat shield, with the crew inside seated in specific position in order for them to survive the massive G-force during reentry. Now here's the scenario: 1. Assume that the person is wearing a space suit/ space marine/ power armor/ whatever that's strong enough to survive atmospheric reentry 2. There's no joint lock on the suit, the limbs are free to move during the reentry. There's no main thrusters in the suit, but there's RCS thrusters like those found in the space suit 3. There's parachute and airbrake flaps that could be used once in-atmosphere at safe altitude and velocity Now assuming that this guy starts at suborbital trajectory and just about to enter the atmosphere, assuming this guy only have this suit and nothing else (reentry angle at 45°), would it be better to position his body with arms tucked back like those in skydiving? Or spread his arms and legs like flying squirrel? What's the effect of G-force from reentry on human body on positions like that, especially when not seated like those in proper reentry capsules Oh and the last, this is unrelated, but assuming we have the suit like this, does the KSP stunt of "strap the heat shield on your back and pray to god you'll make it through" possible to do in real life?