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  1. This is not an SSTO, but it shows the staging used by the Atlas launch vehicle for the Gemini program:
  2. I found a good Apollo style petal fairing in KW Rocketry.
  3. Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first human spaceflight to reach the Moon. The crew orbited the Moon ten times without landing, and then departed safely back to Earth.[1][2][3] These three astronauts—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to personally witness and photograph the far side of the Moon and an Earthrise. Date Country Achievement Mission/Vehicle 1968 December 21 American First return after orbiting the Moon Apollo VIII Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, and was the second crewed spaceflight mission flown in the United States Apollo space program after Apollo 7, which stayed in Earth orbit. Apollo 8 was the third flight and the first crewed launch of the Saturn V rocket, and was the first human spaceflight from the Kennedy Space Center, located adjacent to Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida. Originally planned as the second crewed Apollo Lunar Module and command module test, to be flown in an elliptical medium Earth orbit in early 1969, the mission profile was changed in August 1968 to a more ambitious command-module-only lunar orbital flight to be flown in December, as the lunar module was not yet ready to make its first flight. Astronaut Jim McDivitt's crew, who were training to fly the first lunar module flight in low Earth orbit, became the crew for the Apollo 9 mission, and Borman's crew were moved to the Apollo 8 mission. This left Borman's crew with two to three months' less training and preparation time than originally planned, and replaced the planned lunar module training with translunar navigation training. Apollo 8 took 68 hours (almost three days) to travel the distance to the Moon. The crew orbited the Moon ten times over the course of twenty hours, during which they made a Christmas Eve television broadcast in which they read the first ten verses from the Book of Genesis. At the time, the broadcast was the most watched TV program ever. Apollo 8's successful mission paved the way for Apollo 11 to fulfill U.S. president John F. Kennedy's goal of landing a man on the Moon before the end of the decade. The Apollo 8 astronauts returned to Earth on December 27, 1968, when their spacecraft splashed down in the northern Pacific Ocean. The crew members were named Time magazine's "Men of the Year" for 1968 upon their return. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_command_and_service_module#Command_module_(CM) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Lunar_Module https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/lta-b.htm https://space.stackexchange.com/questions/37577/importance-of-moon-phases-for-apollo-missions Saturn V Launch Vehicle References https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-II https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IVB https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dpkmUjJ8xU Design Notes: Saturn V S-1C F1 Mastadon (x 5) Saturn V S-II J2 Skiff (x5) Saturn V S-IVB J2 Skiff (x1) Service Module AJ10-137 Wolfhound Lunar Module DPS LMDS Terrier + Lunar Module APS LMAS Spark + + Apollo 8 did not include a lunar module, as it was not ready for the flight. A boilerplate model was launched in its place, which remained attached to the S-IVB stage. Although research does not confirm it, it is assumed that the petal adapters were ejected immediately on separation of the CM+SM, from the S-IVB + LM assembly.
  4. I am only looking for one part, the Saturn 5 petal fairing.
  5. Hi fellow KSP enthusiasts , I am currently doing a challenge that follows an historical recreation of the American and Soviet Space Race. What is the best, currently available mod for Apollo parts. Thanks jinnantonix
  6. Zond 5 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program. In September 1968 it became the second spaceship to travel to and circle the Moon, the first Moon mission to include animals, and the first to return safely to Earth. Zond 5 carried the first terrestrial organisms to the vicinity of the Moon, including two tortoises, fruit fly eggs, and plants.[4] The tortoises underwent biological changes during the flight, but it was concluded that the changes were primarily due to starvation and that they were little affected by space travel. The Zond spacecraft was a version of the Soyuz 7K-L1 crewed lunar-flyby spacecraft. It was launched by a Proton-K carrier rocket with a Block D upper-stage to conduct scientific studies during its lunar flyby. Date Country Achievement Mission/Vehicle 1968 September 14-21 Soviet First return after circling the Moon; first lifeforms to orbit the Moon returned safely Zond V Proton K Launch Vehicle ------ References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_7K-L1 https://web.archive.org/web/20160820161327/ http://www.astronautix.com/s/soyuz7k-l1.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blok_D+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-K https://nextspaceflight.com/launches/details/1953 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RD-253 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RD-0210 https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/zond-5/in-depth/
  7. Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188 were two uncrewed Soviet Union spacecraft that incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. The two Soviet spacecraft made the first fully automated space docking in the history of space exploration on 30 October 1967. Mutual search, approach, mooring, and docking were automatically performed by the IGLA-system onboard Kosmos 186. After 3.5 hours of joint flight, the satellites parted on a command sent from the Earth and continued to orbit separately. Officially, both made a soft landing in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union — Kosmos 186 on 31 October 1967 and Kosmos 188 on 2 November 1967. But according to Boris Chertok, "one of the vehicles was destroyed by the emergency destruction system" Date Country Achievement Mission/Vehicle 1967 Oct 30 Soviet First docking of two remote-controlled spacecraft Cosmos 186 / Cosmos 188 References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_186_and_Kosmos_188 http://www.russianspaceweb.com/soyuz-7k-ok.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KTDU-35 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_programme http://www.russianspaceweb.com/soyuz-7k-ok-kosmos-186-188.html
  8. Venera 4 also designated 4V-1 No.310, was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. The probe comprised a lander, designed to enter the Venusian atmosphere and parachute to the surface, and a carrier/flyby spacecraft, which carried the lander to Venus and served as a communications relay for it. In 1967, it was the first successful probe to perform in-place analysis of the environment of another planet. Venera 4 provided the first chemical analysis of the Venusian atmosphere, showing it to be primarily carbon dioxide with a few percents of nitrogen and below one percent of oxygen and water vapors. While entering the atmosphere it became the first spacecraft to survive entry into another planet's atmosphere.[4] The station detected a weak magnetic field and no radiation field. The outer atmospheric layer contained very little hydrogen and no atomic oxygen.[citation needed] The probe sent the first direct measurements proving that Venus was extremely hot, that its atmosphere was far denser than expected, and that it had lost most of its water long ago. Date Country Achievement Mission/Vehicle 1967 October 18 Soviet First in-situ analysis of the atmosphere of another planet (Venus) Venera IV References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_4
  9. Luna 10 was a 1966 Soviet lunar robotic spacecraft mission in the Luna program. It was the first artificial satellite of the Moon.[1] Luna 10 conducted extensive research in lunar orbit, gathering important data on the strength of the Moon's magnetic field,[2] its radiation belts, and the nature of lunar rocks (which were found to be comparable to terrestrial basalt rocks),[3] cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroid density. Perhaps its most important finding was the first evidence of mass concentrations (called "mascons") — areas of high density below the mare basins that distort lunar orbital trajectories.[4][5] Their discovery has usually been credited to the American Lunar Orbiter series. Date Country Achievement Mission/Vehicle 1966 April 3 Soviet First artificial satellite to orbit another celestial body (Moon) Luna X References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molniya-M https://www.inverse.com/article/13658-luna-10-the-first-spacecraft-to-orbit-the-moon-celebrates-50-years
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