When placed, the painted side of the propeller should be forward (for planes) or up (for helicopters) when the blades are not deployed or have 0 degrees of deployment angle.
When not deployed, generally the leading edge should be perpendicular to the motor axis.
Normally on Kerbin, you will not need to use the max torque. For efficient travel you should adjust the deployment angle (variable pitch) of the blades. But for a simple plane, this is not necessary. Just use a deployment angle between 15 and 30 degrees and the plane should work.
Authority limiter is how many degrees the blade can adjust itself to control yaw, pitch or roll. Normally this is not needed for planes, but is very useful for helicopters.
CCW propellers should be used when you use a CCW rotor.
These videos may help.