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  1. Download at Spacedock Download at GitHub Discuss at Discord Requires Kopernicus, and Kopernicus Expansions Continued RegionalPQSMods (In version 0.6.0 and 0.7.0, Kopernicus Expansions comes with the mod, you don't need to download it. Make sure you delete the old version of the mod before installing the new version when updating.) The Kerbal Astronomical Union's SLIPPIST instrument (Shadow of Light Imaging of Planets and Planetesimals In the Sky Telescope, not to be confused with the Kerbal brand of Root Beer after which the telescope was named), has just made an incredible discovery this week. The SLIPPIST-1 Star System, around which we previously knew of three Kerbin-sized planets, has been confirmed to be the parent to an additional four planets, for a total of seven. At least three of these worlds are known to be in the habitable zone, the region of space around which water can remain liquid. SEVEN WORLDS AROUND SLIPPIST-1 Rendered in a stockalike art style, SLIPPIST-1 is a Kerbalized rendition of the TRAPPIST-1 star system. Planets have been scaled down to 1/10 scale to fit in the Kerbal universe. By default it replaces the stock system, but there is a setting.cfg that can be used to make the Slippist star system into an alien star system a distance away from the stock system. Seven Worlds of SLIPPIST-1 is an up-to-date depiction of a scientifically accurate TRAPPIST-1. Care has been taken to accurately portray each of the planets without getting in the way of gameplay. Full album and explanation of the system here. More Pictures of the Planets: These pictures showcase Scatterer, which is NOT supported right now. PLANNED FEATURES: Asteroids and comets. (Potential early-game landing destinations.) Science Definitions Keep up to date with newer observations Better Scatterer and EnvironmentalVisualEffects compatibility. INTERSTELLAR CONSORTIUM: As of v0.7.0, Seven Worlds of SLIPPIST-1 now supports Interstellar Consortium. There's a settings file in GameData/SLIPPIST-1/SlippistSettings.cfg. Open it with notepad, and you'll find a single setting option: "System Placement = Home." The two options are "Home" and "Exoplanet." If you wish to play from the planet Kerbin and have SLIPPIST-1 be an extrasolar destination like some other star system mods, such as OtherWorlds for example, you must change it to "System Placement = Exoplanet" and the system will be spawned 428 au away from the stock Sun as defined by the Interstellar Consortium guidelines However, for a more cohesive experience when using multiple planet packs, I recommend installing the IC plugin, so that you can play on SLIPPIST-1 and have the stock system or even play starting from one of the other homeworlds supported by Interstellar Consortium. LICENSE: For the beta period at least, Seven Worlds of SLIPPIST-1 is All Rights Reserved. Kopernicus Expansion Continued is under GNU General Public License.
  2. Introduction I created this modpack because I didn't find anything like this. It contains a list of mods for more than 60 thousand patches that will make your computer sweat a lot during a relatively long main download. It is this list that reshapes the ksp to a fairly beautiful and realistic game where you can have fun in the sandbox, or test yourself in a rather difficult career, starting with a small solid-fuel rocket in 1951 and ending with a manned mission to the TRAPPIST-1 system in the distant future. A little story about creation... For a long time I played on the RSS RO build for 1.3.1, which, to my deepest regret, did not support REX and quite a large number of side mods that could not work properly in an unstable system. The Russian-language ksp forum did not have information on how to properly integrate this mod in 1.3.1. Moreover, there was no REX at all for this version. They also could not offer a build with REX running normally on an average PC on new versions, which led me to a sad conclusion: I had to create a new build myself. The new build turned out to be no less unstable, but at least it quenched my thirst for exoplanets and more than well. At least, I'm still continuing to adjust its work. Known bugs: 1) In some cases, your spacecraft may start to rotate spontaneously with low acceleration, even if they do not have a gyroscope or a reactive control system. This is easy to fix, but only for a while, if you just make a quick reboot of the session ( F5 then F9). This problem was encountered in early versions of the modpack, so it's not a fact that it still show itself. 2) Also, in some rare cases, timewarp can cause severe lags, which may be caused by the influence of a separate mod (which I have to discover) In order to protect yourself from this, try to increase the speed gradually. 3) In the tracking station, you will notice that the rays of other stars are shifted, and for all exoplanets except the Proxima system, the illuminated side does not correspond to reality. This is a bug that shows itself only in the tracking station and does not affect the game in any way. 4) Despite the presence of a mod to replace the textures of kerbals with a human skin color, it still remains green, but only for kerbals who participate in the mission. Link to the archive: [Download link removed by moderator, pending resolution of licensing issues] Enjoy :3
  3. So this is a redo of the "Habitable Exoplanets" post, which was in "The Lounge" (My mistake:/) Information about Potentially Habitable exoplanets: http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog And Exomoons: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_potentially_habitable_moons And KOI planets (You'll have to scroll down): http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog/data Some news of a new "Earthlike exoplanet" discovered today (16/12/15): http://www.astrobio.net/topic/deep-space/new-planets/nearby-star-hosts-closest-alien-planet-habitable-zone/ A large picture of 31 (Soon to be 32) Potentially habitable exoplanets: http://www.hpcf.upr.edu/~abel/phl/HEC_All_Distance.jpg Gas giants in the habitable zone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Giant_planets_in_the_habitable_zone Could red dwarfs be good places for life? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitability_of_red_dwarf_systems What about Orange dwarfs? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitability_of_K-type_main-sequence_star_systems So lets talk about Potentially Habitable exoplanets; Again:D EDIT: The previous "Habitable exoplanet" thread has been closed, here's the link if you want to read the posts. http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/index.php?/topic/127131-habitable-exoplanets/ Awesome new news here by @ProtoJeb21
  4. Does anyone know where I can download the Real Exoplanets Mod by AndrewDraws? He sayed that he abandoned this Mod and Extrasolar, but there is no reason why he should take it from Spacedock and Extrasolar is also still online. Thanks for your help
  5. Thanks to the amazing work done by Vogt et al., there is a new six-planet system! HD 34445 is a large G-type star of 1.38 RSun and 1.07 MSun with twice our Sun's luminosity and a high metallicity of +0.14 [Fe/H]. Back in 2009, a gas giant of 0.79 Jupiter masses orbiting in an eccentric (e=0.27) orbit at 2.07 AU was found. Now, after analysis of 19 years worth of radial velocity data, Steve Vogt and his team have found five more gas and ice giants, with orbital periods between a few weeks and a decade. All six worlds are 16.8, 30.7, 53.5, 37.9, 250.0, and 120.6 times the mass of Earth and orbit every 49.18, 117.87, 214.67, 676.8, 1,049.0, and 5,700.0 days. Two are in the system's habitable zone and could have potentially life-friendly moons. This is an absolutely amazing find, as it not only shows that spaced-out systems with multiple planets around Sun-like stars do exist, but that they can be fundamentally similar and different to our own Solar System. Planetary systems like HD 10180 and Tau Ceti are also great examples, the latter of which is rather similarly structured to our own inner system. Data for the system on NASA's Exoplanet Archive: https://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/cgi-bin/DisplayOverview/nph-DisplayOverview?objname=HD+34445&type=PLANET_HOST Vogt et al's paper on the system: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.07337.pdf
  6. Some may notice I've been throwing out the phrase "Hyper Earths" several times over the last few weeks. I bet many of you want to know what exactly I'm talking about, so today I will describe a new potential planet type and the multiple confirmed examples of these hellish abominations. This first began back in May 22nd, 2017 on Exoplanet Explorers, a citizen science project on Zooniverse where users go through processed parts of K2 light curves to try and find transiting planets. After many minutes searching, I came across something that caught my eye. A light curve only known back then as Subject 7673371 showed quite odd dips in starlight every 0.49 days. They were rather small with a depth of about 400 parts per million, but were both clear and noisy - a combination very rarely seen. It looked so odd an so peculiar that I wondered if this was a plant at all, but the folded transit showed some good potential. I felt no other choice but to classify this as a planetary candidate as I went to analyze what I had found. Using ExoFOP data, I discovered that the parent star was a F-class main sequence star known as EPIC 220395236, with a radius of 1.465 times that of the Sun and a temperature of over 6,000 Kelvin. Using the helpful Planetary Calculator and the parameters I already had, I was able to characterize the planet. The results were terrifying. This was a giant planet at 3.18 RE orbiting so close to the star that temperatures reached an absolutely horrific 2,811 Kelvin, or 4,600*F. This is hotter than TRAPPIST-1 by nearly 300*K! The frightening data that was staring me in the face led me to give this world a proper name I had been waiting to use for a long time: Tartarus, named after the mythological Greek pit of Eternal Damnation, a hellish place where the most horrific beings and evildoers in the Universe were locked up to experience horrifically ghastly tortures for all of eternity. I had no idea how appropriate that name would become. Some time later (like a few minutes ) I realized something: Tartarus was breaking the laws of the Universe. A planet of its size should most definitely be a gaseous world like Neptune, but with such an extreme temperature it would have to be incredibly puffed up. However, if that were the case, its actual mass would be very similar to that of Earth's. That would be too small to hold onto all those gases in such a hostile environment and would probably evaporate, reducing its radius.This is not what appears to be happening. Only one option remained: Tartarus was an ENORMOUS rocky planet, and I truly mean enormous. In order for it to survive in an environment with thousands of times the stellar flux Earth gets, it would have to be at LEAST 120 ME, more than that of Saturn and HD 219134 h (Nerrivik). This would lead to a density of 20.576 g/cm3 and around 11.8667 gees of gravity. The conditions on Tartarus would be beyond hellish if the giant mass theory is correct. Most of the planet would be a searing, molten sea of gold, iron, rocks, and most metals in existence. The only land would be continent-sized volcanoes made purely out of Tungsten, the only metal that can survive the conditions here. Volcanic eruptions would be incredibly frequent and far more powerful than anything here on Earth, blowing out huge chunks of semi-molten metals and smothering clouds of toxic plasma. The front side would be scorching with temperatures of at LEAST 5,200*F, hot enough to vaporize iron and tin. This vapor would be pushed through a low but incredibly dense, soupy atmosphere by winds caused as a result of starlight exposure powerful enough to push the planet's atmosphere. Winds would be slow, but pack a punch as hard as getting hit by an asteroid. In "cooler" regions, the metal vapors in the atmosphere would condense into scorching pebbles and globs of molten iron and tin, which would rain SIDEWAYS in a turbulent, superheated atmosphere crackling with violent lightning storms. Overall, quite possibly the most hellish abomination of a planet ever found. This incredible discovery is what led me to make the Hyper-Earth planet class. So, what exactly is a Hyper-Earth? It would be the next step up from a Mega-Earth, which starts at 10 ME. For an object to be a Hyper-Earth, it must have at least 50 times the mass of Earth and NOT be a gas planet. It seems unlikely any Hyper-Earths would form with radii of over 4 RE, about the size of Uranus and Neptune. These giant rocky planets could be similar in mass to Saturn and Jupiter, if not more massive than the latter. Such objects would be incredibly dense and have many times the gravity of Earth. Geologic activity would be very powerful and common on such massive planets, and thick soupy atmospheres would likely form as well. But how many planets are there that would be classified as a Hyper-Earth? The truth: more than you would expect. Here are all the potential Hyper-Earth candidates known to date: THANATOS: This is @Cabbink's hellish world, which is very similar to Tartarus. It has a year of 0.52 days, orbits an F-Type star, and has a slightly cooler equilibrium temperature of 4,400*F. However, at about 2.22 RE, it might actually be a Mega-Earth instead of a Hyper-Earth. K2-77b: Another planet within the K2 data, which happens to be just 0.03 RE larger than Thanatos. It has a much safer orbit, taking about 8 days to circle a 0.76 RS high-metallicity orange dwarf. However, radial velocity measurements have shown something...odd. They heavily suggest that this planet of 2.25 RE has a mass of 604 ME, nearly TWICE that of Jupiter! And there error margins are TINY, both less than one Earth mass. This makes K2-77b the most likely and most massive Hyper-Earth candidate known. It is also the second-densest planet I will list. Put this into perspective: take every object in our solar system that isn't the Sun - all the planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, dank memes, space junk, etc. - and squeeze them together into an object just over twice the radius of Earth. You will not get something as extreme as K2-77b, and that is scary. K2-92b: Similar to Tartarus, K2-92b is a world within the gaseous planet size range that is too hot to be a stable Mini-Neptune. This planet is 2.56 RE and orbits every 0.7 days around a bright F-class star, resulting in temperatures in excess of 2,675*K (around 4,355*F). While larger than Thanatos, it is likely around the lower limit for a Hyper-Earth. Recently determined to be a false positive. KEPLER-277b and c: These are a pair of large ice giant-sized planets with absolutely ridiculous masses. Both orbit what might be a G-subdwarf star every 17.32 and 33.00 days. The first, Kepler-277b, is around 88 ME and 2.9 RE, giving it a density of 19.89 g/cm3 and 10.464 gees of gravity. Its larger sister, Kepler-277c, is around 3.4 RE but is less massive at 66 ME, giving it 5.71 gees of gravity and a density of 9.26 g/cm3. With these values, it may seem like Kepler-277c might have a significant water envelope, maybe between 5 and 10% its total mass. However, both planets could be much more massive, with error margins favoring masses between that of Saturn and Jupiter. 277b and c could be as large as 239 ME and 167 ME, making them both huge terrestrial worlds. JS 183 b: An exoplanet you probably NEVER heard of. In fact, if not for the Open Exoplanet Catalog, I wouldn't either. This is near the limit of how large a Hyper-Earth can possibly get. At 3.5 RE, it's pretty close to that 4 Earth radius boundary I mentioned earlier. However, it is far more massive than Jupiter at around 531 ME, making it the second most massive planet on this list. This gives it over 43 gees of gravity and a density of 67.6 g/cm3. JS 183 b is the coldest planet on this list, orbiting near the habitable zone with an eccentric orbit (0.24) around a 0.44 solar radius, metal-rich red dwarf. K2-33b: This baby of a planet might be a Hyper-Earth, but its mass is so uncertain that I cannot tell for sure. If it is, then it's actually far past the radius limit I set at 4.9 RE. KEPLER-338b: This one is more of an honorable mention, as it is "only" 31 ME and is therefore not massive enough to be a Hyper-Earth. EPIC 22881391b: Here is the densest planet on this list. It was the recently discovered planet orbiting a red dwarf every four hours. However, things are rather odd. Based on radial velocity measurements, it appears to be somewhere around 223 ME, over TWICE that of Saturn. What makes this even more extraordinary is how this planet is only 0.87 RE, smaller than Venus. This makes EPIC 22881391b incredibly dense, at a staggering 1,884 g/cm3 with nearly THREE HUNDRED times the gravity of Earth. This would make it the densest non-stellar remnant object in the known Universe. A piece of this planet the size of a sugar cube would weight as much as a small dumbbell! Due to its hostile conditions and incredible gravity, I've nicknamed this abomination Morsaption, which comes from the Latin phrase "Mors Captionem", meaning "Death Trap". PSR J1719-1438b: One of the very few pulsar planets known is actually the FIRST Hyper-Earth candidate. This planet (which I will call J1719b for now) has around 330 times the mass of Earth and orbits a tiny, horrifying freak of nature known as a pulsar every 2 hours. It has the shortest year known, and this close proximity to such a deadly object has put significant constraints on J1719b's radius. Calculations show that it cannot be more than 4 RE, which would place it within the Hyper-Earth range. As many of you have probably heard, J1719b could very well be a Neptune-sized planet made ENTIRELY of diamonds, making it the most exciting planet on this list to visit (SPOILER ALERT: You'll still die there). However, an alternative theory has be proposed, suggesting that J1719b might be a tiny lump of quark matter around 1 km across, created in the merger of two QUARK STARS that created the pulsar PSR J1719-1438. What do you think of the possibility of Hyper-Earths? Should such a category even exist?
  7. I've been working on a new project for a while. The mod, which currently adds in 3 exoplanets, 4 moons, and another star, is currently in progress; I probably won't release it for another month. Currently, I have not made any biome maps and there is only one star system (Delta Cyclonus). The completion of the Delta Cyclonus system is expected sometime in early October, but again, the mod will only be released once I have completed the second star system. Another feature of this mod will be some new parts that will improve your robotic exploration of space: a camera, an ultraviolet spectrometer, and a magnetometer. For those of you who can't wait another month for the release of the planet pack, here are a few peeks at what is all ready completed. Note that eve support has been completed, and I have started working on the optional cloud mod for this planet pack. If you download the mod a month from now, you have to install eve and the optional cloud mod in order to get the clouds, auroras etc. seen in the pictures. Magmus (Venus analog) https://imgur.com/a/ru2G3 Qwerty (Ringed Terra) https://imgur.com/a9aub6X Segway (Moon of Qwerty) https://imgur.com/ujW22NF Arval (Moon of Qwerty) https://imgur.com/CEQzlql Yirga (Cold Exo-Jool) https://imgur.com/5Ji9DwA Weltron (Moon of Yirga) https://imgur.com/PSarvUD Oblon (Moon of Yirga) https://imgur.com/NbBS5bx
  8. Did it strike anybody else that the announcement from NASA today shows some exoplanets that bear quite a resemblence to some of KSP's worlds? I look at this and see a hot Tylo, Vall, Eve, Kerbin, Laythe, Jool and Eeloo - not to scale of course. But speaking of scale, I collect Trappist-1's 7th exoplanet orbits at about 1/25th of Mars' orbital altitude, above a small, cool star. How does that stack up in a direct comparison with KSP's planetary orbits and scales?
  9. IRVEES Imaging and Radial Velocity Exoplanet/Exomoon Search WHAT IS IRVEES? IRVEES is an exoplanet hunting club that uses different imaging techniques and the radial velocity method to search for exoplanets and detect the signs of exomoons around imaged planets. HOW DOES IRVEES FIND PLANETS? IRVEES will use the Transit, Direct Imaging, and Radial Velocity methods to find planets. The Transit Method is the tactic mainly and currently being used. Here's a run-down of how these methods will work in the program: TRANSITS: A patch of sky, selected by one of the leaders, is focused on by a tracking telescope. Either a deep-sky CCD camera or DSLR camera is hooked up to the telescope. If things are working, the entire 0.15x0.15 degree patch of sky should be visible through the camera. Next, a set of photographs are taken over a 1-5 hour period. For the initial study of the sky patch, I recommend one 0.1/0.6-second exposure every 60 seconds. The next day, the light data for each star must be studied to find the sign of a full transit, or a transit that was partially captured. Use a program like AIP4WIN or AIJ. Each dimming star must be studied on multiple occasions to find a reacurring, identical transit. Do 2-5 hours of 0.2/0.6 second exposures every 50 seconds. If the IDENTICAL TRANSIT is seen 3 times, you have a planet! DIRECT IMAGING: This method should only be used on telescopes with an aperture of at least 16". You will also need a coronagraph, small enough to reveal areas closer to the star, but big enough to blot out the star. Take about 10-15 images of the star. The images will have these things called Speckles, but multiple images stacked together into a mini-movie will cause the speckles to movie. Planets will not. The dot that isn't moving might be a planet. Check for a radial velocity signature, or check for background stars. If everything checks out, you have a planet! RADIAL VELOCITY: Another method to be used with larger scopes. This method will need a spectrometer. They can be hard to find and probably very expensive, but well worth it. Some local observatories may have some on their scopes. For this method, take the light data of a star a few hours for several nights. Plot the redshift and bueshift data on a scatterplot. If you have a planet, the "wave" in the scatterplot will be consistent, and never get higher or lower than before. Its timing will also be consistent. If you find starspots or flares, the period will be random and the light shifts will change. If your signal is not from solar activity, then you have a companion for the star! These measurements will also give you the minimum mass of the object. Anything below 13 Jupiter masses is a planet, but anything above it is either a brown dwarf or a low-mass star. If anyone needs clarification, here are two links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methods_of_detecting_exoplanets https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bz0sBkp2kso HOW WILL THESE OBJECTS BE NAMED? Stars will get a name from the IRVEES Star Catalog (ISC). The number that follows is a date. For example, May 10th, 2016 becomes 51016. If a single star with a transit in the field of view, it will be named after the date of its discovery. This also goes for stars with a wobble and a large object around them captured by direct imaging. But, if multiple transiting stars are present, they will be named by the day when follow-up observations are made (remember: Investigate each star one by one). The stars will keep their ISC names even after a planet is found. Any discovered planet will get an official IRVEES name, such as IRVEES-1b. The star will get that IRVEES name as a secondary or backup designation. The number in the IRVEES name is determined by either order in discovery or order of its star's detection. The rest is regular exoplanet naming conventions. However, if a signal of a moon is found, then the Possibly Lunar Object (PLO) will be named something like IRVEES-5c-m. WHAT THINGS ARE NEEDED? A telescope with an aperture of 4-30" for Transits, and 10+" for all other methods. Make sure it can track stars! Either a DSLR or deep-sky CCD camera. A spectrometer for Radial Velocity. A camera-to-lens adapter, depending on what camera you have. A laptop. An astro-imaging program like Fire Capture. A program to analyse the light from a star (AIP4WIN or AIJ). A coronagraph that's large enough to block out the star but small enough to reveal planets closer to the star. Lots of patience! IRVEES DETECTION RANGES IRVEES Detection Ranges (IDR's) are specially selected, small patches of sky far away from Kepler's viewing fields. Each IRD is 0.15 by 0.15 degrees, and will be near a relatively bright star. The chosen star must be below magnitude 6, perferably magnitudes 8 through 10. That way the star is bright enough to be seen, but dim enough so it doesn't blot out other stars. This IDR Guide Star will have a specific location in your field of view. Remember, post a photograph of the IDR through your scope so I can make sure you have the right position. Also use a program like GIMP or Google Drawings to circle stars with detected dips in brightness. IDR-1 The first IDR will take place in the area around the star AC 54 1646-56. This is an M2V dwarf star of magnitude 10.17 in the constellation of Ursa Major. It has a Right Ascension of [16h 25m 24.62333s] and a Declination of [54* 18' 14.7733"]. It will also go under the IRVEES Star Catalog designation of ISC 541814. The goal of this IDR is to try to find a transiting exoplanet around either ISC 541814 or around the other stars in that field of view. This star can be kept at the center of the telescope's field of view. I may be searching for planets here on July 12th. IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE TO DO? Members of IRVEES don't have to just be gathering data or hunting for the planets. If someone isn't able to find exoplanets, they can help analyse the data collected from each observation. Data analysis is pretty easy. For the transit method, look for dips in a star's light curve that dim the light of the star by less than 3%. Me and other planet hunters in IRVEES will provide the light curves of stars in the ISC catalog. For the radial velocity method, report the consecutive wave-like pattern in the data from a star. Once again, that data will be provided by the planet hunters. Anybody who finds the signature of an exoplanet in any type of data will be named the co-discoverer of that world, after the member who got the data. OTHER PROJECTS Project Lalande Transiting Exoplanet Moons Search (TEMS) FOUND PLANETS none ATM PLANET CANDIDATES none ATM SCHEDULE: October: Return of IRVEES observations and imaging! PRACTICE SYSTEMS: LEVEL 1: WASP-14 and TrES-2 LEVEL 2: Gliese 1214 and Gliese 436 LEVEL 3: Kepler-42 and TRAPPIST-1 LEVEL 4: Kepler-9, CoRoT-7, and Kepler-33 LEVEL 5: HD 80606, Kepler-62, Kepler-90 MEMBERS/COLLABORATORS @ProtoJeb21 (me) @Galacticvoyager @Kronos1174 @kunok @Panel @Mr. Quark @adamgerd SUPPORTERS/HELPERS/POSSIBLE MEMBERS @Spaceception @YNM @KAL 9000 @_PRATTER_ @Atlas2342 @RocketSquid @electricpants @Rdivine @cryogen @Andem @Emperor of the Titan Squid @_Augustus_ SEE ALSO: IRVEES Scientific Achievements IRVEES Exoplanets My Systems Found with Planet Hunters ______________________________________________________________________________________________ IF ANYONE WOULD LIKE TO PARTICIPATE IN FINDING PLANETS IN THE IRD, PLEASE LET ME KNOW. A PRIVATE MESSAGE IS NOT NEEDED.
  10. Over the past few weeks, me and my collaborators over at Exoplanet Explorers (shutcheon, Vidar87, Libmar96, and @Cabbink) have been cranking out candidate planet discoveries like crazy. By now there's probably well over two dozen high sigma candidates - aka worlds that have a high statistical probability of being real. A good portion of these have been multi-planet systems. To date, we've found four 4-planet, two 5-planet, one 3-planet, and at least three 2-planet systems. All of the five-planet systems were found by shutcheon with collaborative efforts by me and other members of the group I mentioned. The trick to finding these multi-planet systems is by analyzing the data of stars with at least one confirmed planet or known candidate. This has worked with one confirmed planet system before - K2-82, where shutcheon found two extra Earth-sized candidates. Now it has worked again with K2-72. Shutcheon managed to find a very likely transit event around epoch 2151 in the light curve of K2-72 (EPIC 206209135) lasting about 3 hours. He was able to find an orbital period of 32.54 days for the planet, putting it within the habitable zone. Once I returned home from school I raced to check the data for the star, and not only did I find shutcheon's K2-72f, but I also found evidence of a K2-72g! This world is the least likely, but appears to have a year of at least 52.989 days. This also puts it in the habitable zone, albeit in the outer edge. I'd say that this find is probably one of the greatest ever done by my group. But wait, things get better! Using stellar size data from Martinez et al., I was able to figure out that planets K2-72c and K2-72e are much more promising than what was listed on ExoFOP. While 72c is in the habitable zone, it looks to more likely be a Venus analogue. This makes planet 72e, along with candidates 72f and 72g, potentially habitable! Now, I will list the parameters of the planets below. Space Engine representations of the planets coming soon! HOST STAR K2-72: 0.359 RSol, 0.361 MSol, 3,370oK, 0.0149 LSol, spectral type M2.7V, habitable zone from 0.1164 to 0.1677 AU. K2-72b: 1.121 RE, year of 5.5774 days, 0.0438 AU, 425oK. Hot desert planet, likely tidally heated and locked. K2-72d: 0.998 RE, year of 7.759 days, 0.0546 AU, 381oK. Hot desert planet, likely tidally heated and locked. K2-72c: 1.278 RE, year of 15.187 days, 0.0855 AU, 302oK. In the optimistic habitable zone, but likely a hellish Venus analogue. K2-72e: 1.469 RE, year of 24.167 days, 0.1163 AU, 261oK. On the inner edge of the habitable zone; potentially habitable Super-Earth! K2-72f: 1.357 RE, year of 32.54 days, 0.14209 AU, 233oK. Smack in the middle of the habitable zone; best potentially habitable candidate of the system! K2-72g: 1.211 RE, year of 52.989 days, 0.19668 AU, 201oK. Rather cool potentially habitable candidate! By the way, if anyone's wondering why I'm posting this on a different thread before the Daily Round-up, it's because this discovery is too big to put on My Exoplanet Discoveries thread. I also really wanted to share this with the KSP forums. EDIT: The discussion thread on Exoplanet Explorers https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/ianc2/exoplanet-explorers/talk/821/366881
  11. This is a thread to talk about the planets and findings of the Kepler Space Telescope. It also includes the K2 mission as well, along with candidate planets from both missions. Here are some Space Engine screenshots of a few Kepler candidate multiplanetary systems:
  12. I have my own orbital telescope fleet and i use it to discover distant planets and tell us what is further Eeloo's orbit. Our first hero is "Eclipse" telescope. It made a beutiful shot of distant nebula ET-12 Then we have our new hero called "Aleph" telescope. It dicovered 2 exoplanets recently- AT-1 Has dim but very wide rings. and AT-2 The closest planet to its parent star we've ever discovered. Both of exoplanets are very close to their parent star and as a result suffering from extreme surface temperatures. Next we will take a look at "Big Eye" telescope. It also found 2 exoplanets. And here is its discoveries- BEDP-1 A volcanic planet with a relatively normal distance from its parent star. BEPD-2 Gas giant. And also while telescope was looking at the planet we notcied small disc object around the planet. KSC thinks that it is the Rings of the planet. Our most modern, deep space telescope called "Scorpi" It found an amazing black hole thousands of millions AU away. SBH-1 Phew! Now i want all you Exoplanet lovers to share your critique! Should i continue? or should not..
  13. To preemptively kill silly hype, this is about a hot Jupiter, so it's not aliens. Astrobites writeup Actual paper on ArXiv High resolution ~3.2 micron spectra of 51-Peg picked up some reflection features of the planet. They found water vapor (~100 ppm), but no methane or carbon dioxide (upper limits on concentrations unclear). The measurements also pinned down the mass and orbit a bit better, (inclination frustratingly close to transiting, ~0.476 MJ making it more Saturn-like, and no eccentricity to speak of) Rotational speed is <5.8 km/s, so for any plausible radius the sidereal days are longer than Jupiter's. (Tidal locking suggested, but far from confirmed)
  14. I plan on flying to another solar system, find a planet with a low gravity moon (comparable to Minmus or Gilly), land on said moon, and then come back. I already know an ok planet pack but I want to know if there are any other great ones I am missing.
  15. This is a detailed list of exoplanets (and possibly exomoons) observed, analysed, and discovered by the IRVEES program. Some of these planets are currently known ones that have been detected for practice, or analysed to find out more information on them. Most of the planets are candidates I have found with Planet Hunters, and may stay that way for several weeks. I might post the light curves of each candidate exoplanet. STUDIED KNOWN EXOPLANETS HAT-P-22b: One of the multiple Hot Jupiter exoplanets discovered by the HATNet Project. HAT-P-22b is 2.15 times the mass of Jupiter with a diameter 8% larger. It has a density of 2.26 g/cm3 and about 4.86 times Earth's gravity. HAT-P-22b was the first exoplanet monitored and detected by IRVEES, even though it was previously known to the scientific community. However, unlike other massive gas giants, it will not go through further analysis for possible moons, due to a small sphere of influence. It orbits a G5V main sequence star in Ursa Major that may have a K-Type binary companion. TBD EXOPLANETS DISCOVERED BY IRVEES None yet PLANET HUNTERS CANDIDATES KIC 9529088.01: A small signal in the light curve APH00013fk. The transit blocks about 0.09% of the light of the host star once every 1.5 days (about 35.85 hours). The host star is a K-Dwarf of magnitude 14.365 with the catalog number of KIC 9529088. If confirmed, this may be a Mini Neptune or a Super-Earth between temperatures of 800 and 1500 Kelvin. However, the signal of this object may be caused by the variability of KIC 9529088. My best estimate of the star's radius is between 0.65 and 0.55 solar Radii. KIC 10712631.01: A moderate sized but somewhat obscured signal in the light curve APH0001311. The potential planet blocked 0.26% of the light of its magnitude 15.926 K-Type host star. KIC 10712631 produces moderate levels of noise, and is a slight but predictable variable star. These variations make an M-shape with two main dips. The first takes about 8 days, and the second about 7 days. In comparison, the potential planet orbits about every 6 days with a transit lasting up to 5-6 hours. KIC 7825899.09: A strong transit signal in the light curve of the late-K dwarf KIC 7825899 (0.837 solar radii). This was the ninth reported transit in the light curve of that specific star, but it is unknown if my transit is the same as some of the others found. The object blocked 0.37% of its host star's light, suggesting that it has a radius no larger than 3.45 Earth Radii. It probably will be confirmed within a month.
  16. On May 10th, NASA announced a staggering 1,284 planets discovered by Kepler, raising the about of know planets by over 25%. But the problem with a huge galaxy-load of planets is that the cool, unique, and amazing ones are hidden among the boring and typical Hot Jupiters/Neptunes. Here, we can pick out the best of the bunch and give these planets the attention they deserve. I have a few favorites as well: Kepler-1229b and Kepler-1593b: These are the two most promising planets of the bunch in terms of finding an Earth Analogue. While not the most Earth-like, these guys could be habitable and open up a new planet type: the Super-Mars. These are planets over 0.6 Earth Radii that receive similar solar energy outputs that Mars does in our own solar system. Both Kepler-1229b (Braciaca) and Kepler-1593b (Quirinus) orbit red dwarf stars and have very similar orbital characteristics. Braciaca is the most Earth-like, with less than 1.3 Earth Radii and a possibly thick atmosphere that could raise its temperature to like something in Canada. Quirinus is a giant rocky planet that gets less light than Braciaca, but a moderate greenhouse effect can get it to habitable temperatures. The size of Quirinus makes it a bit iffy in terms of being like Earth. It could well as be a gas dwarf, or be very dense, or be too geologically active for complex life to evolve. Either way, Braciaca and Quirinus will be remembered as some of the most Earth-like planets around M-Dwarfs.
  17. With the huge variety of planets being discovered now, scientists have been theorizing about other types of planets. Some have real-life examples (like Chthonian Planets) while others are just science fiction for now (Coreless Planets). I also have a lot of hypothetical planet types. Some of these types have examples in our own solar system, which goes to show how exotic our planetary neighborhood really is. This list will be constantly updated, and other types for other forum users are welcome! OCEANIAS: These are the so-called "Water worlds" that have been appearing in science fiction for years. However, not all oceanias fit into one category. Water planets fall into 3 groups: Water Dwarfs, Classical Oceanias, and Water Giants. All 3 groups are defined by radius, mass, and proportion of water. WATER DWARFS: Tiny ocean worlds are known as Water Dwarfs. These wet midgets range from 0.05-0.5 Earth Radii and 0.01-0.4 Earth Masses, and are more commonly moons than planets. They form from small ice worlds, with radii at most 0.5 ER, migrating inwards either alone or around a migrating gas giant. Water Dwarfs could also be around gas giants farther away from the habitable zone of their stars. They are either heated by tidal forces, greenhouse gases, or both. Unlike moons like Europa and Enceladus, Water Dwarfs do not have ice crusts if they're outside the habitable zone. Those would still be classified as ice worlds. There are no known examples of Water Dwarfs yet, but some gas giants like Kepler-458b may have some as moons. If Laythe from KSP did not have any islands, then it would be a Water Dwarfs. CLASSICAL OCEANIAS: These are ocean worlds that are more or less similar in size and mass to Earth and other sci-fi ocean planets, like Kamino. Classical Oceanias cannot be more than 50% smaller or larger than Earth. Otherwise, they are either Water Dwarfs or Giants. They range from 0.5-1.5 Earth Radii and 0.4-1.25 Earth Masses. However, COs cannot have a density greater than 2.5 grams/cubic cm or gravity greater than 0.85 gees. That would make them Mini Earths or regular terrestrial planets. COs form in the same ways as Water Dwarfs, and have no known examples. But these objects could form around gas giants like HD 125612 b. WATER GIANTS: The final type of ocean planet is much more different than the other two classes, yet seems to be much more common. Water Giants are similar in size and mass to gas dwarfs and ice giants, but at least 70% of their mass is liquid water. The remaining mass is a rocky outer core, an iron inner core, and a relatively thin atmosphere. Only 1-3% of a Water Giant's mass is its atmosphere. That's really thin compared to those of Neptune and Jupiter. However, certain specifications need to be put into place for a plane to be called a Water Giant. They range from 3-5 Earth Radii and 6-20 Earth Masses, but some radius-mass ratios within these ranges can turn Water Giants into Ice Giants. Take Gliese 436 b for example. It has 4.3 times the radius of Earth, putting it right in the range. But the mass of 22 Earth Masses gives it a gravity 18% higher than that on our own planet. This compresses the water into ice and removes the planet from the Water Giant category. WGs form from ice giants or gas dwarfs with high levels of H2O inside them that migrate close to their parent stars. Hydrodynamic escape can reduce the planet's atmosphere to the mass of what other WGs have. They can also form from large ice worlds melting and/or sublimating. There are several examples, such as GJ 1214 b and Kepler-22b.
  18. I remember back in the old days when there were just 300 exoplanets, people were literally worshiping Gliese 581 c, and so many of those planets were bland and scorched! Thankfully that phase is over. The downside? We've got over 2,000 exoplanets, and that can cause some...issues. Lots of planets are very similar to each other or have ridiculous names/very long designations. We need more, in-depth explanations for each of these planets (Not all 2,000, but a decent amount). Basically, this is a thread where people can share the following: Possible conditions on exoplanets. Possible appearances of exoplanets. Names for exoplanets. "Fan Art" of these planets. Examples of possible life forms on those planets. I'll post some to make sure people don't get confused.
  19. https://palereddot.org/planetary-transits-how-can-one-measure-the-mass-size-density-and-atmospheric-composition-of-a-planet-one-cannot-even-see/ Methods in planet classification via transit analysis
  20. Tau ceti e/f (Probably not "f", but whatever) 11.9 ly away (12 for simplicity) Kapteyn b 12.9 ly (13 for simplicity) Wolf 1061 c 13.8 ly away (14 for simplicity) GJ 876 b/c (Habitable gas giants, but whatever) 15.3 ly (15 for simplicity) GJ 832 c 16.1 ly (16 for simpicity) GJ 682 c 16.6 ly (17 for simplicity) Now look at the simplified distance from Tau ceti, down. Weird, huh?
  21. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-35205810 The article is pretty self-descriptive, though I am not convinced about the certainty of what they say. How in fact do they know that they are right, its not like you can go to a star 10000 ly away and measure the mass of a star.
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