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  1. Hello, I have decided to make a story. It will be a multiple part story, and its name is Jebediah. The story follows Jebediah Kerman as he embarks on the biggest quest he will ever take part in. Also featured are Valentina, Bill and Bob. Hope you lot are hyped, it's gonna be a pretty good story! PROLOGUE When Wernher Von Kerman published his groundbreaking works on rocket design and orbital mechanics, did he know that he was going to become one of the worlds biggest celebrities? No. He didn't. Did he know that his findings would create the worlds first space agency, KSA? No. He didn't. He had ideas for rockets to be used to give people a new glance at the universe. To, how would one put it? Branch out. In terms of turning Kerbalkind into a space faring civilization. As technology advanced, so did space achievements. the Kerbin Space Race brought many accomplishments; first satellite into orbit, first man in orbit, first space station, even the first landings on the Mun and later, Minmus, Duna and Eve. After that, the public relations boom ended. No one really cared about the space programs around the world. International budgets were lowered and space travel became mostly limited to LKO/KEO travel. The Year is Year 62, and heres where we start. Chapter One: The Last Crew It was another boring launch. Of course, there was a turnout to watch the launch, but it wasn't big. Big turnouts had died off years back. Kerbmerikan Space Station crewed launch 32 was on the launchpad, preparing for takeoff. It could be the very last mission to KSS, as it was far from modern and the alotted budget for the KSA was shrinking every year. MC FLIGHT: "Launch in T minus 5 minutes. You lot good for launch?" KSS 32: "Valentina here, roger." KSS 32: "Bob here, roger." KSS 32: "Bill here, good to go!" MC FLIGHT: "Good to hear you lot are good for launch." MC FLIGHT: "Launching in T minus 4 minutes." MC FLIGHT: "ETHOS, CRONUS, ODIN, ADCO, CATO." MC ETHOS: "Go." MC CRONUS: "Go." MC ODIN: "Go." MC ADCO: "Go." MC CATO: "Go." MC FLIGHT: "Excellent." MC FLIGHT: "T minus 3 minutes." KSS Bill: "Why was Jeb scratched from the mission again?" KSS Val: "He had an important board meeting, since hes on the board. I think its about the heavy budget cuts last week. Half my friends have been fired." KSS Bob: "Sounds about right. Anyway, the KSS awaits!" KSS Val: "Might be the last mission there, this one. I heard rumours that they're re-entering KSS soon." MC FLIGHT: "T minus 2 minutes." MC FLIGHT: "T minus 1 minute." MC: "10, 9, 8, 7, ignition sequence start! 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, ENGINE IGNITION!" MC: "LIFTOFF! WE HAVE A LIFTOFF!" KSS 32: "We are alright here, G Force is doing us good!" * * * Jebediah: "You can't do this to us! Where do we go if we are fired?" Wernher Von Kerman: "We have no choice, Jeb. They aren't giving us enough money. I BEGGED. " Linus: "I agree with Jeb. Do we just give up on the dream? We need to do something." Wernher: "I'm sorry. My decision is final." The room burst into outrage, people lunging at Wernher. He managed to get out, where he made a swift exit to his office in Administration. Jebediah left the room, feeling worthless. Then, he had an idea... Chapter Two: Jebediah's Plan "Alrighty boys, docking sequence initiate!" Valentina, being a young but talented pilot, was mission commander for KSS Expedition 32. She hit a switch above her, illuminating a docking port about 75 metres away. Her displays lit up with {[Automated Docking: Engaged]}. "Things are looking good!" Said Bill, the mission's engineer. As their LKOCS (Low Kerbin Orbit Crewed Spacecraft) drew closer to the space station, mission control were watching carefully from the KSS' hull cameras to ensure the docking was successful. "Dock in 50 metres. 40. 30. 20. 15. 10. 5,4,3,2,1. Dock complete!" exclaimed a very happy Gene Kerman, having the first good news in days. He had attended the board meeting discussing the recent budget cuts, which would make any Kerbonaut (or retired one) pretty sad. * * * Jebediah Kerman was not an ordinary Kerbal. He had traits that not many kerbals have in high amounts. He was a very smart, imaginative person. The previous day, he'd found out the budget cuts had the chance of dismissing multiple Kerbals, demolishing areas of the Kerbal Space Center and well, pretty much withdrawing Kerbmerika's presence in space. This had given him a very, very crazy idea. So crazy that if he was ever found out he would most certainly be arrested for high treason. His plan was, well, to start a war! "What could go wrong?" He mumbled. His plan would be subtle at first. He would have a trained spy infiltrate the Kussian Federations rocket manufacture plant. He'd have the spy drill a very small hole in one of their craft set to launch within the month. If all went well, it wouldn't be detected until it was too late; when the hole had sucked the majority of the atmosphere out of their space station Величественный орел. The federation would immediately launch an investigation, being lured by a metaphorical breadcrumb trail which would lead straight to the Kerbmerikan armed forces... Chapter Three: Infiltration "Jebediah, Jebediah, old friend! How are you?" Jebediah had set up a meeting with his old friend, Phildorf Kerman. They'd been friends since they were kids, growing up in the same town, near Baikerbanur Space Center. They'd watch the early unmanned rockets of Kerbalkind, engines crackling as they ascended into space with awe. Of course, only one would end up in the astronaut corps; Jebediah. Phildorf was a secret agent. He'd do any job flawlessly, so long as one had the money. "So, what want from me, eh? You didn't call me for reunion! Tell me!" Phildorf questioned. * * * "Infiltrate Krussian Space Agency... Very difficult. But I can do." Phildorf gave a warm hug and a handshake to Jebediah, and he was off. How would he do this? Ah. Fake ID. He'd imitate being a native Krussian, which wouldn't be too hard, considering his thick Krussian accent. He caught a flight to Krussia. The next day, he successfully entered the Krussian Space Agency, as a rocket technician. He casually went into the capsule of the Krussian P-1 Crew Transport, got out his drill, and drilled a miniscule hole, which he then glued shut. A seemingly good seal, but once it entered space, it would become brittle and shatter. If all went to plan, it would cause cracking of the hull, causing an explosive decompression. If they were lucky, they might survive. say they were close to the station when it occured, they could either use their EVA jetpacks to get to safety, or the seal might break at the final moment of docking, causing a huge chain reaction, which could blow the station up as well... Phildorf made a swift exit after covering up his trail and laying a false one. Mission complete. Chapter Four: Devastation It was a sweltering day. Of course summer days are, when you're in a desert. The Krussian Space Agency was launching its P-1 rocket from their space center, Desert Spaceport. Jebediah Kerman was watching the launch, of course from a live broadcast at the Kerbmerikan Space Agency. As the numbers counted down, the low grumble rose to a deafening crackle and roar, as the giant rocket rose. Emblazoned with Космическое агентство (Krussian Space Agency), the P-1 rocket was their pride and joy. It had not experienced a major problem since Year 54. The rocket was now about 1250 m high, when something terrible happened. Something that would shape the history of Kerbals as a species. The rocket suddenly became a fireball, or was it? It seemingly hovered there, a flaming, red ball. It looked like a star, only tiny! Mission control was going crazy. Both. Thats how peculiar this was. Kerbmerikan and Krussian watched closely. Suddenly, a monitor in the Krussian Mission Control Room flashed with some text. {[WARNING: NUCLEAR RADIATION LEVELS: EXTREMELY HIGH]} {[PLASMA LEVELS: CATASTROPHIC]} It exploded. All measurements were acting erratic. There seemed to be a tear. What could cause this phenomenon? Jebediah was utterly shocked. Did Phildorf do this? Was it supposed to do this? What science could this... thing hold? The tear seemed to fall down to the ground. Little did the kerbals know that someone, an intelligent species 7 billion light years away, had commenced a nuclear experiment, which so happened to coincidentally occur when the explosion happened. It caused a rift in spacetime, a wormhole...
  2. Hey! I've always been in love with atmospheric flight, but it was not until I played KSP that I found a fondness for spaceflight. I've always had a love/hate relationship with maths, i.e, I love the practical science/engineering/business applications of it, but it costs me horrors to do anything beyond basic equations. Anyway, a few weeks ago, as I was browsing the Internet, I came across a small PDF booklet that piqued my curiosity. It was titled "HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES." I gave it a quick reading, skipping over most of the maths, and realized that the apparent complexity in the design of a rocket engine stems not from the engine itself, which is a relatively simple machine, but from the fact that a flight engine has to fit a very harsh set of criteria: It needs extreme levels of both thrust and efficiency. It has to be extremely lightweight, and the tanks and piping have to be lightweight too. Cost is usually not an issue, or is pretty low in the priority list. That set of criteria produces the awesome beasts we know and love, but in the process also makes them extremely complex and costly machines. (Think turbopumps, regenerative cooling, exotic materials and building techniques, cutting-edge avionics and software, ultra-precise machining, etc) I realized, that, were one to have a different set of priorities, one could take the design of rocket engines out of the realm of the true rocket engine engineers (usually teams of specialists in aerodynamics, chemistry, thermodynamics, stress analysis, avionics, and the list goes on and on) and into the hands of a single hobbyist with barely high-school math skills like me. Enthusiastic, I gave the book a more thorough reading, and found out that it was more of a "How To" guide (Insert X value into Equation 4, take it from table B, and so on), and less of a true rocket engine design book. Given the fact that I actually want to learn design instead of just blindly following along a guide, I decided upon complementing it with other bibliography, mainly "Rocket Propulsion Elements", a monster of a book at 700 pages, and filled to the brim with complex math, which, nevertheless, has managed to solve (with considerable effort and headache on my part ) all the doubts such as Why is X done in Y way?, where does this precomputed value we're told to use come from?, etc. left in the wake of the smaller book. Hence I started the design process, and am currently in the phase of producing CAD drawings for manufacturing and assembly (i.e, I'm almost done) I've decided to share the process with you in order to: Give back to this awesome community at least a tiny bit of which it has given me over the years of playing KSP. Fully review the design process from start to finish as I write this, in search of errors. Learn even more as I search for ways to explain complex concepts in forms that are simpler to grasp than mere maths. Without further ado, let's dive in! I started the design process by listing a set of criteria for the engine to meet, in order for it to be a realistic, doable project for myself. Things I want or need: Simple. Safe (Well, as safe as a controlled explosion can be anyway) Cheap to build and operate Things I do not want or need: Extreme high performance. Or any performance at all. As long as it makes a supersonic flame and lots of noise, I'm happy. Lightweight. Expensive/Hard to find/Toxic propellants. Regenerative cooling (Arguably the hardest part in the design of any rocket engine) Expensive/exotic materials. Complex/extremely precise machining of parts. Gimbaling Given that different design criteria, the project becomes a lot simpler indeed! After outlining my requirements, I made the three most basic decisions that will drive the rest of the design process. Propellants to be used. How will the propellants be fed to the engine Thrust level to be achieved. After careful consideration, and a dive into Elements of Rocket Propulsion, and some Wikipedia to check chemical properties, I settled upon Gaseous Oxygen and Methyl Alcohol as propellants. The oxidizer, gaseous oxygen (GOX) is cheap, easy to find, non toxic, non cryogenic (does not require cryogenic valves, piping, engine pre-chilling, etc), has a slightly higher performance than liquid oxygen, and it also comes pre-pressurized (No pump required). It has a big drawback, in that the required tanks and pressure regulation devices are large and heavy (think high pressure storage of a gas which uses up a large volume), and, while that would be an instantaneous No-No for an engine to be used in a flight rocket, it was unimportant for my intended use. The fuel, methyl alcohol, also known as methylene or wood spirits, was chosen because, while it is more expensive than gasoline or kerosene, it burns at lower pressures and temperatures than those, therefore making the unspoken requirement "The engine should not melt/explode" a bit easier to comply with, and it can be bought at any hardware store. Methyl alcohol is toxic, but only upon ingestion and it's not horribly toxic or carcinogenic like other propellants or oxidizers such as hydrazine, aniline, red fuming nitric acid, dinitrogen tetroxide, etc) I also decided to use a pressure fed design, as, in keeping with the simplicity premise, I want to avoid turbopumps, gas generators, and all that sort of things that make complexity, cost, and the number of potential failure points to increase. The thrust level I decided upon was 100 newtons (10.2 Kgf or around 22 lbf). It's pretty darn puny for a rocket engine, but it's a nice round number, and should still be an interesting challenge, which should be achievable without: Needing huge chamber pressures/temperatures. Having a large fuel consumption. Rocket engines are inefficient machines by nature, and I don't want to go broke after the first few minutes of operation, With that decided, it is time to determine the basic operating parameters of the engine, such as mass flow, chamber pressure, etc. that will then be used to determine the materials and physical dimensions of the engine. That is already done, but I have to review it and convert from my scribbled design notes to a good quality post. Until then, I leave you with this render of the combustion chamber / nozzle assembly as a teaser of things to come. Dec 04 2015: In the last installment, I decided upon the propellant combination and thrust target. Today, I will determine the most basic operating parameters of the engine, and, upon those, calculate some other parameters which must be known in order to start calculating the basic physical dimensions of the thrust chamber and nozzle. Also, I keep all the parameters that I determine/calculate, in a large table, that is kept handy and lets me have all the data that I might possibly need, ready at a quick glance. This is the table so far, and from now on all results will be added to it, and data for any calculations, sourced from it too. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter or Dimension Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kgf / 100N 22.5 lbf Now, in order to get started with the physical design, we have to know a few parameters: Chamber pressure (Combustion pressure) Combustion Temperature. Mixture Ratio (Proportion of oxidizer to fuel) Approximate ISP (This is mostly a rough number dependent upon the propellant combination, and will be later adjusted to account for engine geometry losses) These parameters can be calculated, but designing an engine from scratch, with no reference numbers, is a daunting task. Fortunately there are huge amounts of precalculated data on the subject, made available by either government or private organizations, and we can easily source them from tables. As indicated on the table, these parameters are determined for expansion to 14.7 PSI, which is sea level atmospheric pressure. That is good enough for me, because this engine will not be used at very high altitude or a vacuum. (I live at 2700 ft above sea level) Also, not indicated on the table (one of the things the book assumes you to know/realize) is the fact that these pressures, temperatures, and ISP's, are based upon a stoichiometric mixture ratio (there is just enough oxidizer to burn all the fuel). Any other ratio will result in lower pressures and temperatures, and less performance, which makes sense, because you are either low on oxidizer, having unburned fuel go through the engine, and then burn with the outside atmospheric oxygen without producing useful thrust, or you have an excess of oxidizer going through the engine, and, given that there is not an unlimited amount of space inside the engine, any excess in oxidizer means a corresponding lack of fuel. (There is an exception to that if running fuel-rich reduces the molecular weight of your exhaust, such as in hydrogen/oxygen engines, but that is honestly beyond the scope of this discussion) Now we are ready to determine a few other rough parameters, most importantly, the engine mass flow rate. The engine mass flow rate will let us know the mass of propellants required for operating the engine at the desired thrust level. The formula for engine mass flow rate is: To understand why that does even make sense (It took me awhile to realize why it did, and I was very confused before that) you have to take two things into account: Mass conservation principle. No matter what is chemically happening inside the engine as propellants are burned, the same amount of mass that enters, will leave. Unless you somehow create a nuclear reaction, in which case some mass will be converted to energy, but that is a very, very, very unlikely outcome Specific Impulse (ISP) is just a fancy way of saying "Hey, this engine could develop X amount of thrust if it burned 1 unit of mass per unit of time" Thus, given that we know our thrust target and also know our rough ISP, we can proceed to calculate the amount of mass entering and exiting the engine per second. I'm pretty sure this engine will consume less than 0.1 kg of propellant per second, but let's find out the exact value. 100 Newtons are 10.1971621 kgf. Therefore our engine has a thrust of 10197 grams. Ah, metric system, how can I not love you 10197 / 248 = 41,116935483870967741935483870968 grams/sec. So, when the engine consumes 41.12 grams of propellant per second, it will emit 41.12 grams of exhaust gasses per second, and produce the 100 newtons of thrust. (In theory). Now based on that total, we will determine which part of the propellant mass is fuel and which part is oxidizer. (This will be used later in the design of the injectors, and fuel system and is better determined now than then) Given the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2, as per table 1, we then can determine the mass flow ratios to be as follows: Oxidizer flow = Emfr * R / (R+1) Oxidizer flow =0.403*1.2/(1.2+ 1) Oxidizer flow = 0,2198181818181818 newtons / sec oxidizer Fuel Flow = Emfr * R /(R+1) = Fuel Flow = 0.403/(1.2+1) Fuel Flow = 0,1831818181818182 newtons/sec fuel I know I'm not supposed to use newtons as a mass unit, and later realized that mistake, but the results are the same whether I use pounds or grams , only expressed in the pertinent unit. I have no clue why this is so, and if anyone could explain, I'd be grateful. Now with these parameters calculated, we can dive into the meat and potatoes of the project, and start calculating the physical dimensions of the engine, and also you'll get to see me suffer through some more complicated maths, but that will have to wait for the next installment. Until then, this is the engine data table, with all the data that we have determined or calculated so far. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2 kgf 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s If you have any insight, questions, or even better, have found an error, please let me know Dec 12 2015: Hey! After determining operating parameters, today we are going to determine some gas values, that we will then use to determine chamber dimensions, nozzle outlet diameter, expansion ratios, throat diameter, etc. Let's get started! The idea behind a DeLaval nozzle (That's how a rocket nozzle is called) is to transform a high pressure, high temperature, low velocity gas, like the combustion products, into a low pressure, relatively low temperature, and crazy-high speed gas. (Remember that momentum = mass times velocity, and given that gasses tend to be very light, in order to produce useful thrust, velocity has to be extremely high) Velocities of 2 km/s are not unheard of for small hobby engines This image shows the profile of the gases in a DeLaval Nozzle: Notice that the gasses after the throat are supersonic, and that is done in order to prevent pressure perturbations from travelling upstream (any pressure perturbations travel at the speed of sound) This is critical, because otherwise the nozzle would behave as a Venturi tube, and produce an exhaust of similar pressure and velocity as given in the inlet, which would be useless for us. Now, you'd think that calculating a diameter that will produce a desired Mach speed would be easy, but it turns out that the local sound speed (Mach number) of any gas is affected by pressure, temperature, and density... And guess what, a nozzle varies pressure and temperature along its whole length! Now the math starts to pick up in complexity! First, we have to determine the temperature of the gas in the nozzle throat (Tthroat). That is because, as explained above, the gas temperature at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to loss of some thermal energy during the acceleration of the gas to local speed of sound (Mach number = 1) at the throat. Gamma (the Y shaped Greek letter) is the ratio of gas specific heats, a dimensionless value (much like the Mach number), which relates to the heat capacity at a given volume for a gas. For the products of hydrocarbons and gaseous oxygen combustion, Gamma equals 1.2 Tgas = 1 / (1 + ((1.2-1)/2)) Tgas = 0.90909090909 of the Chamber temp. Tgas = 0.90909 * 3155 º K Tgas = 2868.18 º K or 2595 ºc The chamber (combustion) temperature is determined for this propellant combination from Table 1. Now, we have to determine the gas pressure at the nozzle throat.The pressure at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to acceleration of the gas to the local speed of sound (Mach number =1) at the throat, as given by So, Pgas = 300 psi * (1+((1.2-1)/2)) ^-(1.2 / (1.2 – 1)) I just rage-quitted there, and cheated with Wolfram Alpha. (which, by the way, is a wonderful free online tool that I recommend you check out) So, pressure at the throat is 169.34 psi. Quite a large drop, about half of the initial value, which is to be expected in this kind of nozzle. So far, so good. Also, the gas will have to be expanded to atmospheric pressure before exiting the engine. This is important for future calculations. Given that I live at 2700 ft above sea level, I just asked Wolfram Alpha which was the atmospheric pressure at that altitude. Unfortunately, time is in short availability for me right now. So, I give you the current status of our calculations. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Please join me in the next installment, when we determine Mach numbers and finally some physical dimensions! Until then, if you find any errors or have comments/suggestions, please do let me know. Thanks. Dec 18 2015: Hey! Real life has been hell these days! Fortunately, now I've had time to review another part of the design. Onward! Now that the gas parameters, such as temperature and pressure at the throat have been determined, and we know the mass flow of the engine, we can proceed to calculate throat area, and from that, derive throat diameter (The first physical dimension) Throat area is given by: Where R is the universal gas constant, M is the molecular weight of the exhaust gasses, and Gc is the universal gravitation constant. Athroat = ((Mflow/Pthroat) * ((R * Tthroat ) / (Gamma * gravitational constant)) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906 lb/sec / 169.34 psi) * ((64.388 foot-pound/pound/degree Rankine * 5679 degrees Rankine)/ (1.2 * 32.2 foot/sec^2 )) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906 lb/sec / 169.34 psi) * ((64.388 foot-pound/pound/degree Rankine * 5679 degrees Rankine )/ (1.2 * 32.2 foot/sec ^2 )) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34 psi) * ((64.388 *5679)/ (1.2*32.2)) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34 psi) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = (0.0906/169.34) * (365659.452 / 38.64) ^1/2 Athroat = 0.0520461 square inches, or 33.5781 square mm Given this area, we can proceed to determine diameter, by simple geometry of circles. Dthroat= 4*33.5781 / 3.14159265 Dthroat= 4*33.5781 / 3.14159265 Dthroat= 6.53858 mm I'm sorry guys, I really wanted to push out more content today but an unexpected work issue has arisen (yet again) *Sigh*.. I'll have a fuller update ASAP. Sorry for the really crappy little update, but hey, progress is progress! PS: Almost forgot, this is our Data Table now: ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461“2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Feb 18 2015: Hello guys! Sorry I left all of you hanging in there, but I've been having all kinds of Real Life Stuff™ going on! I can't promise updates will be regular anymore, but this project is in no way shelved or anything. In the last installment, we had determined the gas pressure, temperature, and throat area of the nozzle. Now, with that data on hand, we can proceed to calculate the best bell end diameter that will provide expansion to the desired pressure and prevent the engine from running under or overexpanded. (Don't worry, I'll explain these terms in a second) In order for us to understand why expanding to a predetermined pressure is important, you have to go back to the definition of a DeLaval nozzle that I posted some paragraphs above. "The idea behind a DeLaval nozzle [...] is to transform a high pressure, high temperature, low velocity gas, like the combustion products, into a low pressure, relatively low temperature, and crazy-high speed gas." So the nozzle does useful work (accelerating a gas) by taking energy from its heat while reducing its pressure. I never even thought this would be significant, I mean, the larger the expansion, the better the performance you extract from the engine, right? But as a thought experiment, I decided to imagine the "perfect" engine. This perfect engine would have an infinitely large exhaust nozzle, it would drop the exhaust pressure to zero and the exhaust temperature to absolute zero, and thereby convert all the available heat from the exhaust gasses into kinetic energy. Exhaust velocity would NOT be infinite, because there's only a limited amount of heat energy to begin with, and, given the infinitely large nozzle would also be infinitely heavy, that would render our perfect engine useless, but hey, this is only a thought experiment in a perfect vacuum... And then it hit me, that in fact a real engine would not operate in a perfect vacuum, where the ideal exhaust pressure is zero, but it would operate inside an atmosphere, where the ideal expansion is to atmospheric pressure. To better understand why this is so: Imagine you are sitting with your engine at sea level. Therefore, the pressure of the engine exterior is 1 atmosphere, or 14.7 psi. Now imagine you had 300 psi in the combustion chamber, and your hypothetical nozzle had been designed to reduce pressure at the exit to 100 psi. So, what happens when you start said engine? Your nozzle works as expected, and it reduces exhaust pressure to 100 psi, with a proportional temperature drop. Then, once the gasses leave the nozzle, what happens? They immediately proceed to expand to 14.7 psi, further cooling in the process. Therefore your nozzle is underexpanded, and it is wasting gas energy (Remember, any gas that expands outside the engine is useless for thrust, much like excess fuel would be (There is an exception to that if running fuel-rich reduces the molecular weight of your exhaust, such as in hydrogen/oxygen burning engines, but that is honestly beyond the scope of this discussion)). Now to the opposite end of the spectrum: Imagine you take the same engine and change the nozzle for one that goes to, say, 0.5 psi. As the gasses go further down the nozzle, their pressure will decrease, until it matches that of the atmosphere. At said point, they stop expanding, because the atmospheric pressure exerts a force equal and opposite to that of the inner gas pressure, and the exhaust will form a column that is "pinched" by the atmosphere and will exit the bell without expanding any further. This seems like it would be good enough, right? You get a slightly larger and heavier nozzle, but for that price, you make absolutely sure that you're expanding the gas as much as it can expand, and getting all the thermal and pressure energy you can get out of it. The exhaust is as cool as it can get, it's at ambient pressure, and you've extracted all the velocity you can extract. Then who cares if the nozzle is a bit too large? Well, in an ideal world that would be OK, but in the real world, having parts of the nozzle not filled with exhaust is a bad, bad idea. The best that can happen is that the gas "sticks" to the nozzle walls after its expansion is done, you get vacuum "bubbles", Mach diamonds, turbulence, etc. in the exhaust and you lose thrust. (That happens with mild overexpansions) and the worst that can happen is the flame flopping around like crazy and banging the nozzle walls randomly until the vibration, noise, and mechanical stress of the turbulent gas flow cause the engine to experience R.U.D. (Rapid Unscheduled Disassembly) Real rockets have a problem with that. Especially first stages! First stages have to go from sea level to almost a vacuum! So how do they avoid gross underexpansion or overexpansion? Well, by compromising, and using a nozzle that is designed to work halfway between sea level and vacuum. So upon start up they are overexpanded, and as they climb they reach their design altitude (perfectly expanded), and then past that they become underexpanded. Example overexpanded nozzle. You can see the telltale Mach disks. And my favorite underexpanded one, Saturn V going uphill You can check out the expansion of exhaust gasses in this video of the Mars Climate Orbiter launch. Check out how big that plume gets as the atmosphere gets thinner and thinner. That was when I came across what I thought was the simplest engine design calculation so far: With said constant already being helpfully provided by the author. But alas, I'm always curious, and I dived into Rocket Propulsion Elements, to find out why relative gas expansion was so simple. Oh, how I was to repent. Turns out, said constant is only valid for sea level. For expansion to a different pressure, you need either a new constant, or you need to do math of the kind that gives you chills. Nevertheless, once I was in, i had no choice but to press forward (Just kidding, I had fun learning about it) These equations will be used to calculate the Mach speed of the exhaust gasses, and once we have that, find an exhaust area that will yield exhaust pressure equal to the local atmospheric pressure for that Mach number. Once again, Wolfram Alpha proves to be an invaluable tool for the hobbyst rocket engineer who wants to save time and headache. An exhaust velocity of Mach 2.62 sounds incredibly high, but actually, is pretty much on the lowest end of what you will get with a rocket engine. Now that we know the area of the nozzle end, we can use simple circle geometry to calculate a diameter (It's the same formula we already used to derive nozzle throat diameter from nozzle throat area) Dexhaust=0.515609 inches or 13.0965 mm. Therefore our Master Data table now looks like this: ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Join me in the next installment, where we'll calculate the combustion chamber parameters, and we will be then ready to begin sketching the innards of the chamber + nozzle. Until then, thanks for your time & patience in dealing with my ramblings, and as always, if you find a mistake, please DO let me know. I happen to dislike explosions if I have to pay for the exploding stuff. Mar 3 2015: Hi! Finally found a bit of free time! Real Life keeps me busy, and usually at the end of the day I'm too knackered to do anything other than crawl into bed .... But enough of my whining! You're here for the possible explosions rocket engine design theory. Given that we now know the throat diameter, and exit diameter, one would think that it's already time to calculate nozzle inlet diameter, but, a quick bit of thinking reveals that the nozzle inlet and chamber outlet are one and the same, so we'll kill two birds with a single stone, and calculate chamber dimensions which we can then use to derive nozzle inlet diameter. We will start by calculating the volume of the chamber, and, knowing that volume, we can make an educated guess about length/diameter ratio, and calculate exact values from there. What would a good volume be? A good volume would be one that ensures adequate mixing, evaporation, and complete combustion of propellants by the time they reach the nozzle inlet. That is so, because the nozzle is designed to work with a specific inlet pressure and temperature. Any propellant that goes past the nozzle inlet, will probably burn in the nozzle, which is a bad idea because temperatures at the throat are already pretty critical (despite being at lower temperatures, the throat is the area with less dissipation surface available, and therefore more susceptible to heat damage) and also it would throw off our pressure and temperature ratios for all the points along the nozzle, and if the chamber is too big, the gasses will have time to cool before they enter the inlet, thus reducing engine performance. So, in resume: Chamber too big: Colder inlet temperatures, performance wasted. Heavier engine. Somewhat easier cooling due to lowered gas temps at the nozzle. Risk of combustion instability. Chamber too small: Dangerously hotter nozzle, performance wasted. Lighter engine. Calculating the aerothermochemodynamics of complex hydrocarbons reacting while changing their state, pressure, mixture ratios, temperature, movement speed, and several other variables, in order to ensure complete combustion, is an awful, hellish nightmare. Trust me, I have looked at it. But turns out, there's a cheat for that. Even Real Life Rocket Scientists™ happen to use it for preliminary designs. It's called "characteristic chamber length" and is defined as the length that a chamber of the same volume should have if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle section. Characteristic chamber length, L* or L star, is determined experimentally for different propellant combinations, throat diameter, and combustion pressures, and it can be sourced from tables. For an hydrocarbon burning engine like mine, L* is between 50 to 70 inches. The variation is to account for injector design (propellant mixing) I decided to go with 60 inches. Vchamber = 60 * 0.0520461 cubic inches, therefore Vchamber = 3.122766 in3 or 51.173 cm3 To derive chamber length from volume, we also have to know a diameter. A good diameter for combustion chambers is around 5 times throat diameter. Dc = 5 Dthroat Dc = 5 * 6.53858 Dc = 32.6929 mm – 1.287122 inches This is for the cylindrical portion of the chamber. For a small chamber, we can just assume the convergent segment to be 1/10th of the chamber volume, and be done with it. For the chamber area, i just went with my trusty ally, Wolfram Alpha. Lc = Vc / (1.1 * Ac) Lc = 3.122766 in3 / (1.1 * 1.3012 in2) Lc = 3.122766 / (1.1 * 1.3012) Lc = 3.122766 / 1.43132 = 2.18174 inches - 55,416196 mm And thus, our Engine Master Data Table is beginning to fill with physical dimensions. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Methanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 Cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length (including Convergent Segment) 55,416196 mm 2.18174” Please join me next time, were we'll calculate chamber walls, dabble in safety margins, and make a first crude sketch of the engine (Spoiler: It does end up looking like a rocket engine) Until then, if you happen to find any errors, or have feedback, please do so. Thanks Apr 30 2016: Wow! It's been a long time! Sorry for the delay guys... Real life has been absolutely hectic, work issues, study issues, family issues, you name it you got it! Despite the long time between updates this project is not dead at all and I've been itching to show some of the progress I've made. So, without further ado, let's dive in! In the last installment, we had finished determining chamber and nozzle dimensions, but these are the inside ones only, and now we will calculate wall thickness. Every point in the chamber and nozzle has to be strong enough to resist the pressures involved, otherwise the engine will explode. I've decided that, in order to simplify the design, I will simply use a constant wall thickness, suited for the highest pressure area. This is really overkill for parts of the nozzle where the pressure will be lower, and makes the engine significantly heavier, but greatly simplifies both design and machining. Thus I shall design a vessel that can contain 300 psi with an adequate safety margin. Given that the nozzle will be automatically overbuilt, due to its lower operating pressure, I will treat the chamber as a pipe and thus greatly simplify calculation. The equation for the stress on the wall of a tube is: where S is the stress on the pipe wall, P is Pressure, D is Diameter and Tw is the wall thickness. Thus, if we replace S with the ultimate strength of our material, we can calculate the minimum wall thickness. I choose copper, given that it has excellent thermal conductivity, is easy to machine, and is cheap. The ultimate strength of copper is around 10.000 psi, but I will use a conservative 8000 psi in this calculation. S= P * D / 2Tw Tw = P * D / 2S Tw = 300 psi * 1.287122 inch / 16000 Tw = 300 * 1.287122 /16000 Tw = 0.0241335375 inch or 0.61299185 mm Of course this is the absolute minimum value, and while going with 2 mm wall thickness should be more than enough, there are other things to consider, machinability being a top priority since I don't want this project to be unnecessarily hard to machine (Machining a nozzle with walls of that thickness, in copper, will be very hard to do without deforming it) Therefore, I will make an educated guess and use a 5 mm wall thickness, which should be easy to obtain. That also gives me an 815% safety margin. This baby may melt, but an explosion is now an extremely unlikely outcome. (Thankfully) Obviously this just made the engine a lot heavier, but, then again, I don't care about weight. Now that we know all our dimensions, we need to determine our half angles, or the angles of the lines that join inlet, throat, and outlet, thus conforming the nozzle walls. For this small engine, adding a bell shape would give me major machining headaches, and produce only a minor performance improvement. Based on a simpler geometry proposal by @A Fuzzy Velociraptor, I decided to go with 15º and 40º half angles, jointed by rounded unions. I proceeded to fire up my favorite CAD software and did a quick sketch. (All dimensions in mm) I don't know about you, but to me, that definitely looks like a rocket engine. What do you guys think? Next up: We will tackle the issue of cooling. Hopefully tomorrow. No promises. ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2.068 Mpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1.168 Mpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 Cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º May 06 2016: Did I say tomorrow? I totally meant in a week or so! Let's get started on cooling, shall we? In order to understand the cooling needs, we first have to understand how the heat flows through a rocket engine. Most of the heat of combustion is either used up accelerating the gasses, or leaves with the exhaust, while a part of it is transferred to the chamber wall, propellant injectors, and nozzle. Heating is a problem because it can debilitate the metals of the chamber to the point at which they cannot resist the chamber pressure anymore, causing deformations which are usually followed by RUD. Therefore, we can devise of several methods to keep the temperatures within reason. No cooling at all: Use the thermal mass of the engine as a heat sink, then radiate the heat away while the engine is off. Pros: Simplest method - Cons: Run time very constrained. Passive cooling: Use either the engine nozzle or chamber walls exposed to the atmosphere as radiators. Pros: Very reliable - Cons: Complex design, a large run time requires more radiating surface than may be available, and thus, the run time is still limited without adding heavy radiator vanes. Active cooling: Use a cooling fluid circulated against the walls to get heat out of the engine. Pros: Unlimited run time. Potential to be extremely lightweight, if regenerative cooling is used (Regenerative cooling means that propellant doubles as cooling fluid) Cons: Complex design. I shall use Active cooling for this engine, for the following reasons: Safety I: If I design the engine for unlimited run time, the chance of destroying it in a 5 second initial run is extremely low. Safety II: The cooling jacket doubles as a shrapnel shield, and protects the test stand equipment from a possible explosion. It should be an interesting and educative challenge, but not a hardcore one like regenerative cooling. Active cooling works like this: (in this example, the cooling fluid is water) Small hobby rocket engines have an average heat transfer from the hot gasses to the chamber walls of about 0.5 Kw/cm2/sec, or 3Btu/sq inch./sec. Therefore, and assuming a perfect wall conductivity, this is the amount of heat that has to be removed from each square cm of the engine. Now in order to know the total heat transfer per unit time, we have to determine the inner surface area. In order to simplify calculation, I will ignore fillets and treat the engine as a cylinder for the chamber, a truncated cone for the nozzle's convergent section, and another truncated cone for the divergent section. Atotal= Achamber + Anozzle convergent + Anozzle divergent The formula for the surface area of a cylinder is: I shall modify this formula, because I do not want the total area, I only want the area of the side wall + top (the injector plate) The bottom area is shared with the convergent section of the nozzle and there is no material there to absorb heat. Therefore, Achamber = 2 * 3.14159265359 * 16.345 ^ 2 + 2 * 3.14159265359 * 16.345 * 40 So, the area of the chamber inner side walls plus injector plate inner side: Achamber = 5786 sq milimeters. The lateral area of a truncated cone, is as given by: Thus, for the convergent segment of our nozzle, Anozzle c = 3.14159265359 * (16.345 + 3.408) * Sqrt ( (16.345 - 3.408)^2 + 15.838) We use lateral area because the "bottom" of the truncated cone is the chamber radius and is not in contact with the walls, and the "top" is the throat radius, and, as such, also not in contact with walls. Therefore, Anozzle c = 840 sq mm And now, the same for Anozzle d Atotal= Achamber + Anozzle c + Anozzle d Atotal= 5786+ 840 + 145 Atotal= 5786+ 840 + 145 = 6771 square mm, or 67.71 square cm, or 10.5 square inches. The total heat transfer, "Q", is equal to the heat transfer rate "q" times the surface area of the inner walls. Therefore Q = qA Q = 0.5Kw/cm2/sec * 67.71 cm2 And thus, the total heat transfer of the engine is 33.85 Kw, or about 45 horsepower... (For the Imperial guys, about 31.5 BTU/sec) Join me next time, when we will attempt to find out exactly how much water flow does it take to get these insane amounts of heat out of the engine! If such a small engine produces these amounts of heat, my respect for the guys and gals that work on the real deal with regenerative cooling has multiplied hundredfold. May 16 2016 A few days ago, we calculated the amount of waste heat that the engine would output when working, and now we need to devise a means to get said heat out of the engine, in order to keep the operating temperatures as low as possible. Injector cooling is not an issue, as they are cooled by the inflow of propellant. Injector plate and chamber, however, are. For the sake of simplicity, I will stick to using water as coolant. Therefore, the system now has a few defined constraints: The coolant fluid must not boil. I will use water as coolant, for its high specific heat, and availability The system must be more capable than strictly needed. I don't care about mass and therefore I will have ample safety margins. Coolant flow speed of 10 m/sec or around 30 fps The coolant shall enter near the nozzle, flow all the way around the chamber, and leave near the injector plate. The amount of water mass flow (mass/sec) needed can be calculated, given the desired temperature rise and the heat input to the fluid, as given by: This is a simplified equation that only will work for water. For other cooling fluids, you need to factor in specific heat capacity. A good ΔT could be 20 ºC, that way water entering the cooling system at ambient temperature, about 20 ºC, would leave at 40 ºC, and thus a 60 ºC margin would remain before its boiling point. (68 to 108 ºF, 42.22ºF ΔT,) Wm = 31.5 / 40 Wm = 0.7875 pounds/sec, or 357 grams/second of coolant fluid. Another cool thing about using water is that, given a density (σ) of 1kg/lt, we now also know that the engine will need 0.357 liters of water per second in order to operate. (That is around 21.5 liters per minute, or 1290 liters per hour.) Now we have to calculate a pipe of such area as to obtain the desired water flow at the desired flow velocity (10 m/s should be more than enough to prevent boiling for this engine). To simplify calculation, I will treat water as a perfectly incompressible fluid. To obtain the desired mass flow at the desired velocity, the cooling jacket must have an area Ajacket, given by: The cooling jacket will therefore be like a ring around the outside of the chamber walls, with cross-sectional area Ajacket , as given by: where D2 is the inner diameter of the outer jacket and D1 is the outer diameter of the combustion chamber, given by: D1 = Dc +2Tw Where Dc is Chamber inner diameter and Tw is the wall thickness. Now we substitute and solve as this: And thus: D2 = sqrt(4mw/(Vw ^ density ^pi) + D1 ^2) D2 = sqrt(4*0.357kg /(10 m/s ^ 1 kg/lt ^3.14159265359) + 42.69 ^2 ) So, 44.33 mm is the inner diameter of the cooling jacket. I will just round it up to 46 mm for ease of machinability. That will increase coolant consumption without significantly improving cooling, but I don't care about that. Please join me in the next installment, when we finish up the coolant jacket design, including yet again safety margins, and some weird math! Until then, I leave you our ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2068 kpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1168 kpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174 ” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º Average wall heat transfer 0.5 kw/sec/cm2 3 Btu/sec/“2 Total inner surface area 67.71 cm2 10.5“2 Total heat transfer 33.85 kw/sec Coolant fluid Water Coolant fluid ΔT 20º C 42.22º F Coolant mass flow 357 grams/sec 0.7875 lb/sec Coolant flow volume 0.357 liters/sec 12.07 fl oz/sec Coolant density 1kg/lt 62.43 lb/ft3 Coolant flow velocity 10 m/s 32.81 ft/sec Coolant jacket inner diameter 46 mm 1.811” June 29 2016 Man, time sure flies when you're having fun horribly busy! On with the show! In the last installment, we had almost finished the cooling jacket, but some dimensions still have to be known, such as jacket inlet/outlet diameters, and jacket wall thickness. I shall use a single outlet, and two offset inlets, in order to produce a swirling motion of the coolant that should help prevent hot spots. In order to avoid pressure variations, and to keep flow speed constant, I shall keep a constant area between inlets, jacket, and outlet. The jacket has to withstand the coolant pressure, but it also doubles as shrapnel shield in case of engine RUD, and thus I will simply go for an overkill 5 mm wall thickness for the jacket, which gives us an outer diameter of 56 mm. The area of the inlets equals 1/2 of the area between the chamber outside wall and the jacket inner wall. This, as given by the area of a circle formula, equals 5221 mm2 for the jacket, and 4499 mm2 for the chamber. Thus, the coolant flow passage area is 722 mm2. and the outlet is 3.032 cm in diameter, while the inlets are half that. I'll just round it to 30 and 15 mm, for ease of machining. I'm starting to feel that the extra area I've added is counterproductive, as the design might be wasteful of water. Although better safe than sorry. I'll stick to those dimensions, and if there's excessive cooling I can simply reduce flow. And with that, the cooling design is done. Next up: Injectors! Oh boy! ENGINE MASTER DATA TABLE Parameter Value Metric Imperial Propellants GOX/Metanol Thrust 10.2kg 22.5 lbf Chamber Pressure 2068 kpa 300 psi Maximum Reaction Temperature 3155ºK 5679 ºR Mix ratio 1.2 ISP 248 s Expansion pressure 918 Mb 13.31 psi Total Mass Flow 41.1 gr/s 0.0906 lb/s Mass Flow (Oxidizer) 22.42 gr/s 0.049428 lb/s Mass Flow (Fuel) 18.68 gr/s 0.041182 lb/s Gamma 1.2 Throat Gas Temperature 2868.18ºK 5679 ºR Throat Gas Pressure 1168 kpa 169.34 psi Throat Area 33.5781 mm2 0.0520461 “2 Throat Diameter 6.53858 mm 0,2574244 “ Exhaust gas velocity (Mach) 2.62167 Nozzle exit area 134.71 mm2 0.2088 “2 Nozzle exit diameter 13.0965 mm 0.515609 “ Chamber Volume 51.173 cm3 3.122766 “3 Chamber Diameter 32.6929 mm 1.287122 ” Chamber Area 839.5 mm2 1.3012 “2 Chamber Length + Convergent segment 55,416196 mm 2.18174 ” Chamber Wall thickness 5 mm 0,19685” Nozzle Half-Angle 15º Nozzle inlet Half-angle 40º Average wall heat transfer 0.5 kw/sec/cm2 3 Btu/sec/“2 Total inner surface area 67.71 cm2 10.5“2 Total heat transfer 33.85 kw/sec Coolant fluid Water Coolant fluid ΔT 20º C 42.22º F Coolant mass flow 357 grams/sec 0.7875 lb/sec Coolant flow volume 0.357 liters/sec 12.07 fl oz/sec Coolant density 1kg/lt 62.43 lb/ft3 Coolant flow velocity 10 m/s 32.81 ft/sec Coolant jacket inner diameter 46 mm 1.811” Coolant flow passage area 722 mm2 1.119”2 Coolant inlets diameter 15 mm 0.5906” Coolant outlet diameter 30 mm 1.181” Mar 10 2017: Not abandoned! It may take me a long time, but this project will be finished come hell or high water! It's been a long time, so I'd recommend that you read from the beginning as a refresher. With that said, let's proceed. So, where was I? Ah, yes, injectors, injectors. The function of an injector is to take high pressure propellants from the feed lines, meter the appropriate amount of each (much like a carburetor), and inject them into the chamber in such a way that they can properly and efficiently burn. There are several kinds of injectors, impinging, showerhead, hollow post, pintle, etc. For this design, I shall use an impinging design. It's easy to design and build, and, while it has several disadvantages (Less efficient, very hard to throttle, small variations in shape cause big mixture irregularities, etc), these disadvantages are irrelevant to the type of engine that I'm designing. There are several "eyeballed" parameters. 100 PSI pressure drop. This should be enough to help prevent instability without requiring structural reinforcement. 20 m/s injection velocity. I was unable to find data on how an injection velocity is chosen for different propellants, however, this value is mid of the range for small hydrocarbon/oxygen engines We can now proceed to determine injector hole area, based on the physical characteristics of the propellants. Ethanol can for all practical purposes be considered incompressible. Thus, the injection area that satisfies the mass flow and injection characteristics is given by Where m is the propellant flow mass, c is the discharge coefficient, δ the density, and Δp the pressure drop. A typical discharge coefficient for round hole, small size injectors with a larger fuel manifold behind is about 0.7 The density of ethanol is about 0.75 g/cm3 at ambient pressure, and almost does not change with pressure. Pressure drop will be 100 psi. And also the bibliography I'm using (For those of you crazy cool enough to attempt a similar project) Title Author Editor DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Dieter K. Huzel and David H. Huang Rocketdyne Division, North American Aviation HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES Leroy J. Krzycki ROCKETLAB / CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF PROPULSION Philip G. Hill and Carl R. Peterson Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Ignition!: An informal history of liquid rocket propellants John D. Clark Rocket Propulsion Elements 7th Edition GEORGE P. SUTTON and OSCAR BIBLARZ JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC If you have any insight, questions, or even better, have found an error, please let me know
  3. I have created a launchpad in the VAB, launched it, and moved it to a different location in the space center. Now I want to launch rockets from it. The only problem is that when I launch, the rocket launches from the regular launch pad so I have to move the rocket to the other pad somehow. I have tried making many different rovers armed with claws, but none of them are very reliable and can't easily it straight up the ramp onto the secondary launch pad. Has anyone done this before? Would rovers work or would I need something else? Here is a screenshot of after the most reliable rovers moved a rocket to the launchpad: https://imgur.com/uVetFBH One of the two rovers is in the bottom right, Bill is standing on the ramp (to repair popped tires; I had 4), and the pad is the big thing in the middle.
  4. Hi and welcome to this thread! I am a big fan of the current progress LinkSpace is doing. Their NewLine-1 rocket is paving the way for reusable launch vehicles on Chinese ground. That's why I am inspired to make this mod. This is currently the dev thread of mod. Please report any bugs and features you would like to see.
  5. Your objective: Build the smallest rocket possible that can get into orbit. There are 2 categories, each with 2 sub-categories. I will judge each rocket in 2 separate ways, cost and mass. Each one will have its own leader board. The rules are simple. No cheating with Hyperedit, debug menu, ect. The rocket must be completely stock. No mods that alter physics and no clipping parts to exploit physics. The rocket can be manned or unmanned, each will have their own leader board. Make sure to post pictures showing your rocket in flight and showing it's mass and cost. ALSO: The rocket must be a rocket, not a cross between a rocket and a plane. It must take off from the launch pad ,and have other rocket qualities. https://imgur.com/a/swbkZaD This is my entry LOWEST MASS ROCKETS Unmanned: 1. Pds314- 0.855 tonnes 2. Pds314- 1.091 tonnes 3. mystified- 1.491 tonnes 4. Johnster_Space_Program- 3.420 tonnes 5. DRAG0Nmon- 4.460 tonnes Manned: 1. Aetharan- 1.990 tonnes 2. Aetharan- 2.053 tonnes 3. Aetharan- 2.085 tonnes 4. Aetharan-2.159 tonnes 5. Ironbars- 2.175 tonnes LOWEST COST ROCKETS Unmanned: 1. Pds314- 640 kerbucks 2. Pds314- 2110 kerbucks 3. mystified- 4580 kerbucks 4. Johnster_Space_Program- 5250 kerbucks 5. DRAG0Nmon- 7,154 kerbucks Manned: 1. TheFlyingKerman- 2603 kerbucks 2. Aetharan- 3907 kerbucks 3. farmerben- 3982 kerbucks 4. Aetharan- 4276 kerbucks 5. Ironbars- 4423 kerbucks Notes- zolotiyeruki, if you can find some screenshots of that old craft, I will gladly accept it! Pds314 maintains the top 2 spots for lightest and cheapest unmanned crafts. TheFlyingKerman holds the cheapest manned rocket. Artharan has almost stolen every spot for the lightest manned rocket, taking 1, 2, 3, and 4! Will he be able to take 5? Keep up the amazing work everyone!
  6. SuperPenguin160's Launch Vehicles Contains: New Glenn 3.75m Rocket with landing legs Electron 0.9375m Rocket that is capable of taking at least 500kg into orbit The Rutherford engines use EC and LOx and therefore have a very high efficiency Additional Pictures: Plans: New Shepard Vector MX1HH Haas 2CA Demonstrator 3 Recommended: Tweakscale (The New Glenn is 3.75m) RealPlume (Every engine is compatible) Downloads: SpaceDock Curse License: Thanks to @Shadowmage for his amazing TexturesUnlimited mod All Rights Reserved
  7. This is a modified version of the Saturn-Shuttle concept: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn-Shuttle NOTE: The version shown uses J-2S engines, but have been changed back to SSMEs for the increased thrust! The Saturn-Shuttle was a concept to launch the Space Shuttle on a modified Saturn V. For this version, I modified the original design (which had a payload capacity of 60.5 T to LEO) to instead use a 6.5m diameter external tank (the same diameter as the S-IVB, reducing costs for new infrastructure) and slightly shorter, to be only slightly longer than the Shuttle itself. The top of the tank would contain a payload fairing for higher-risk or oversize payloads, like space station modules, or Shuttle-Centaur missions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaur_%28rocket_stage%29#Shuttle-Centaur. Meanwhile, the S-IC would be kept, but with 3-4 F-1A engines instead of 5 for the reduced mass of the upper stages. The center engine would do the reentry and landing burns, before the S-IC propulsively lands on a barge for reuse. This would make use of the extra S-IC performance to reduce the costs of this system (instead of using the hard-to-reuse SRBs). Larger fins may be added to increase this launch system's stability. Lastly, it can also launch unmanned- as the development money for the SRBs and 8m diameter External Tank is instead of modifying the Shuttle to be unmanned. Ejection seats and pressure suits would always be worn during manned missions. A preliminary launch payload capacity and first launch date of 30T to LEO and 1982-1983. A heavy-lift version could be made by first dumping S-IC reusability, then removing the Shuttle, instead placing the now air-started SSMEs on the side of the rocket, where the Shuttle was. The payload would be carried in the 6.5 meter diameter fairing, which can be increased to 8 meters if necessary, and would target a payload capacity of 90T to LEO, possibly increasing to 95T with the Centaur-Shuttle upper stage. A larger upper stage, and another F-1A engine added to the core stage, would increase the payload to 130T to LEO. How much would thus reduce launch and development costs of the Space Shuttle if it was developed like this in the first place? Would it work?
  8. Vulcan rocket Vulcan This is the next generation rocket from ULA Includes: Tanks for Centaur and ACES Main tank BE-4 first stage engine RL-10 second stage engine Inflatable heatshield Parafoil Fairings Interstages Pictures: http://imgur.com/a/WeJvT Recommended: If you want to launch the B330 orbital Moon base install this awesome mod from @bcink: Issues: Do not make the lower engine fairing the first part of the craft, I don't know why but the BE-4 won't be able to gimbal. If only smokescreen is installed so no realplume the engines will give particles even when they are off. Download: Note: This mod uses B9PartSwitch by @blowfish and is included in the download If you have a black tank it's probably a mod conflict with TR(R) or uninstall TR(R) or delete the texture switch part in the config of the tank. SpaceDock Curse License: Vulcan: All Rights Reserved B9PartSwitch: GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3.0 feedback is welcome and do not forget to report bugs.
  9. Here at Victory Aerospace, the guy in charge of the money thought it would be a smart idea to waste it at the slot machine. Because of him we hardly have any money to build a space craft. We can't come up with a design for a cheap enough rocket so we asked other space programs to help us out. CHALLENGE: Launch a rocket that cost less than 7000 funds to a specific location RULES: All engines are allowed No cheats (infinite fuel or low/no gravity) Must use stock parts Making history and breaking grounds parts are allowed. RANKS: Basic contract: Fly a satellite into a low Kerbin orbit Appreciated contract: Fly a Kerbal in to a low Kerbin orbit and return him alive Basic Lunar contract: Fly a Kerbal into space, get an encounter with the Mun, and return him/her safely Advanced Luner contract: Land a Kerbal on Minmus and return him safely Victory appreciation contract: Impress me Good luck and have fun with the challenge!
  10. How do I align my side booster to the west for exampel? So when I start the rocket and make a gravity turn the are exactly horizontal.
  11. Welcome to my heavy lifter thread! So far I only have one, but more are planned. DOWNLOADS: DISCOVERY 1: Discovery-1 DISCOVERY I I made this craft waaaaay back in 1.0.5, yet it still remains my best orbital booster and Mün injection craft ever. Parts: 135 Mass: 432.024t TOTAL D/v: 2699 M/s Height: 41.4 meters. Payload to LKO: Unknown Uses for this craft: Fuel tug, Mün mission tug, orbital booster Screenshots:
  12. Ver 1.2 Adds all the parts for the 4 seat Altair Lander and AresV Launch Vehicle. This mod is to be used in conjuction with HOYO CSM mod and Ares 1-X mod. You have to download the Ares 1-X mod for the first stage Solid Rocket Boosters as well as 2nd stage(KDS) J2X engine and the HOYO CSM mod for the docking port. Place the Boosters on the AresV core stage fuel tank using the stock radial decouplers. You then should launch the Altair Lander and Kerbin Departure Stage(KDS) into orbit using the AresV. Launch the HOYO CSM using the Ares 1-X rocket to rendez-vous and dock with the Altair & KDS. Then use the J2X KDS engine to push the whole stack. Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is recommended so as to not have wobble problems due to the size of the launch vehicle parts and torque produced. If anyone has suggestions for weight/deltav etc. Please share them with me so i can improve the mod on the next update. Supports RealPlume, Engine Lighting and TAC Life Support. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TexturesUnlimited (For Reflections), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), KSPWheel (For the landing legs. It is absolutely needed for the landing legs to work.), Starwaster's AnimatedDecouplers (For the decoupler animation), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.5 & ASET Avionics 2.1. INSTALLATION Be careful, this mod comes bundled with the latest version of ASET Props (1.5) & ASET Avionics (2.1). Delete these mods if you have older versions before installing this mod. Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1475/Altair Lander & AresV. LonesomeRobots Aerospace?ga=%3CGame+3102+%27Kerbal+Space+Program%27%3E .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from the latest KSP 1.3.1. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. AnimatedDecouplers created by Starwaster. Redistributed as per license. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TexturesUnlimited created by Shadowmage. Redistributed as per license. KSPWheel created by Shadowmage. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.5 & ASET Avionics 2.1 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. changes in this version Reflections are now handled by the awesome TexturesUnlimited mod. Texture Replacer is now deprecated. ModuleDeployableAntenna is now used to handle the Dish antenna animation. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ver 1.1 Adds all the parts for the 4 seat Altair Lander and AresV Launch Vehicle. This mod is to be used in conjuction with HOYO CSM mod and Ares 1-X mod. You have to download the Ares 1-X mod for the first stage Solid Rocket Boosters as well as 2nd stage(KDS) J2X engine and the HOYO CSM mod for the docking port. Place the Boosters on the AresV core stage fuel tank using the stock radial decouplers. You then should launch the Altair Lander and Kerbin Departure Stage(KDS) into orbit using the AresV. Launch the HOYO CSM using the Ares 1-X rocket to rendez-vous and dock with the Altair & KDS. Then use the J2X KDS engine to push the whole stack. Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is recommended so as to not have wobble problems due to the size of the launch vehicle parts and torque produced. If anyone has suggestions for weight/deltav etc. Please share them with me so i can improve the mod on the next update. Supports RealPlume, Engine Lighting and TAC Life Support. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TextureReplacer (For Reflections), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), KSPWheel (For the landing legs. It is absolutely needed for the landing legs to work.), Starwaster's AnimatedDecouplers (For the decoupler animation), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0. INSTALLATION Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1475/Altair Lander & AresV. LonesomeRobots Aerospace?ga=%3CGame+3102+%27Kerbal+Space+Program%27%3E .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from the latest KSP 1.3.1. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. AnimatedDecouplers created by Starwaster. Redistributed as per license. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TextureReplacer created by ducakar. Redistributed as per license. KSPWheel created by Shadowmage. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. changes in this version Changed ModuleRCS to ModuleRCSFX for all parts with RCS thrusters. Now when firing RCS produces sound. Landing gear now produce sound while retracting/extending. Changed TACLifeSupport configs. Now Altair lander has resources to support 4 kerbals for 9 days. 1 kerbal has resources for 24 days in the science lab. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ver 1.0 Adds all the parts for the 4 seat Altair Lander and AresV Launch Vehicle. This mod is to be used in conjuction with HOYO CSM mod and Ares 1-X mod. You have to download the Ares 1-X mod for the first stage Solid Rocket Boosters as well as 2nd stage(KDS) J2X engine and the HOYO CSM mod for the docking port. Place the Boosters on the AresV core stage fuel tank using the stock radial decouplers. You then should launch the Altair Lander and Kerbin Departure Stage(KDS) into orbit using the AresV. Launch the HOYO CSM using the Ares 1-X rocket to rendez-vous and dock with the Altair & KDS. Then use the J2X KDS engine to push the whole stack. Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is recommended so as to not have wobble problems due to the size of the launch vehicle parts and torque produced. If anyone has suggestions for weight/deltav etc. Please share them with me so i can improve the mod on the next update. Supports RealPlume and Engine Lighting. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TextureReplacer (For Reflections), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), KSPWheel (For the landing legs. It is absolutely needed for the landing legs to work.), Starwaster's AnimatedDecouplers (For the decoupler animation), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0. INSTALLATION Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1475/Altair Lander & AresV. LonesomeRobots Aerospace?ga=%3CGame+3102+%27Kerbal+Space+Program%27%3E .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from the latest KSP 1.3.0. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. AnimatedDecouplers created by Starwaster. Redistributed as per license. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TextureReplacer created by ducakar. Redistributed as per license. KSPWheel created by Shadowmage. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. SCREENSHOTS
  13. So today I made my first SRB Only to Orbit Rocket! It can get into orbit with some fuel remaining to attempt a Trans-Munar Injection, but I wasn't able too. Here is a video on the craft and if you want to download it there will be a link below: https://kerbalx.com/JohnsterSpaceProgram/SRB-To-Orbit-Rocket Here are images of some prototypes of the final design: And here is the final design: Have you made an only SRB Rocket that can get into orbit yet? If so, tell me below and post some images of it!
  14. I’m trying to find where my saved rockets are located (not in game files) as I’m trying to launch multiple of the same thing and can’t be bothered making a new rpcket that is a carbon copy
  15. Here's a new ship I made! It's got a decent amount of Delta-V, I'd say, although I dunno if it can actually make it to Duna. The interplanetary stage doesn't have landing legs, so it's useless for actual landings on other planets anyway. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1iZkm7X8b41nNxZv1GZPpvk9OJHuuDORy I can't find the BBcode thing to embed albums into forum posts, so just take this link instead. https://imgur.com/gallery/3Zxtp5M For takeoff, burn at 90 percent thrust for intial Mammoth and SRB stages. When SRB flames out, eject. Use remaining Mammoth fuel to get into partial orbit, then eject on flameout. Disable Liquid Fuel and Oxidizer on atomic engine fuel tanks with the context menu. Use Mainsail to reach complete orbit, then disable it manually by using the context menu. Don't use the general purpose AG for any engine toggle tasks unless it's an emergency! Finally, enable Liquid Fuel on side engines connected to atomic engines, and use them for interstellar maneuvers. Action Group 1: Communications Action Group 2: Solar Panels Action Group 3: Toggle Engines (for emergencies, doesn't affect launch stages) -Extra Notes- Caution. This vessel does not have strong turning power in the initial takeoff stage. WARNING! This vessel does not have landing legs and cannot land on high gravity (Dres or above) celestial bodies and WILL likely have it's engines destroyed if attempted! Low gravity body landings should only be conducted by skilled pilots at their own risk. Notice. Don't forget to move any crew in the laboratory back to the Mk1-3 Command Pod before ejecting it away. (We know what you did, Bill!)
  16. Disclaimer: English isn't my native language, I do my best. Clay Parts; no it's not about clay but its malleability. My idea is a completely revamp part system where your parts adapt to the shape, size, fonctionnality and visual you want. Less parts (even with a lot of mods), just highly configurable ones and configurations. ClayAddons will be a serie of standalone mod that interact with each other alot. This post is about discussing and defining the theoretical rules between each part and functionality. Ex: relation between size and thrust of an engine. As ClayAddons will contain alot of stuff we will go step by step. First one engine! How engine are handle by the mod (ClayEngine). Engines includes everything that allow movement, motion or implied motion ex electric generator. In fact the mod include no engine, but engine module or component (you can have multiple engine module in one part and module on a part can interact with module on other parts). Ex1: the propeller is a module, piston engine is another one. Ex2: combustion chamber is a module, tuyere (nozzle) is another one. Each module have a whole range of option ex: size, number of piston(piston engine), number of blades(propeller). Each module can have one or multiple virtual and physical nodes. Module node are port for linking modules with each other like electric plug. Nodes can be connected when module are placed inline or with various cable: electric cable, fuel line, shaft, cable(rope or metal cable), track(for wheel), chain, belt, pipes(yes pipes for air, water and ??????. So air intake need to be connected to engine using pipes.) Virtual nodes are for internal use only. Physical nodes will lead to the outside of the part of his module if not linked to anything else ex: exhaust, air intake. For physic ease all those internal logic will be simplified at vessel load. I need your help to define module their nodes and options. +Mass etc let focus even more---> Propeller engine + Piston engine Propeller component: core (nose cone): size, mass, drag, internals blades: number, size, drag, design, thrust ressource: torque, rotation, air, thrust, data Piston engine component: piston: number, size, configuration, mass, power ressource: electricity, gas(oxygen), gas(CO2), liquid fuel, torque, rotation, heat, data Gearbox: type(planetary, ....), mass, size ressource: torque, rotation Shaft: mass, size ressource: torque, rotation Those four element interact by torque and rotation For later
  17. I want to build a real small vodka rocket using like a 1 liter of vodka, first how to build the rocket Where to get cheap vodka how to launch it
  18. No Space Junk/Debris Challenge Prepare for grand update! leaked duna one! guess which update it will, and what it will inlude! This challenge is multi-challenge, every level is harder. "every step is clean, it's nice to you and me" . Me. Hello fella space flighters! I see you are not thowing the Kerbodyne S3-7200 to the trashcan. Well. i guess you are just an newbie (don't get ofended k?). you are building an SSTO ? well thats impressive but seriously. Are you weak? na na na na. GET CREATIVE YOU FLIGHTERS! so here have it. le challenge. But before. RULES! No cheats or anything like this. (debug menu, hyperedit, etc.) Only KER And any camera mod + visual mod is ok. NO DIRTY SSTO! cmon i hate em'. No kraken drives. Lader drives. SA kirrim drives. intake drives and Something other drives. Docking is acceptable but only apollo styled (thats will be hard cuz of the challenge not to leave debris) and rover docking. Sub and leave a like on my page ))))))00)0) Respect Moho and eeloo plz. drone cores parts, or any other command modules that is on deatachale stage (5 or 4th stage for example) will count as debris. On apollo styled missions, decoplers that left alone in space doesn't count as a debris (if the decople is by himself) bring jebediah or bill or valentina (no body needs bob lol) if the debris deatached and it is turn to steak in atmosphere, it isn't count as a debrie (if no pieces left of it). every challenge is a challenge, you can't complete sub orbital and orbital challenges at the same mission no Making History expansion usage! no tracking station debrie cleaning Screenshot of every thing that happen required challenge number one. Sub Orbital sanitor! The goal. : Don't leave any debris While doing the mission in Sub orbital tragectory and back. Rules For sanitors juniors. Heatshields doesn't count as debris if deatached. that mean if you have a heatshield. it woudn't coudn as a debris. Rules For sanitors seniors. Every part that got deatached count as a debris (even that sandwich that you made for breakfast) that mean that every part ( like an a heatshield) woud count as a debris. AWARDS for sanitor juniors of sub orbital challenge. challenge number 2 AWARD For sanitors juniors and senior of the Sattelite challenge. Build a space station with at least 2 crafts while both crafts haven't leaved any debris if it isn't a heatshield. that mean you need to send both space craft screenshots so i (or we) woud see that you haven't cheated. Rules For sanitors senior Build a space station with at least 5 crafts while all of the space craft haven't leaved any debris. that mean you need to send both space craft screenshots so i (or we) woud see that you haven't cheated. AWARDS The Mun dust sanitor! The goal. : go to moon and ___ while don't leave any debrie. For sanitors seniors of the Mun challenge CONGRATULATIONS! For sanitors senior of the Duna challenge. For sanitors seniors of the Eve challenge. AWARDS For sanitors Senior of the Eeloo And Moho challenge.
  19. Visit Steam Workshop Here Introduction: You can simply launch 6 relay satellites with this rocket. Action groups list: "1":Switch on the solar panels "2":Switch on/off the relay antennas Technical help: Send E-mail to srk888666@qq.com if you find anything wrong with the rocket. Warranty expired if you put the rocket on the launch pad.
  20. Due to a major financial scandal, Kerbin's main supplier of prop engines can no longer deliver. The timing could not be worse as KSP is launching a new Duna programme, with a focus on exploratory aircraft that can deliver good science. Plans are afoot for serious fuel mining and processing infrastructure, but this is still costly in time and resources. Creating multiple fuel stations around the planet is not viable at this time. They need an aircraft with range. The challenge: Build an aircraft for Duna, and fly it as far as you can with the fuel you are carrying. The winner is the one who flies the farthest. The only rules are: 1. It must be rocket powered. No props or Kethane-powered mod jets . 2. It must carry a Mobile Processing Lab. 3. It must not go into orbit. Ceiling is 16,000 meters. 4. No drop tanks. Too expensive to replace and/or recover. 5. It must be a real plane, meaning it has lift and could take off and land multiple times. 6. Mods are fine, but the engines must be stock. Details: Cheat or Mission Builder yourself to any location on Duna. Fly your plane as far as you can, and when you land, hit F3 to show your total distance traveled. Any mods (other than mod engines) are fine except infinite fuel or anything that breaks the spirit of the challenge. Mods and stock parts will be two different categories. A plane is considered stock if it has no modded parts. Non-parts mods have no bearing on that. Your plane can be as big or small as you want it. It can have tons of stability enhancements or none at all. It can be piloted or probe cored, but you must have a full science crew in the lab. I suppose a really keen person could build a flying fuel processor and go forever (and serious kudos if they do), but the spirit of the challenge is single flight range and that is what you will be judged on. This idea came about while I was tooling around in Mission Builder, modifying a plane I built for Kerbin to see what I could do. I got a fair distance (well, for me, anyway) and I thought it would be cool to see how others solve this problem. Partly this is selfish; I want to learn from you all :-) On my to-do list for work is to get upskilled in Adobe Illustrator. It may take a bit, but I will create a badge for this challenge. My first attempt with the lab. Okay, but needs a lot of R&D.
  21. 1. drifting: sometimes i just launch a rocket and when i try to make my orbit by turning into a 40 degree its starts to drift (sometimes i turn it at 7000 m, when i want a lower orbit, when i want to visit a planet i turn it at 14000) 2. spinning around the navbal:l sometimes i use struts, but whenever i try, my rocket becomes instabile, and starts to make a delicate spinning around the nawball. this is very annoying because when i try to modify my orbit, its sometimes modify it vertically too. 3.making orbits: my basic method to do an orbit is to fly up to 14000 m, and then turn it to 40 degree. after that, at 30 000 m i turn my rocket to 90 degree. when my periapsis comes out from kerbin, i travel to the apoapsis to make a burn in prograde, and make my orbit "circular". i think its a very primitive and fuel-wasting method, so somebody pls tell me (or take in a scott manley tutor i dunno) how to do it.
  22. Hello everyone! I'm Nuno Seletti and I am new in this forum! I use KSP for many years. Now with this new version I want to present to you the result of some hours of experimentations and work to built a very efficient and powerful lifter to launch any size of playload in medium Kerbin orbit or more further than the Mun: I present to you the OLS! (Orbital Launch System) made by myself (NASA flag company) A perfect regular lifter that can carry as I said before any playload (in size not on every type like a space shuttle) on medium or more high orbit, with a big torque and fuel reserve, so you cannot be out of fuel OLS specification: Hight: 32 meters without coiffe (that protect the playload) Diameter: 9.3 meters Weight: 337.100 Tons Bye everyone! What do you thinks about it? I may post a link to download it if you you want it to fly! Regard Nuno
  23. Jules Kerman ATV & Ariane 5. (Ver 1.2) Jules Kerman Automated Transfer Vehicle and Ariane 5 Launch vehicle. You can use the ATV to transfer resources and propellants to your stations. Use the Ariane 5 to lift the ATV to orbit, or use it to lift to orbit up to 2 payloads simultaneously using the Sylda decoupler. This mod is meant to be used with TAC Life Support. If you have TAC Life Support installed you will be presented with 2 EPM parts (Equipped Pressurized Module). One for transfering Oxygen, Food, Water and Monoprop and one for transfering Liquid Fuel, Oxidizer and Monoprop. The EPM has a functional interior and can house one Kerbal when TAC Life Support is used. If you don't have TAC Life Support only the Fuel variant will be available. There is no docking port part included. Recommended is the HOYO Docking Port from the HOYO CSM mod and fits like a glove on the ATV. Ideal for use with the LonesomeRobots Station Parts mod. Using Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is always a good idea. Supports RealPlume and Engine Lighting. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TexturesUnlimited (For Reflections and solar panels), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.5 & ASET Avionics 2.1. INSTALLATION Be careful, this mod comes bundled with the latest version of ASET Props (1.5) & ASET Avionics (2.1). Delete these mods if you have older versions before installing this mod. Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1536/Jules Kerman ATV %26 Ariane 5. LonesomeRobots Aerospace .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from KSP 1.3.1. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TexturesUnlimited created by Shadowmage. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.5 & ASET Avionics 2.1 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. changes in this version Reflections are now handled by the awesome TexturesUnlimited mod. Texture Replacer is now deprecated. Solar panels use the TexturesUnlimited Solar Shader. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jules Kerman ATV & Ariane 5. (Ver 1.1) Jules Kerman Automated Transfer Vehicle and Ariane 5 Launch vehicle. You can use the ATV to transfer resources and propellants to your stations. Use the Ariane 5 to lift the ATV to orbit, or use it to lift to orbit up to 2 payloads simultaneously using the Sylda decoupler. This mod is meant to be used with TAC Life Support. If you have TAC Life Support installed you will be presented with 2 EPM parts (Equipped Pressurized Module). One for transfering Oxygen, Food, Water and Monoprop and one for transfering Liquid Fuel, Oxidizer and Monoprop. The EPM has a functional interior and can house one Kerbal when TAC Life Support is used. If you don't have TAC Life Support only the Fuel variant will be available. There is no docking port part included. Recommended is the HOYO Docking Port from the HOYO CSM mod and fits like a glove on the ATV. Ideal for use with the LonesomeRobots Station Parts mod. Using Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is always a good idea. Supports RealPlume and Engine Lighting. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TextureReplacer (For Reflections), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0. INSTALLATION Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1536/Jules Kerman ATV %26 Ariane 5. LonesomeRobots Aerospace .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from KSP 1.3.1. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TextureReplacer created by ducakar. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. changes in this version Changed ModuleRCS to ModuleRCSFX for all parts with RCS thrusters. Now when firing RCS produces sound. Rebalanced the EPM module RCS for better stability during translational thrusts. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jules Kerman ATV & Ariane 5. (Ver 1.0) Jules Kerman Automated Transfer Vehicle and Ariane 5 Launch vehicle. You can use the ATV to transfer resources and propellants to your stations. Use the Ariane 5 to lift the ATV to orbit, or use it to lift to orbit up to 2 payloads simultaneously using the Sylda decoupler. This mod is meant to be used with TAC Life Support. If you have TAC Life Support installed you will be presented with 2 EPM parts (Equipped Pressurized Module). One for transfering Oxygen, Food, Water and Monoprop and one for transfering Liquid Fuel, Oxidizer and Monoprop. The EPM has a functional interior and can house one Kerbal when TAC Life Support is used. If you don't have TAC Life Support only the Fuel variant will be available. There is no docking port part included. Recommended is the HOYO Docking Port from the HOYO CSM mod and fits like a glove on the ATV. Ideal for use with the LonesomeRobots Station Parts mod. Using Kerbal Joint Reinforcement is always a good idea. Supports RealPlume and Engine Lighting. These mods are not bundled with the release but are highly recommended. Supports kOS and Telemachus. Also not bundled with the release. This mod comes bundled with dependencies. Module Manager, TextureReplacer (For Reflections), RasterPropMonitor (For functional interior), Alexustas' ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0. INSTALLATION Unzip and merge with your GameData folder. The folder GameData/LonesomeRobots from the zip must be merged with, not replace, any existing GameData/LonesomeRobots folder. DOWNLOAD https://spacedock.info/mod/1536/Jules Kerman ATV %26 Ariane 5. LonesomeRobots Aerospace .craft files for all LRAERO ships can be found here . These are saved from KSP 1.3.0. Licensing. This mod is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License Redistributed with this mod. RasterPropMonitor created by Mihara & MOARdV. Redistributed as per license. TextureReplacer created by ducakar. Redistributed as per license. ModuleManager created by Sarbian. Redistributed as per license. ASET Props 1.4 & ASET Avionics 2.0 created by Alexustas. Redistributed as per license. SCREENSHOTS