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Found 57 results

  1. About This is a KSP mod based on a piece of code written by BahamutoD for BDArmory and improved by myself. Basically it extends game physics range(1)! This will allow you to switch between vessel that are far away or even to see an orbital station from a flying plane. (1) This mod allows to extended the physics range but it will not prevent the consequences of doing it. REQUESTS AND IDEAS TO IMPROVE THE MOD ARE ENCOURAGED! Donations = Motivation Download Issues Changelog (*) You might experience some of the following effects when the range is extended > 100 km: vessel shaking, lights flickering, phantom forces, landed vessels colliding with the ground, etc.
  2. Hi, everyone! I have a nasty problem to solve. Half by physics, half by math. And hope UE4 can help me with that too. I have an object in the space. We know the center of its mass (C). There also a lot of engines/thrusters. We know where are they placed (P1...Pn) and in which direction they turned (D1...Dn). Each engine has maximum thrust (0...Ti). All those values we know. Tasks are: 1) We should be able to move (strafe) the object in the space by custom normalized vector (V) with custom thrust power (0 <= T <= 1). 2) We should be able to turn the object on the place centered on (C) with custom thrust power (0 <= T <= 1). 3) Of course, there are situations, where it's impossible. If so -> T = 0. Any thoughts or formulas?
  3. I built this probe to fly into the sun, but upon decoupling the second to last stage, this happened- Please disregard my video recording skills, I recorded it with my phone. Anyway, if anyone has advice or knows why this is happening, please comment.
  4. Hi. I have a problem. Whenever I make a maneuver node, its delta-v requirements slowly change. This makes it impossible to accurately use the nodes. Here are some screenshots to show what is happening. There is no rcs/sas/engines running. The node does not change during timewarp, so it must be a physics issue. The predicted apopsis after the maneuver does not change. How can I stop this from happening? (if the embedded album does not work, here is a link: Thanks!
  5. I was wondering if KSP simulates the Magnus effect, If you don't know what it is click here.
  6. To start off, I would like to say that there are two things that mods cannot do effectively for this game. Multiplayer, and better physics. Other than that, mods all the way. Now I would love multiplayer, but it will never happen as some players resist it. (Resistance is futile). Now the second thing that mods can't accomplish, physics, is not resisted by any player. So here are my suggestions: - Allow kerbals to walk on moving surfaces. This will definitely make the people at mission reports/KSP storytelling extremely happy, and it will make any player happy. It adds so much functionality when kerbals can actually do things on the decks of ships and the wings of planes. This feature could be done by making kerbals "stick" to things they walk on more, and by making kerbals have a realistic weight and realistic aero so they don't decelerate at 5g when they jump out of a cockpit. - do the same for planes so planes could taxi on flying airstrips - do the same for rovers, for the same reasons - this isn't physics, but weather should be added, mostly for wind purposes -waves
  7. I've been designing space stations as of late. One thing I try to do with them is give them proper self-illumination so I can actually see them at night. (I have plenty of mods and one of them make night-time in space pretty dark...) My first station is over 200 parts and counting (still missing a few nodes.) I think about 20% of the part count is just lights and RCS ports. I just realized the lights and RCS are physics-less. Does that affect the physics processing KSP does since the mass and drag are just added to the parent part? I'd like to think it makes it a little easier, but this is KSP: I can't assume the best case scenario regarding how it does things. I'm asking because the surface lights from B9 aren't physics-less. I like their looks, so I tend to spam them a bit on my designs (spaceplanes especially.) I'm thinking of using them on my next station, a small-medium fuel depot. This one is a bit more practical at about 75 parts for better loading and processing. But I realize about 18 parts are already just lights. So does PhysicsSignificance help with physics processing & frame-rates to any degree or is it purely based on part count? (The >200-part station is now chugging along at about half real-time now.) It if leans towards part count, I'll probably redesign the fuel depot to use Stack Inline Lights for lighting. (And/or saying screw it and launch it as one vessel rather than building it modularly; those docking ports add up...) EDIT: Then could you clarify the MET color indications? Could a yellow indicator be cause by an overworked GPU? For the record, I'm on an i7-4771 @ 3.5GHz w/ 16GB RAM & an AMD HD7990. My game runs slowly (less than real-time) but is playable (not choppy at all) with the >200-part station. I just took at look at the station with the Debug Menu's Performance graph. Says I'm running at 21FPS, but movement and camera control is quite smooth and even (other than the stutter from GCing every few minutes.) I'm guessing the 21FPS is more physics frames processed than visual frames rendered/displayed? 21 Physics FPS seems to jive with the approximately half real-time rate I was guessing at. Oh, this was with nearly max graphics settings other than Texture Quality (Half) and ground scatters (Off) and with forced DX11 in this case (trying to save on RAM; had Out of Memory crashes as of late from editing the station). I think my Physics Delta in the settings is 0.04... EDIT2: Huh... I just my Physics Delta. I was at 0.05 for 21FPS. I tried it out with extreme settings and got: 33.2FPS @ 0.03 (consistent and smooth) ~10FPS @ 0.12 (choppy & stutters between 8-11FPS) I never did quite understand how Physics Delta worked. I did notice that the frame rates I wound up at equal 1/Physics Delta though. Is that setting effectively a "minimum frame rate" setting or something?
  8. I am playing KSP with a bunch of mods. the game was running fine and then i had a game crash. i had to re validate, update my drivers and restart my computer to be able to get KSP to load again. when it did finally load and i tried to launch a plane from my hangar but i was unable to lift off as my speed couldn't go above 13m/s. i know it was working before because i had no problem gaining speed and flying with the exact same plane i was using. i thought it could just be the liquid engines but when i loaded up my rocket fueled plane it had the same effect. i could not gain speed its as if the physics had been changed by a mod or something was affecting the atmosphere. i tried deleting my physics file and re validating but that didn't fix it either. i opened the console config with shift F12 or w/e it is and looked up the default values online and the numbers were the same? any ideas on what could be causing these physic issues? or mods that might tamper with physics? i dont have the real physics mod installed thanks
  9. So I've been trying out the stock ships recently, because I always build my own and I wanted to see if they were any good, and I noticed that several didn't work, not taking off or only just taking off or falling over for no apparent reason. I was wondering if this happened to everyone or if it's just my physics being weird as usual, because it seems to not work properly a lot, with other people seemingly being able to lift much greater weights with much less thrust and fuel. I don't know if there's any solution for this, or if it's something that happens to everyone, and it's just me not being able to play the game. If anyone could give any advice or help in any way, I'd be very grateful.
  10. I'd like kOS to calculate the velocity at periapsis for me with the apoapsis height, periapsis height and apoapsis velocity as variables. However, if one is using the specific orbital energy v2/2 - µ/r = constant, you must know the standard gravitational parameter. I could hardcode the values into my script for every celestial body, but I want it to be as general as possible (if you decide to alter the default masses with mods etc). How do I get rid of the dependency of µ in my formula?
  11. Hi, So I was playing KSP and I noticed that cylindrical objects - like jettisoned stages, fuel tanks, etc - seemed to fall with an attitude perpendicular to the flight path, Basically they fly/fall sideways. The weird bit is that this even happens with parts with nose cones so that it has the least drag with the nose into the wind as it were. I mean here even the centre of mass is shifted slightly forwards. It got me thinking, though I understand a fair amount of physics I can't figure out why it doesn't fly aerodynamically? -And once sideways it's incredibly hard to orient any other way (as you'd expect). So am I being an idiot here and missing something I really should've learnt by A-level physics, or is there some underlying phenomenon at work here? Cheers, Jack
  12. Limits of the Kerbol system

    Why is the stock Kerbol system inescapable?
  13. The first ripples of an arising dispute between Experimental and Integrated Integrals are shaking kerbins science community. Integrated Integrals is insisting that time is continuous and can be divided into infinitely small timespans. While Experimental is claiming to have prove that time progresses in small packages. They call it Klanck time. It was painfully clear that this conflict had to be resolved as fast as possible. Your mission is to design and run an Experiment that proves which side is right and wrong. You may use all the mods and cheat menus you like, as long as no physics is influenced. Submissions will be “published” if the concept is new, or if the experiment shows a more significant difference between both models of time. Please don’t give the answer without giving the prove!
  14. Vortex modeling?

    Okay, this is a rather technical question that is probably best answered by a Squad programmer, but if anyone else knows feel free to chime in. I have been thinking a lot about aerodynamics lately, and in particular the vortices that form in the wake of atmospheric compression. Obviously these are essential for lift, but controlling them is essential for managing drag. I wanted to know how closely the Kerbal Space Program aerodynamic physics engine models these vorticies. For example, are there advantages to putting small strakes to break up airflow before it builds to a larger vortex behind the craft? Will long swept wings generate smaller vorticies than short square ones? Is there any lift advantage for adding bulkier perturbations in the topography of the airframe on top of it compared to on the bottom? I know the answers to these as concerns of real-engineering, but I want to know how closely they apply in KSP, since they would impact my design choices.
  15. So I have just started an alternate history project in which the solar system forms very differently from Our Time Line (OTL). What this results in is a very different 19th, 20th and 21st century as space colonization becomes available even to the European Imperial nations. In any case, before I start I just want to check that the alternate solar system I have designed is even possible, taking into account things like orbital physics and planetary climates. So, here's what I have so far: -Sol is the star in the center of the system. Can cause blindness when looked directly at for a long time. For simplicity, it has the same characteristics as in OTL. -Vulcan: (0.071x Earths Mass) Vulcan is the closest planet to the Sun, and is a Lava planet. Due to its closeness to the Sun, it is very hot. Vulcan is close enough to the Sun for more than half of the planet to be molten. It is largely composed of dense Iron, metals, and Iron/Metal Compounds on its sun-facing side, as due to its proximity to the Sun, all of the lighter volatiles and silicates characterizing most planets in the Solar System boiled away, at least on its Sun-facing side. The proximity of the planet to the Sun exerts a lot of gravitational energy on Vulcan, making it tidally locked. Lava oceans cover the Sun-facing side of Vulcan, while (due to heat from the opposite side of the planet moving towards the night side) the night side is dotted with Volcanoes and Lava lakes, puncturing the thin Vulcanian crust. These emit large amounts of Carbon Dioxide and Sulphur into the atmosphere of Vulcan. However, the Sun's powerful solar wind blows away much of the accumulated gases (including silicates and other normally solid material) into space a very high speeds- consequently, from far away, Vulcan looks a little like a comet. This is how it has been visible since ancient times. The night side, however, is relatively cold, (compared to the day side) meaning silicates (and under rare circumstances, ices) are present here. Due to this difference in temperature, the atmosphere can condense, form clouds, and solidify on the night side, forming a silicate 'rain'. However, this is uncommon, as these materials are generally blown away by solar wind before it has a chance to precipitate. Vulcan is somewhat larger than Mercury in OTL, and like Mercury, lacks a proper magnetosphere. [0.45 G] PLANET (12° Inclination) {0.17 AU} -Mercury: (0.055x Earths Mass) Mercury, as in OTL, contains many valuable minerals, being an “iron planet” composed mostly of metallic material. A less eccentric orbit means it is tidally locked. [0.38 G] PLANET (7°) {0.3 AU-0.47 AU} -Venus (Native name Avelia): (0.815x Earths Mass) A habitable planet orbiting at a high inclination in resonance with Earth (avoiding high gravitational interactions with it that would sling it out of its orbit.) It has a (somewhat thick) atmosphere, magnetic field and a surface much different from OTL. Despite being habitable for life, it is a relatively dry desert planet, and lacks large animals, as there is not enough water to support the amount of plants needed by large animal life (aside from its intelligent species, which we will get to later). The surface water available is concentrated in a few small oasises. The surface terrain is composed of flat plains, and high, volcanic plateaus- most of which merged into one large plateau near the equator where Aphrodite Terra is OTL (these form as Venus lacks the water for tectonic plates). The air has a 17% O2 content (with the rest mostly nitrogen), and the surface temperatures average 40-50° C. This makes the planet uninhabitable for unprotected humans in most areas, though the air is breathable for many. Aphrodite Terra contains high concentrations of Uranium-235 for nuclear weaponry, Gold, and Platinum-Group minerals for mining. Venus is also one of the places outside Earth that has intelligent life, which at the time of first contact was a small, feudal, agrarian society. This is strange, as the planet lacks large animals and significant arable land. The intelligent life here is very limited in number due to only having a few areas on Venus with enough water to support them (desert settlements are small and isolated, and look a lot like those on Jakku or Tatooine in the Star Wars series). This also limits their technological advancement, though they love and greatly value the technology they DO see and/or obtain (much like the Manus islanders in OTL). Oh yeah, and the first man to step foot here was Simon Wolf Edmunds, and thus the first base here was called Edmunds' Step. [0.9 G] PLANET (40°) {0.8 AU} -Eros: (0.0000075x Ceres Mass) Venus' only moon, Eros has a very eccentric, somewhat inclined orbit around Venus. It is likely a captured near-Venus asteroid, and being a S-type asteroid, is depleted in volatiles (for refueling), but higher in metals (such as gold), compared to C-type asteroids. Very similar to 433 Eros in OTL. [Negligible G] MOON (10.8° Inclination to Venus’ Inclination) {0.8 AU} -Earth: (1x Earths Mass) Same as IRL. Ignoring the effects of tidal locking, due to storyline purposes, it is a binary to Luna. It also is the home world of the most advanced species in the solar system – according to members of said species. [1.0G] PLANET (0°, in relation to Sun (Constant Format used throughout for objects orbiting the Sun)) {1.0AU} -Luna: (8.13x Moon Mass) Earth’s only large moon. It has a magnetosphere (formed by tidal heating), a biosphere and breathable air. It isn’t tidally locked, so ancient astronomers have been able to see both hemispheres. (Yes, I know this isn’t possible in real life, but I’m keeping it this way for the sake of the storyline). Luna is composed of similar material to Earth in OTL, and can be considered Earth's smaller “brother” or "sister" or "gender-neutral chibi thing" (it is a little smaller than Mars in OTL). Its atmosphere extends much farther above its surface than Earth's due to its low gravity. It also is slightly cooler than Earth due to a thinner, yet still breathable atmosphere. It has intelligent inhabitants, however they are far inferior to most other intelligent species as they were still getting used to ideas like "fire" at the time of first contact in 1946. [0.36 G] PLANET/MOON (0° Inclination, in relation to planet (Constant Format used throughout for objects orbiting another object)) {1.0AU} -Aurora: (Undecided Mass) Moon of Earth, thought to once have been a metal-rich “M-Type Asteroid”, it contains concentrations of platinum-group metals that made it the moon that paved the way for asteroid mining. It is at an inclined, eccentric prograde orbit with Earth-Luna's barycentre- though this orbit is unstable, and the object will likely collide with either Earth or Luna in a few million years due to gravitational interactions between its larger neighbours. Aurora is relatively small, however, it is about the size of 3554 Amun (actually, the two are pretty much the same). It is not tidally locked, however, as Luna's and Earth's gravity are in a “tug of war” with the moon. Aurora is surprisingly sparsely inhabited due to the fact it is used by multiple nations as a testing ground for extremely powerful weapons that shouldn't be experimented with on Earth. [Negligible G] MOON (27°) {1 AU} -Phobos (0.000012x Ceres Mass) and Deimos (0.0000016x Ceres Mass): Now binary trailing Earth Asteroid Trojans. Otherwise, same as IRL. Both have similar compositions, and Phobos lacks the stress stripes caused by its proximity to Mars. A strange “library” containing “monoliths” (Quantum Computers with massive, ultra-long-duration hard drives containing huge amounts of unknown data) has been found here, however- one of the greatest mysteries of the Solar System. Humans are still yet to decipher its data, but as computer technology advances, strides are being made to do so. One theory is that it was from a collapsed ancient civilization, or that it was left behind by its creators for us. [Negligible G] ASTEROIDS (14°) {1 AU} -Comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle: (0.0069x Ceres Mass) First discovered in 1846, Comet Swift-Tuttle is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 133 years. Though this comet's orbit is stable due to a 1:11 orbital resonance with Jupiter, it passes very close to Earth/Luna-in OTL, it will approach 0.03 AU to Earth. In this alternate timeline, its orbit is determined to pass a minimum of (0.0003 AU) to the Earth-Luna system in 1969- dangerously close. As a result, it generates significant scientific study on the comet's orbit, and how to mitigate a potential impact. As 109P in OTL and this timeline have very similar properties, they both have a 26 km nucleus of similar composition- combined with is high-energy orbit, an impact would have 27x greater force than the impactor that cause the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event. Two manned spacecraft were sent here to push the comet out of the Earth impact corridor, using a Jupiter flyby to match its inclination- named Freedom and Independence. [Negligible G] COMET (113.45°) {0.96 AU-51.23 AU} -Mars (Native name Koppon): (0.12x Earths Mass) Mars is one of the three places outside of Earth with intelligent life and one of the most complex biospheres in the solar system. It has a proper magnetosphere (due to its large moon causing tidal heating in the core) allowing it to retain a breathable atmosphere and a habitable, but relatively cold climate, due to its distance from the Sun and thinner atmosphere- the polar regions to 50°N and 50°S are in a perpetual ice age. Most of the rest of Mars is composed of the Mars equivalent of Tundra, and Boreal Forest. Additionally, the Tharsis Bulge does not exist- due to plate tectonics. Instead, it is a large plain (like the Midwest) with large shield volcanoes and mountains on its western edge. As the Tharsis Bulge pushed Arabia, on the other side of the planet, up, the plains of Arabia are also underwater. Mars' intelligent life was the most technologically advanced other than humanity at the time of first contact, with a technology level only about 50-100 years behind Earth. The fact humanity and the Martians have developed so close to each other chronologically, and the statistical improbability of this, has raised several interesting theories. Its intelligent life was not expected to be killed off by Smallpox and Measles shortly after the first manned landing in 1952, as the difference between species living on Mars and on Earth is so great- despite this, there was a large kill-off after (unknowingly) tainted goods were traded between Mars' intelligent life. Still, this only wiped out about 40% of the population, compared with more than 90% in Australia and the Americas in OTL. Mars is also slightly larger in size, compared to Mars in OTL. As this planet is largely dry, much drier than Earth (due to low amounts of evaporation from its cold climate), it is considered a cold semi-desert planet by some scientists. It is the most Earth-like planet (aside from Luna), but lacks precious minerals and/or resources and animal biodiversity of Earth (due to less O2 produced from the partially-frozen over planet). Its atmosphere is 20% oxygen and 68% nitrogen (the rest mostly noble gases) - breathable. Mars is currently similar in population to Luna, but the recent discovery of large oil and Thorium reserves (which also indicate a vastly expanded biosphere in the past) is bringing that up considerably. [0.38 G] PLANET (1°) {1.3 AU} Bellona (Martian name Eke): (0.011x Moons Mass) Mars' only moon, about the size of Ceres in OTL and based off Ike in KSP. Bellona and Mars' compositions are similar, having formed from the same material. It is almost in hydrostatic equilibrium (but not quite), so it though it looks round at first glance, it is not completely rounded, like Ceres. [0.05 G] MOON (4°) {1.3 AU} Minerva (Native name Nemixis): (8x Earth Mass) The largest rocky planet in the solar system. Its high gravity and large magnetic field (due to active volcanism) have let it develop a large, dense atmosphere, which, though similar to Earth's, is unbreathable due to the high concentrations of CO2 (above the human tolerance of 5mm partial pressure of CO2) to humans, but is perfectly suited to the native life, which is adapted to the conditions. Though there are large concentrations of CO2 on this planet (1% of Atmosphere), it is otherwise similar to Earth's Atmosphere. The Greenhouse effect from CO2 and evaporating water (water planet means more vapor) causes this planet to be habitable, despite its distance from the Sun. Minerva is also one of three places outside of Earth known to have intelligent life, which is not highly advanced (compared to those of Venus, Earth, and Mars), but uses its ability to survive in an atmosphere mostly unsurvivable to humans to its advantage. Minerva is mostly like Laythe in KSP, but with much deeper oceans- as most of the continents are underwater, with only the mountaintops remaining (meaning the land that there is is slanted, and usually not optimal for agriculture). The planet has a very low axial tilt of 1° (though this is thought to have changed significantly over the years, due to a lack of a moon, ranging from a 0-30° axial tilt.) meaning that there are no seasons. This, along with the lack of land, means that civilization is unlikely to advance much farther than basic agriculture without extra help. It contains unusually large concentrations of minerals, such as Silver, Titanium, Zirconium, Gold, and Rare Earths, and the deepest areas, 90 km deep, contain strange, exotic ices, due to their density. (Platinum-Group Metals and Uranium are also available, but at lower concentrations than on Venus.) Of course, extracting these minerals require mining underwater. The atmosphere is very similar to Earth. Minerva also has large reserves of oil and natural gas, due to its oceanic nature. [1.8 G] PLANET (2°) {1.8 AU} Ceres: (0.013x Moons Mass) Same as in OTL, but in a more inclined orbit. Also is surrounded by a very, faint, young ring, thought to be debris from an asteroid impact that took place a few million years ago. [0.04 G] DWARF PLANET (15°) {2.97 AU-2.56 AU} Dres: (0.017x Moons Mass) A Ceres-like protoplanetary object slightly larger than Ceres in OTL. It is similar to Dres in KSP 0.90, with large canyons likely formed when the moon underwent thermal expansion. It has a very eccentric orbit. [0.04 G] DWARF PLANET (5°) {2.5 AU-3.1 AU} Jupiter: (317.8x Earths Mass) A gas giant, Jupiter is also the 2nd largest planet. It is basically the same as in OTL, but with a very different system of moons. [2.528G] PLANET (1.3°) {5.4 AU-4.95 AU} Laythe: (9.3x Moons Mass) The closest moon to Jupiter, Laythe is very similar to its version in KSP (but larger)- an ocean moon. However, due to tidal locking, its vast oceans are pushed to the poles, leaving behind the land in islands clustered near the equator. Unfortunately, Laythe's tides are impressive- due to the gravitational forces from Jupiter and Castillo, these tides have more resemblance to tsunamis on Earth than tides, making the land completely useless! Though the tides hinders complex land life from growing, it has a breathable atmosphere, strong magnetic field (powered by Jupiter's tidal heating of the core) and many diverse aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, Laythe is very volcanically and tectonically active, spewing CO2, which is absorbed by cyanobacteria- however, these cannot support complex life at the surface, due to the lack of sunlight; all life here is deep-water, making use of thermal vents to survive (although many of these vents are in shallow waters). Additionally, the oceans are acidic, due to absorbing large amounts of CO2. Due to the lack of land and Sun, Laythe has an unbreathable atmosphere with a mere 10% oxygen, and composed of mostly nitrogen, with significant amounts of CO2 and Water Vapor. However, the greenhouse gases also makes Laythe an average of 17° Celsius. The moon also lacks a giant impact crater, like Laythe in KSP (as this may have shattered the moon apart). Laythe is between the moons Io and Europa in OTL. Human missions getting here suffer (such as the “MILLER” planetary lander/human precursor sent here, which was quickly consumed by an unexpectedly large swell, or "MILLER2" who's last recorded transmission was "OH **** WHAT THE **** IS THAT SHOOT IT SHOOT IT [indecipherable screaming]!") due to the radiation belts around Jupiter, that Laythe is protected from, but in the middle of(though some still evaporates, as the low gravity means Laythe's atmosphere extends much farther out than Earth's). Though it has large amount of precious minerals mine-able underwater, Laythe has largely been designated a “no-go” zone for human missions- leading to the famous quote, “All these worlds are yours, except Laythe. Attempt no landings there. If you do attempt to land there, you probably deserve whatever happens to you.” [0.37 G] MOON (0°) {5.4 AU-4.95 AU} Castillo: (1.46x Moons Mass) The only other major moon of Jupiter, Castillo is much like OTL. It contains a global ocean under its icy crust and mantle, containing a surprisingly large biosphere. It is a good staging point for a base, being away from Jupiter's radiation belts, (not to mention useful land, and volatiles to fuel ships). It is somewhat closer in to Jupiter than in OTL, allowing the two moons Laythe and Castillo to form a resonance and stabilize their orbits. Unlike in OTL, however, it did get hot enough during formation to be differentiated. Castillo is the most distant body in the solar system with a permanent population as of 2018. [0.12 G] MOON (2°) {5.4 AU-4.95 AU} Saturn: (95.16x Earths Mass) A gas giant. Unlike in OTL, it lacks large, noticeable rings- the processes that formed the larger rings did not take place here (though Saturn still has smaller rings, such as the F-ring). Also, in the planet’s atmosphere there are “gigantic airborne jellyfish monsters”. [1 G] PLANET (2.4°) {9 AU-10 AU} Enceladus: (0.18x Moons Mass) The closest major moon to Saturn, it is about the mass of Pluto in OTL, and has water-ice geysers. Underneath the ice is a global ocean thought to contain complex life getting energy from Enceladus' internal heating, though its study has so far been limited. The geysers are the source of Saturn's E-Ring, and the moon also has cryo-tectonic plates that resurface the moon. Enceladus' ocean also contains large amounts of ammonia, which also acts as an anti-freeze. It also has a more eccentric orbit around Saturn, heating the moon even more, and making its ice layer relatively thin. [0.06 G] MOON (0°) {9 AU-10 AU} Titan (Native name Xanadu): (0.06x Earths Mass) The largest moon of Saturn. Discovered in 1655, it is much larger than OTL Titan, which it is very similar to, and has biologically diverse seas of liquid hydrocarbons. Titan orbits where it does in OTL, and has a hazy atmosphere similar to Titan IRL, but at 2 atm at the surface. Titan is also home to various ecosystems including one intelligent species with medieval technology. Titan is large enough to generate its own (weak) magnetic field, like Ganymede in OTL. [0.22 G] MOON (0.3°) {9 AU-10 AU} Iapetus: (0.02x Moons Mass) One of the few moons that managed to escape Titan, Saturn, and Enceladus' gravitational interactions, Iapetus is the 3rd largest satellite of Saturn, and is the same as in OTL- a large, ellipsoidal, icy moon with a two-tone coloration. [0.02 G] MOON (15.47°) {9 AU-10 AU} Uranus: (14.54x Moons Mass) Similar to OTL. An “ice giant” who has an axis tilted sideways (its moons are also tilted to Uranus' equilateral plane.) However, Uranus (unlike in OTL) also has a large set of young, (less than 500 Million years old) inner rings composed of both ices and dust (thus much darker than Saturn's rings, but are almost as extensive and massive as Saturn’s' rings in OTL- a 'hidden treasure'). These main rings are located within Miranda's orbit, and are formed by a Miranda-sized Uranian Moon that broke up a two Billion years ago after approaching the Roche limit. These rings have stayed in pace due to the existence and formation of 'Shepherd moons' within the ring system. Uranus also has a system of faint, dusty, outer rings (outside the orbit of Miranda) formed by collisions between objects near Uranus. [0.89 G] PLANET (15.47°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Miranda: (0.0009x Moons Mass) Miranda has extreme and varied topography formed by intense geological activity (it looks really cool, go take a look for yourself) and is composed of 75% ice, strangely high. Unlike in OTL, it is geologically active, with cryovolcanoes spewing water ice containing large amounts of ammonia and salts. Its geologic activity is due to tidal interactions with Ariel from its more eccentric orbit (than in OTL). Miranda also has a subsurface ocean containing simple halophies (due to the extreme salt content). It is also the only Uranian Moon that supports life. [0.0044 G] MOON (4.2°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Ariel: (0.018x Moons Mass) Similar to in OTL, Ariel is composed of equal parts ices and rocky material, and is crisscrossed with scarps, and canyons due to gravitational interactions with Miranda and tidal heating. It has pockets of ammonia-rich water in its ice layer, similar to pockets of water underneath the ice of Antarctica. These, however, appear to be sterile- one theory is that these lakes were once frozen over, but when Miranda and Ariel went into orbital resonance, these pockets reheated, but devoid of life. [0.0161 G] MOON (0.3°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Umbriel: (0.015x Moons Mass) Same as in OTL. Umbriel, like Ariel and Miranda, has canyons, but has an otherwise old surface dominated by craters. It has a very low albedo of 10%, and has a slightly blueish color. Like most of the other major Uranian moons, it is composed of equal parts ice and rock. [0.0142 G] MOON (0.13°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Titania: (0.0496x Moons Mass) Same as in OTL. Titania has an extremely thin CO2 Atmosphere, which often freezes into dry ice frost. This is from out-gassing of CO2 from its 50 km thick, ammonia-rich ocean. As this water is located very deep, between its core and mantle, along with the moon's distance, means it is not known if it contains life. This is unlikely, however, as it is likely too cold to allow for earth-like life sustaining processes. It has large rifts and scarps formed by the expansion of its interior during its evolution. [0.0248 G] MOON (0.34°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Oberon: (0.04x Moons Mass) Same as OTL. Oberon is a typical Uranian moon, with canyons and rifts (formed by expansion of the planet in its later phases) and is about half ice and rock. It has dark patches similar to marina on the OTL Moon, but formed by cryovolcanic liquids (primarily water) filling the craters, rather than lava. Of course, these liquids quickly froze and evaporated when exposed to the vacuum of space. [0.0332 G] MOON (0.06°) {18.3 AU-20.1 AU} Neptune: (17.15x Earths Mass) Same as OTL. An ice giant somewhat larger than Uranus, the deep-blue Neptune has the strongest sustained winds in the solar system (more than even Jupiter). [1.14 G] PLANET (1.78°) {29.8 AU-30.3 AU} Triton: (0.291x Moons Mass) Neptune's only large moon, Triton is a captured dwarf planet orbiting retrograde to Neptune. It is 2x larger than in OTL, and has a surface covered in frozen nitrogen and methane, and a crust made of water and ammonia ices (which make up 30% of its mass). It has a young surface dotted with nitrogen cryovolcanoes (which can spew plumes up to 8km high), and cut with icy valleys and ridges. Like in OTL, it has ice caps of nitrogen- along with flat, nitrogen-ice plains and “cantaloupe terrain” formed from cryovolcanism. Triton also has an orbit (but still inclined and retrograde) slightly closer to Neptune- the increased mass of Triton, along with greater tidal heating from a closer orbit means that more of its nitrogen ices have sublimated than in OTL. Therefore, Triton has a much thicker nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 57 Pa- 30 x than in OTL (but still very thin- it's about as thin as Mars' in OTL at Olympus Mons). This atmosphere also gives Triton a slight haze, due to its content of hydrocarbons and nitriles in the lower atmosphere, forming from sublimated methane (which also helps heat up the moon). Triton also has a subsurface ocean holding multiple ecosystems, including multi-celled life- though its biosphere lacks the complexity seen in other moons found closer to the Sun. The first lander sent here, MANN, returned overly optimistic information about Triton and its habitability for life. [0.0582 G] MOON (156.89°) {29.8 AU-30.3 AU} Pluto: (0.65x Earths Mass) A planet orbiting in a highly eccentric and inclined orbit after being shot out by Neptune/Aether during the formation of the solar system. It has a hazy, thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere (of 3 atm pressure at sea level) from sublimated nitrogen ice, along with methane-based cryovolcanism, thanks to internal and some tidal heating from Charon. Like in OTL, it is extremely contrastive, has an extreme axial tilt of 120°, and has 5 moons- the largest being Charon. However, unlike in OTL, Pluto is not in a binary system, as Charon is much smaller than Pluto. Pluto's surface is mainly water ice, covered with a layer of methane, including methane seas (like Titan, but deeper, as the Sun does not break apart methane molecules out here) with a variety of landforms. There are also a variety of lifeforms here, centring around underwater cryovolcanic vents (but also lacks significant complexity.) Interestingly, the planet's internal heating is higher than expected, and it was only very recently that the cause was found: An astonishing 0.01% of the planet is made of some kind of radioactive material. The specific elements and isotopes in question don't appear anywhere else in nature other than Charon, suggesting that, in the words of the HAE Space Agency's science director, "sometime within the last 10,000 years, some serious **** went down in the Pluto system." Pluto was discovered in 1999, as its relatively high infrared signature gave it away to infrared telescopes (despite its insane distance). It was later found to be responsible for the orbits of Sednoids, along as being the explanation for a sudden drop-off in the Kuiper Belt at 48 AU- the Kuiper Cliff- caused by Pluto “clearing its orbit”. Pluto also has a thin, unstable ring system- thought to be caused by an asteroid-sized moon that got too close to Pluto (this moon was almost certainly a small, captured moon captured much later than Charon's formation.) [0.401 G] PLANET (3°) {101 AU-197 AU} Charon: (0.7x Moons Mass) The only major moon of Pluto, Charon is about half the size of Titan in OTL. Charon, which formed from a collision on Pluto- has a similar composition as Pluto. Though lifeless, Charon has a strangely young surface dominated by water ice and ammonia (and some hydrocarbons forming an icy inch-thick crust on top of the water ad ammonia ices), along with cryogeysers spewing these ices. As there is a lack of Sun, volatiles do not form reddish tholins here, making it colourless. Like the Moon in OTL, Charon is slowly moving away from Pluto, something that caused the destabilization of the orbits of Pluto's other moons. The volcanism is a complete mystery- it's thought the differentiated Charonian interior (and possibly also Pluto's interior) contains much more radioactive material than originally thought. [0.2 G] MOON (0°) {101 AU-197 AU} Persephone: (10.0x Earths Mass) Once thought to be the outermost planet in the solar system, Persephone was discovered due to strange observations in the orbits of tiny dwarf planet-like objects around the sun. From the way the orbits are all oriented it was found that a large object was in that part of space. Later observations proved the object’s existence and showed it to be an ice giant like Uranus and Neptune. Persephone’s large size, combined with the discovery of Tyche, lead to the IAU reclassification of what a ‘planet’ was in 2017. [0.31 G] PLANET (30°) {200 AU-805 AU} Europa: (0.65x Moons Mass) Europa is the closest moon to Persephone, and is very similar to its version in OTL. Europa has a thick water-ice crust, with a liquid water ocean underneath its surface. Its surface is shaped by cryovolcanoes (though smaller than those on Enceladus, they are located at Europa's poles) and 'cryo-plate tectonics'. As a result, Europa has few craters on its surface, and has deposits of salt coating parts of its surface (created when the salty water brought from below rose to the surface during eruptions- similar to lava on Earth.) However, due to Europa's intensely close orbit to Persephone (which is also somewhat elliptical), it also orbits somewhat faster than its parent planet's rotation. Both these factors lead to greater tidal heating, liquefying its underwater ocean. However, like Triton's retrograde orbit, Europa's super-synchronous orbit dooms the moon to an eventual break-up over Persephone. This, however, means the moon supports life, even without gravitational resonances providing significant heating. This life is relatively complex, and is clustered around hydrothermic vents and other geological underwater heat sources- though bacteria do live elsewhere in the ocean (along with the underside of the water-ice crust, and in pockets of water inside the crust). Many of these consume hydrogen peroxide, tholins, and other minerals from the surface of Europa. If it wasn’t destined to break apart, it is very likely Europa could be the one place in the solar system whose microbial inhabitants survive the sun’s red giant and planetary nebula phases. [0.134 G] MOON (1.5°) {200 AU-805 AU} Mimas: (0.042x Ceres Mass) Similar to its version IRL, Mimas is a very heavily cratered moon of Persephone. Mimas is known for its enormous, crater 'Hershel' that makes it look like the Death Star (alas, Kerbals have made numerous proposals to hollow out Mimas into a Death Star- none of which materialized, thankfully). This impact shaped Mimas, and nearly shattered the moon apart. It is also a 'trojan moon' to Europa, and is situated at its trailing L5 Lagrange Point. It is composed mostly of water ice and, despite sharing an orbit so close to Persephone, has a liquid water ocean only very deep in- and is only home to simple life forms. [0.0065 G] (TROJAN) MOON (1.5°) {200 AU-805 AU} Tyche: (18.2x Earths Mass) Discovered in 2016 by WISE, Tyche is a large ice giant, known to have a large system of moons and rings. It is also responsible for the orbits of some Sednoids (which had previously been unaccounted for- as Pluto and Persephone alone could not be responsible for their orbits.) Its far distance from the Sun, relatively small size, and lack of seasons (due to its solar distance) means that it lacks much of the winds of most other gas giants- appearing similar to Uranus. Tyche is in a halo orbit around the Sun, in a near-circular, inclined orbit. Its discovery contributed to the redefinition of what a ‘planet’ was in 2017. Tyche is likely to be the hypothetical “fifth giant planet” responsible for creating the current solar system. [0.92 G] PLANET (83°) {1485 AU-1590 AU} Hyperion: (0.0059x Ceres Mass) Hyperion- the same as its version in IRL (other than its different orbit), is a small, irregular moon noted for its sponge-like appearance- which formed due to the moon being very porous and its very low density. Hyperion is darkened due to material from nearby moons, and is somewhat reddish. It is mostly composed of water ice, with very little rock. [0.0021 G] MOON (0.43°) {1485 AU-1590 AU} Dione: (1.17x Ceres Mass) Dione is an outer, rounded moon of Persephone composed of mostly of water ice (with a small fraction of rock), and is in resonance with Tethys, Hyperion, and Rhea. Being very similar to its version IRL, Rhea and Dione are 'twins', with many of the same features, such as dissimilar leading and trailing hemispheres. However, unlike Rhea, Dione has enormous fractures and ice cliffs dominating its trailing hemisphere, formed by tectonic fracturing in the distant past. It also lacks an internal ocean, unlike its twin moon- though small pockets of heated water are thought to exist in its interior. [0.024 G] MOON (0°) {1485 AU-1590 AU} Tethys: (0.66x Ceres Mass) Tethys, an outer, rounded moon of Persephone composed mostly of water ice, and is somewhat different from its version in OTL- however, it is much darker than in OTL, due to not being sandblasted by ring particles. Tethys' ice has a large porosity, and is contaminated in many places by compounds like haematites, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and organics. Tethys also lacks the slight discolorations of its OTL counterpart, due to Persephone having a much less powerful magnetosphere, and Tethys' distance from its parent body. Tethys also is in orbital resonance with Dione and Rhea, and has some chasms and a large impact crater- Odysseus, 2/5s of the moon's diameter. Tethys, despite its resonance, also lacks an internal ocean, like in OTL- though small pockets of heated water are thought to exist in its interior. [0.015 G] MOON (1.12°) {1485 AU-1590 AU} Rhea: (2.46x Ceres Mass) Rhea, the 2nd largest moon of Persephone, Rhea is similar to its version in OTL. Rhea is an undifferentiated body (ice and rock is spread throughout, therefore lacking a core) with an internal liquid water ocean produced by its gravitational resonance with Tethys and Dione, along with its internal radioactive heating. This liquid water ocean is home to some halophilic bacteria (the internal ocean is very salty) Rhea is a twin moon of Dione, and thus both are similar to each other (for example, both have fractures and ice cliffs). Rhea has a thin exosphere composed of carbon dioxide from oxidation of organics on its surface, which is white, but heavily cratered. However, Rhea is mainly notable for having a tenuous ring system- the only moon yet known to have a ring system of its own. These particles are 'shepherded' by tiny moonlets that orbit within the ring system, and was formed from an impact 150 million years ago. [0.027 G] MOON (0.35°) {1485 AU-1590 AU} Fredinnus: (3.4x Earths Mass) Discovered by the decrypting of the Phobos and Deimos Monoliths. A rouge planet on an escape trajectory from Sol, it is currently near its apoapsis to the Sun. It could be a good refuelling stop for interstellar missions, and seems to show that rouge planets are quite common in the Milky Way (estimations range from 2 to 100,000x more rouge planets than stars). Aside from being a frozen-over carbon planet, little else is known about it. All information on this object has been obtained from the monoliths, which have questionable reliability. Fredinnus was the name given to this object by the archiving civilization. [1.67 G] ROUGE PLANET (11°) {Currently 0.9 Ly from the Sun} Crisplance: (2.1x Jupiter Masses) Discovered by the decrypting of the Phobos and Deimos Monoliths. A rouge planet on an escape trajectory from Sol, it is currently far from its apospsis to the Sun. It could be a good refuelling stop for interstellar missions, and seems to show that rouge planets are quite common in the Milky Way (estimations range from 2 to 100,000x more rouge planets than stars). Aside from being an enormous gas giant, little else is known about it. All information on this object has been obtained from the monoliths, which have questionable reliability. Crisplance was the name given to this object by the archiving civilization. [5.42 G] ROUGE PLANET (5°) {Currently 1.2 Ly from the Sun} Silverstrivler: (0.75x Earths Mass) Discovered by the decrypting of the Phobos and Deimos Monoliths. A rouge planet on an escape trajectory from Sol, it is currently approaching its apoapsis to the Sun. It could be a good refuelling stop for interstellar missions, and seems to show that rouge planets are quite common in the Milky Way (estimations range from 2 to 100,000x more rouge planets than stars). Aside from being a coreless water-ice planet, little else is known about it. All information on this object has been obtained from the monoliths, which have questionable reliability. Fredinnus was the name given to this object by the archiving civilization. [0.563 G] ROUGE PLANET (8°) {Currently 1.4 Ly from the Sun} Nibiru System: (0.12 Sol Mass) <Not going to be complete for a while> {Currently 1.02 ly from Sun} So, with all that said, do you think this solar system is possible? If not, what would I need to change? (Note that it doesn't have to be perfectly stable, just long enough for the alternate timeline to take place)
  16. Hey guys, understand this is a bit of an ask but I've come to the end of my tether with trying to calculate these. If any of you are nerdy enough to give these a go I'd greatly appreciate it.
  17. While driving/flying propeller based crafts for more than 10 minutes all parts of the craft get increasingly jittery (and eventually break/crash). Tested it without mods as well, in KSP I'm guessing the problem is that the amount of rotation builds up and the accuracy of the whole physics engine decreases. Is it viable to normalize the rotation values once in a while to prevent this or should I stick to quicksaving & loading (which makes everything stable again)? Or maybe the cause is something different. Either way, stock propeller enthusiasts would appreciate the help.
  18. Sorry, this doesn't have anything to do with space, or at least very little - but at least it's got the physics part, right? When you're calculating the resonant frequency of a tube (open-ended in my case), you have to add an end correction as the theoretical resonance is lower than it is in practice. I've found a few sources citing approximately 1.2r, but some conflicting, and some saying that it has not been theoretically proven at all. Nowhere have I found an explanation why.
  19. The last time I put up a recipes of disaster I asked for any "recipes" that would break the game mechanics. But that was for KSP 1.1.3, now what about ksp 1.2? I played around with the pre-release but didn't find anything unusual, but I know that other people have been doing a through search for the recipes of disaster. If you do, would you mind to share them to the forums?
  20. I'm planning my first asteroid capture mission, and (without having played the tutorial mission) I got curious to learn how much fuel and thrust I would need to put on the capture vessel in order to bring the asteroid into a useful orbit around Kerbin. I spent a lot of time trying to learn something about it, and thought I would share. I would really love to hear your thoughts and feedback! The lovely little space rock I have in mind to make my own is one SDD-569, a class A asteroid. SDD-569 is approaching Kerbin for a leisurely flyby at a periapsis of ~2,079 km, well inside the orbit of the Mun. This puts SDD-569 into a sharply looping orbit around the planet, before it flies back out into parts unknown. I'd like to drag the asteroid into a circular orbit, and then bring it down to about 500 km for future research and exploitation. Can we calculate how fast is SDD-569 going with respect to Kerbin, based on what we already know? Since energy is always conserved, the total kinetic energy for a given object (from orbital speed) plus its potential energy (from gravity) never changes. The relationship of kinetic energy to velocity is a consequence of Newton's third law: In other words, for a constant mass, v2 is a measure of kinetic energy. The vis-viva equation describes the conservation of energy for a small body orbiting a much larger one: GM, also known sometimes as μ, as is Kerbin's gravitational parameter, which the KSP wiki reports is 3.5316 x 1012 m3/s2. This parameter is the product of the gravitational constant of the universe with Kerbin's mass, which is effectively constant. a is the semi-major axis of the orbit as measured from the center of the celestial body. Kerbin's radius is 600km, so we add that to the altitude of SDD-569 at periapsis to give a = 2,679km. r is the distance between the two objects at a given time. An object moving fast enough to escape Kerbin's gravity is in an orbit with a semi-major axis that is effectively infinite. At periapsis, this simplifies the vis-viva equation to describe the kinetic energy that an object must have in order to overcome Kerbin's gravity from a given distance r: In other words, escape speed from Kerbin orbit at the moment of periapsis (r = 2,679km) is ve = 1,623 m/s. But since SDD-569 is tracing a hyperbolic (i.e. open) trajectory through Kerbin's SoI, it must be traveling faster than this, or else it would be captured. How much faster? Consider the other extreme case of the vis-viva relation, where the asteroid has shot past Kerbin and the distance r between them trends towards an infinite apoapsis. Setting r =∞ in the vis-viva equation tells us how fast the object is still going at that point, which is called its hyperbolic excess velocity: (where μ = GM) So for the flyby of SDD-569, the hyperbolic excess velocity is v∞ = 1,148 m/s. This characteristic energy is over and above the energy needed to escape Kerbin's SoI from that distance, so the total energy possessed by SDD-569 relative to Kerbin at periapsis is: This gives a total velocity for SDD-569 relative to Kerbin at periapsis of 1,988 m/s! By how much do we need to reduce this so that it drops into a nice 2Mm circular orbit from periapsis? In a circular orbit, the distance between the two objects r and the orbital radius a are always the same. Thus the orbital velocity is: Not coincidentally, this is the same as its hyperbolic excess velocity, because r = a. So at r = 2,679km, an object in a circular orbit around Kerbin travels at 1,148 m/s. So, to get SDD-569 into a circular orbit from its flyby periapsis, we need to bleed off Δv = 840 m/s. To then bring SDD-569 down to a more convenient altitude of 500km, we would do a Hohmann transfer, which can be calculated with the standard formula, and works out to another 614m/s Δv to descend to a 500km circular orbit, for a total of 1,454 m/s. What’s more, the spacecraft sent to capture SDD-569 needs to match orbits with the asteroid in order rendezvous. That means that if the spacecraft starts from, say, 500km above Kerbin, it will need to expend that much to get to the asteroid in the first place. So, starting from a 500km orbit around Kerbin, the total Δv budget for this mission is 2,909 m/s. Next up: Asteroid capture planning, part 2: How much fuel do we need to bring? Mission to SDD-569: Where the rubber meets the regolith! Did I get this right? If you have feedback or ideas, I would love to hear them!
  21. Recipes of Distaster

    I was wondering, anybody know a way to break the physics of the game? Just write a detailed discription of your procedure in the comments below. Thanks everybody for looking in to this.
  22. Hi guys! I love KSP (as I'm sure most people here do), I have over 1040 hours on it, yet I can't build to my full potential because of the render physics distance!! I have built a Low Earth Orbit Station (80km) with the 'USAF Airborne Laser' from the BD Armory Mod and I REALLY want to strike the KSC with the Lazers :D. Unfortunately, the KSP physics render range is not that far. Would ANYONE know of a mod that can help me with this? I'm not too good with coding and stuff so I can't really edit the game's....laws of physics. Any help would be much appreciated!! Cheers James.
  23. So one of my scientists was doing a tour of the base in a small rover, collecting all those sweet, sweet science points from every interesting feature*. He parked up against the VAB tanks, climbed out of his mobile lab and-- >warp< >stretch< >stretch< >poof< Some bizarre physics error caused him to flick into the air, stretch wildly in one direction, then another, then explode in a cloud of dust. I'm not complaining about the physics bork; I'm sure someone is already working on that. The question is: my crewman is now listed as "missing"**. He doesn't appear on the list in the Tracking Station, and he definitely exploded into a cloud of dust so... my questions would be: Is he actually "missing", as opposed to "dead"? Is he recoverable? How? Thanks in advance... * - But not, of course, the pond beside Admin. Or the flag pole, tanks, etc. by the launch pad. Their omission is... odd. ** - Not "dead", like his predecessor who happened to be on the ladder of a craft when it was recovered. Seriously, what's the deal with that?
  24. Metal Fatigue

    So, I think I'm the first to suggest a feature like this but I think that metal fatigue should be a feature in the game as this will add another layer of complexity to those who think that surving the heat and aero forces isn't enough also this would make the game less about placing struts everywhere. "How would it work?" I hear you cry, well. Let's say you have a reliable SSTO, it's served you well building your new space station, and getting you to eeloo. But one day you forget to do a maintenace check or you don't have the parts to repair let's say the pylon holding your engines to the wings and when reentrering they tair right off and you need to launch a new one. R.I.P SSTO 2Eeloo Mk3. I say that this should be an option as for newer players it might be overwheming. I'd love to see your input on this!
  25. Ninja Death Mun

    So, anyone care to explain the natural phenomena that results in this? It kind of moved as I did, so felt like it was a natural occurrence rather than a graphical glitch, but I'm at a bit of loss to explain it exactly.