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Found 46 results

  1. Unmanned Missions

    So, I haven't been very active in KSP since last year, and only dabbed a little bit once the comms were introduced. Well, just yesterday, I attempted a Duna mission with a probe only in career. I had a pretty big commsat setup in the Kebrin system. And yet while I still had some control on the approach of Duna (even during the Aerobraking phase) I had completely lost comms with my probe after I left Duna's atmosphere. Let me begin by saying that since this last time I restarted career mode, this was the first probe ever in the Dunian system. I tried to wait for one more aerobrake after I lost control and I still didn't get my comms back online and I had totally lost the probe. Gosh, it felt like a scary mars mission blowing millions of USD for nothing. Anyway, what is the best approach of an unmanned mission to a new world for the first time? Is there anyway to maintain that control without a commsat setup already in place? It's very different trying this with the comm networks now, and exploration seems even harder now. Not that I mind the challenge, but I have a laythe probe already on the way even before my Duna mission and I am afraid I will not be prepared for it by the time it reaches the Joolian system. How do I prepare unmanned missions with the commnet, and what steps should I take before sending a probe to unexplored worlds so that I do not lose it like I did with my Duna mission? **EDIT** Yes, I have upgraded my tracking station to the max. It is fully upgraded.
  2. 60 years to the day, came a sound that shook the world. beep...beep...beep... Sputnik 1 - long gone but your legacy lives on.
  3. I CANNOT... complete a Satellite contract... Everything is checked except the orbit.... I'm going the right way.. both nodes are at 0%... and the AP PE are both within 5K meters.... This is holy excrements frustrating....
  4. Simple Commsat Tutorial

    Hi guys, I made a short video yesterday that hopefully explains how to evenly space out satellites around an orbit when creating communication satellite constellations. I've also written a short document that covers the maths in more detail, but still at a high school level to help people create their own commsat constellations. I'd love it if I could get some feedback on both (I've already realised that I should have used the term transfer orbit in the video rather than parking orbit).
  5. List the parts in your posts.
  6. After the squad introduced us 1.2 with its new communication and relay system, we discovered many new possibilities. It was interesting to revive old probes, connecting kerbals that are separated by billions of kilometers from each other and making every meter on any planet or moon, a place, with great connection. But we often forget about relay, sometimes people don't even launch it, they simply use antennae attached to their craft. But what if we took the opportunity, and made a challenge out of it? I present you the “Butterflies and Hurricanes” challenge! Despite that you might think that it is an easy and boring challenge, you may face a lot of interesting situations, and discover something you didn't know about relay. I will start from rules because they will affect the whole challenge. 1.You have only 80 500 funds and If you will spend more, you basically fail the challenge (reusable rockets are allowed) 2.Using mechjeb and other calculative mods is allowed, though no cheat mod can be used in this challenge (Alt+f12 counts as a cheat). And if mod adds some kind of infinite propulsion it is also considered cheating. 3. If you made the whole challenge with some money left it means you are a cheater it means that you have completed the challenge, quite well. Back to the challenge itself. You have to put 6 satellites in 170 000 m orbit (a bit lower or higher also counts). Into orbits with different inclination of 30,-30,0,50,-50 and 90. They need to have the RA-2 antenna The final step is to put 2 satellites into a very high orbit of 7 000 000 m orbit (higher or lower also counts) You have to design these 2 satellites to have powerful antennae like RA-15. After you've set up all the satellites you have to perform a first task of your relay system- you need mark all anomalies and space centres (like baikenbanour and etc.) You will end up with a relay covering the whole kerbin surface. In case that you've already made a relay around kerbin try to do so with other planets/moons. In such case orbital altitudes may be random, but inclinations must be done according to the challenge. Send your screenshots! Have fun! Invent cool relay designs! Now to the scoring system: I made it different from many other challenges. Here is it: There is factors that will make up your challenge: Launcher design (reusable, SSTO, launch from water, launched via plane, lifted with air balloon) Relay design (more than 10 parts on the satellite, decorative use of other parts for looking good, a copy or an analog to the real relay) Perfectionism (ideal orbits, ideal inclination, ideal landmarks) Fund economy (lower than the certain amount given in the challenge, reusablilty) Perfect funding (the given fund amount is spent perfectly with 0 funds left) Other planets/moons ( add 2 to your score if you visited other planets, add 1 if it is Kerbin's in moons) Visited at least one landmark that you've made during the challenge (each visited location is a factor point) The more factor points you have, the better you did the challenge. Leaderboard itself 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ... This thread may be necroposted, but I think I edited enough of it to be clearly different to the previous one. If this is out of forum rules,I ask moderators such as @Vanamonde, messenge me, so I could edit it enough. Please don't lock this.
  7. Daredevil Satellite Launcher While work on crew capsules for spaceflight is progressing slowly and cost overruns are common, the recent probes prompted a debate on whether it is cheaper to simply stick to an unmanned spaceprogram for now. Fearing for their future opportunities, a few daredevil pilots brought about the idea of reusable planes as a means to launch small satellites. The idea is, that a manned plane launches one or two mini satellites, and then safely lands back in the vicinity of the KSC. While more economically thinking kerbals call the concept a wasteful publicity stunt without any benefit, some politicians recognized it as an opportunity to shift public scrutiny away from their own performances. So the idea was quickly approved. The challenge Your challenge, should you accept it, is to launch at least one mini satellite (essentially just a probe core) from a manned plane into an orbit around kerbin (periapsis above 70km). The plane must be over 5km altitude above sea level when you launch the satellite. Thus you can use an air breathing plane and launch the sat at 5km altitude above sea level, or a rocket plane and launch the sat at 75km altitude. The plane must then land back around KSC. Note that the FMRS mod is now part of the mod recommendations and should be used to switch between the plane and the satellite. Ranking is done by non-recovered mass per satellite. For example in my entry below, I started with 8455kg mass (8555kg minus launch clamp 100kg), had a mass of 3312kg when landed and launched 2 mini satellites into orbits around kerbin. This results in a mass expenditure of 2571.5kg per mini satellite. Minimum picture requirements for a ranking are 1. Design showing KER readouts in SPH/VAB, especially total vessel mass. 2. In flight, showing KER readouts roughly when launching the satellite(s). Must be over 5km altitude above sea level. 3. The satellite in flight, showing KER readouts with periapsis above 70km. 4. The plane, landed back on kerbin with KSC visible in the background, showing KER readouts, espcially the vehicle mass when landed. HINT : The Small Hardpoint functions as a separator. If you adjust the ejection force to 0, it does not mess up the vector of the launched object. Of course additional pictures, videos, etc are very welcome. As is a link if you stream it. The restrictions 1. No R&D, SPH/VAB, Runway/Launchpad facility upgrades! (=> 30part / 9ton mass limit, other facility upgrades are allowed) 2. Tweakscale is only allowed for wings/control surfaces/landing gear/adapters. 3. No mods except the ones specified below. Visual and similar mods are exempt from this rule. 4. No cheating. 5. Science/parts restrictions as shown here (thus no parachutes, reaction wheels, etc.) basicRocketry node provides a basic liquid fuel engine The mods 1. Install CKAN for a separate, clean KSP install. 2. Only select the "SETI-MetaModPack". Click "ApplyChanges". 3. Leave all recommendations selected. Click "Continue". 4. From the suggestions, only SETIprobeControlEnabler is allowed, so that you dont have to worry about a RemoteTech connection. Click "Continue" and wait for the the mods to be installed. 5. RCS Build Aid is among the recommendations, but is currently not available via ckan. You may (highly recommended) install that manually from here: 6. Visual mods are allowed at your own discretion. The ranking By spent mass per mini satellite: 1. @Yemo with a spent mass of 2571.5kg per mini satellite to kerbin orbit (8455kg launch mass, 8555kg minus launch clamp 100kg, 3312kg mass when landed, 2 mini satellites launched into orbits around kerbin. Thus a mass expenditure of (8455kg - 3312kg) / 2 =2571.5kg per mini satellite. I went for the rocket plane / high launch concept. Ejection force on Small Hardpoints set to 0 for a clean launch:
  9. SP-1 Mission

    SP-1 MISSION Payload SC-Relay 1 (type: Relay) aboard the Arrowel rocket. Launched date: June 9 2017 Screenshots: Rocket Arrowel on Launchpad Liftoff Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure No screenshots for Main Engine Cutoff and Stage 1 Separation. Orbit Burn Stage Two Engine Cutoff Payload Deploy Payload SC-Relay 1 successfully deployed 400km above ground at t+ 1hour 23m with 424 remaining fuel left.
  10. All of my contracts are either rescue someone from orbit or to launch a satellite in some incredibly specific orbit. The satellite part seems impossible at my current tech level so im left with rescue contracts but im not sure where to even start.
  11. Everything works fine until I try to make my gravity turn and it tilts north and goes out of control. Ive tried throttling down as I ascend but it still happens.
  12. I made a SpaceX's Falcon 9 launch simulation with the deployment of a dummy satellite and the recovery of the first stage on the drone ship. I always love seeing the lives launches from SpaceX and I just wanted to do it in KSP so we can see it from a better angle. I used some mods like : - SpaceX Launch Vehicles crafts - Environmental Visual Enhancements - Distant Object Enhancement - Stock Visual Enhancements - PlanetShine - Camera Tools - MechJeb
  13. Your mission, should you choose to accept it: Take an asteroid and put it on a collision course with Kerbin, then send up another space ship to redirect it. I'm kidding. All you have to do is just put a small, energy efficient satellite into orbit. RULES: You can use mods. You can use any way of transportation you want (SSTO, Rocket, HyperEdit, F12, etc.) You CANNOT be void of any source of power. It MUST have a power source of some kind. For extra humour, use the nuclear engines on your rocket. You're reducing energy but causing a slight fallout. For proof, you must take a picture/video. Not that typed confirmations are wrong, it's just that I'd like to know if you legitimately did it or not. Your satellite must be small. That's the only limit. Rocket size, plane size, orbit size, those don't matter. The satellite size does. Can't wait to see what y'all did! Most importantly, have fun! (...but if you do the asteroid one, let me know.)
  14. Earth Day Special!

    Hey, it's me again! (Hopefully I didn't multi-post this time...) Got anotha' video for y'all. Link is here. I launched a small, environmentally-friendly satellite into orbit around Kerbin with a large, powerful, slightly unnecessary rocket! Enjoy!
  15. Hi guys, So I saw this contract and it would gave me a lot of money, so i accepted it. The agency wanted me to make a satellite and send into a specific orbit around the mun. I am now orbiting the mun but the inclination is terrible. How can I change it? I tried Normal and Antinormal maneuver nodes but none of them worked. Delta V=2251m/s Bye for now. EDIT: Lol nope i figured it out.
  16. Mun Scraping

    How low can you go? This is a challenge to see how low you can get a satellite (or other spacecraft) to orbit the mun. The orbiter should be stock, but mods are allowed for delivering the orbiter to the mun. The challenge is about orbiting the mun, not getting there. Post your apoapsis and periapsis heights, and some pictures of your spacecraft and orbit. The final orbit should be sustainable. Your score is the sum of your apoapsis and periapsis heights. Lower scores are better. I finished my attempt with a score of 12111 meters, and will be posting some images shortly.
  17. JoolSat Mission

    Mission Briefing JoolSatTM (Werner said we needed the TM to make us sound more serious, and not ludicrously stupid with this mission) is a mission about placing orbital surveying satellites around Jool, because the moons weren't enough. Call it overkill, I sure did, but in this mission three satellites must be consecutively launched. Without refuelling. From an SSTO. And the satellites must form a pentagonal shape because here at the KSC we have OCD, and a variety of other acronyms we pass off as qualifications to make us sound more... qualified. Mission Objectives Build an SSTO capable of holding 5 satellites that can perform orbital surveillance. Or at least try, we don't really mind. Take off, and survive the ol' spinning-out-at-25000-meters-and-crashing scenario, or avoid it completely. The latter is a better choice, I guess. Reach Kerbin orbit. From here you can go anywhere, but we want you to go to Jool. Or die trying. (We aren't responsible for any deaths). Go to Jool, and reach low Jool orbit. Avoiding the thick, hot atmosphere of Jool is advised. We don't want the SSTO returning home half melted, or not returning at all. Deploy the satellites, all three of them, in the shape of a triangle. (Summoning the Kraken is optional, the shape is a gift, he won't mind. I think). Return home, and land at KSC or the airfield next to it on that island I can't reach with my helicopter. If possible, post an image or a video of it. This is optional too, Jool is camera-shy sometimes, and so am I. The Rules The only mod you may use to assist you is the Mark 4 Spaceplane mod. Nothing else. Reason being, the Mark IV Spaceplane parts are BIG and have BIG engines. Really nice. The height of the satellites in relation to Jool should be 300,000m high. All three satellites must be in working order. We'll try our best on the ground to build them that way. You may make good use of gravity assists. Or die trying. No cheats allowed. That upsets Werner. How do I win? Get your satellites as close to Jool as possible (300,000m above the surface to be precise), and as circular in orbit as possible. Should you succeed, post your apoapsis and periapsis with a screenshot (or video, those are fancy). There are two leaderboards, one for the most circular orbit, and another for how close your satellites are to the target. Good luck, and try not to blow anything up! JoolSatTM Leaderboard for Most Circular Satellite Orbit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. JoolSatTM Leaderboard for Closest Satellite Orbit to Target (300,000m) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  18. Splitting off from NotAgain's thread. What's the smallest STOCK satellite you can manage that is still useful? How many can you launch at once for new exploration? Forgive me for not posting my designs until I get back from a quick trip. No TweakScale, no Parts Packs, no MechJeb, no KOS, just plain old KSP. We all know it's stupid easy to pop a probe core with a solar panel into orbit and call it a satellite, so none of that. I want to see actual, interesting exploration designs. Probes to go where no Kerbal has. I play on Career, so my plan is to experiment on Mun and Minmun with various manned and unmanned designs, before launching a large carrier with as many small probes as I can to other bodies. Each MicroSat must be able to communicate and transmit science back to KSC... how they do that is up to you. Below are suggestions for science packages - innovative packaging is a plus, as is ease of use. Ideally, A Carrier should arrive in system, pop it's cargo bay or fairing, and then KSC just has to take command of each probe briefly to slurp up that delicious science. Keep in mind that this is exploration at its best - the only place with a communications network is Kerbin. Points will be awarded for most MicroSats in a single carrier rather than outright mass. More science returned gives more points. Identifying specific landing locations for future manned missions earns more points. Setting up a full commnet around the new body / system in the same launch earns more points. If you can do everything in one launch with a bunch of little probes, you win the internet for the day. Call it 25 points per probe attached to the carrier, 5 points for each science experiment on a representative probe (one probe each representing comms, orbital science, and landed science), 50 points for setting a full commnet, and 10 points for each degree of ease-of-use. The lowest being full user control of each probe, next being high-level control (like put SAS in retrograde and hit the throttle) and best being zero user input needed (or at least just a few action groups). We have thousands of probe droids searching the galaxy. I want proof, not leads!" ―Admiral Kendal Ozzel
  19. satellite

    someone tell me how to launch a satellite properly and what maneuvers to do to have it orbiting kerbin for stupid people
  20. A mapping satellite i made!

    Soooo,i made this mapping satellite,and i want to share it with the whole KSP community! The satellite: The rocket: (feel free to copy the satellite and the rocket,but dont forget to give credit) Launch in 3..2..1 LIFTOFF! SPACE! LATER... Yaaay,a successful orbit! Look how much ore there is!
  21. Some help for ya newbies out there!

    So you wanna learn which antenna is the best,huh? Well take a look at this chart! Part Radial size Cost () Mass (t) Max. Temp. (K) Tolerance (m/s) Tolerance (g) Electricity (⚡/Mit) Net transmission speed (Mits/s) Relaycapable Communotron 16 Tiny 300 0.005 2 000 7 50 6 (20.0 ⚡/s) 3.33 × No Communotron 16-S Tiny 300 0.015 2 000 7 50 6 (20.0 ⚡/s) 3.33 × No Communotron 88-88 Tiny 1 500 0.1 2 000 7 50 10 (200.0 ⚡/s) 20.0 × No Communotron DTS-M1 Radial mounted 900 0.05 2 000 8 50 6 (34.3 ⚡/s) 5.71 × No Communotron HG-55 Radial mounted 1200 0.075 2 000 7 50 6.67 (133.3 ⚡/s) 20.0 × No HG-5 High Gain Antenna Radial mounted 600 0.07 2 000 8 50 9 (51.4 ⚡/s) 5.71 ✓ Yes RA-2 Relay Antenna Radial mounted 1 800 0.15 2 000 8 50 24 (68.6 ⚡/s) 2.86 ✓ Yes RA-15 Relay Antenna Radial mounted 2 400 0.3 2 000 8 50 12 (68.6 ⚡/s) 5.71 ✓ Yes RA-100 Relay Antenna Radial mounted 3 000 0.65 2 000 8 50 6 (68.6 ⚡/s) 11.43 ✓ Yes It shows which antenna is the best,got it? Good! BYE!!!!
  22. Hi together I love to deploy multiple satellites on the same orbit. To be sure that they have all the same separation to each other I have to calculate the orbital time for my parking orbit. The most known calculation is to put 3 satellites in a synchronious orbit around Kerbin: (synchronious orbit period / amount of satellites) * (amount of satellites - 1) 1d = 6h = synchronious orbit period (6h / 3) * (3-1) = 4h So park your vessel in a 4h orbit with the AP on the edge of the synchronious orbit. Deploy every pass on the AP one satellite. When done correct you have a nice triangle around Kerbin. So i love to do that on other bodies and in other (non-synchronious) orbits. So I had to do the math all the time. Now I've made a little calculator and will make this accessable for all of the community which needs this. So feel free to use it! Its very simple and doen't check if your orbital period goes into a collision with the celestial body. So check first :). Edit: Here an example: I cheated my craft with 4 satellites into a random eeloo orbit and calculated the values:
  23. This mod provides the player with a new line of probe models called the K-Sat series, with integrated power (storage and generation) as well as buildt in antennas. It is usable in stock KSP, but it truly shines when used alongside Remote Tech, where the buildt in antennas can be put to good use. Alongside the probe cores the K-Sat series also includes some accessories, such as structural pylons, fuel tanks, stand-alone antennas and science equipment. It also comes with a brand new engine made specifically with satellites in mind. All parts are balanced to work equally well in all game modes. The probe cores may seem a bit costly in career, but the cost is taking the nuclear generated power into account and is actually a bit low compared to the stock nuclear generator when measured against charge per second. Mass has been calculated by comparing all integrated functions to stock parts. Download the mod here: SpaceDock -=::::::::v::::::::=- So how does it work? Just use the parts provided to build satellites. The upside compared to stock probes is that all K-Sat probes come with integrated power storage and generation and buildt in antennas. In a stock game the antennas are regular data transmitters, but when used with Remote Tech the K-Sat probes will provide several options for building various com networks. You can also use the new engine to get a bit moire Dv for your satellites, as it is has a very high Isp in vacuum, and you have a selection of structural pylons to choose from. If you so choose, you can also equip your satellites with the new inline science part that comes with all four sensors buildt into one. The K-Sat Series also includes a fuel tank, a stand-alone dish and an inline battery bank capable of storing 500 units of electrical charge. Can it be used in KSP 1.1? Yes. But Remote Tech has not yet been updated, so for the time being playing in 1.1 will only provide you with the stock functions. So integrated power and data transmitters, but no RT antennas. I think part A should do thing B instead! Balancing the gameplay has been trying since I have done it alone. Input and suggestions are therefore very welcome, please post your thought and I will take them into consideration for the next build. I found a bug! Good. Please share it in a post below, and I will look into it. Pics or it didn't happen! -=::::::::v::::::::=- Installation 1. Locate your gamedata folder in your KSP installation. For example, if you are a Steam user it should be something like Steam/steamapps/common/Kerbal Space Program/GameData 2. Double click on the downloaded zip file ( to open it up. 3. Drag and drop the folder named 'PanzerLabs' into your GameData directory. 4. If asked, allow windows to overwrite content (In case you have other PanzerLabs mods installed) 5. For KSP 1.0.5 drag and drop 'ModuleManager.2.6.18.dll' into your GameData directory. 6. For KSP 1.1 drag and drop 'ModuleManager.2.6.21.dll' into your GameData directory. 7. Have a Gin & Tonic and enjoy the game. License This work uses the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License. For a full legal text, go to: This means that you can: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. This work is distributed along with Module Manager, as permitted by the license of that particular work. Credit (and a deep gratitude) for Module Manager goes to it's original creator ialdabaoth as well as to the current caretaker of the project, sarbian. The forum thread for the original release can be found here: -=::::::::v::::::::=- Changelog 1.0 -Lowered the heat production of LFE-808 "Bolt" by a significant amount. It should no longer cause critical overheating of parts attached to it. -Changed the name of the tripod girder from "K-Sat Structural Support A" to the correct "K-Sat Structural Support C". -Changed the description of the tripod to differentiate it more from the regular structural support. -Added cross feed toggles for all Structural Supports. 0.9 -Initial Release.
  24. Greetings! Time for me to introduce my first attempt at modding. The initial idea was to create the launch vehicles from Swiss Space Systems. The SOAR concept shuttle and the aircraft that will launch it. But then I ended up creating a whole system of modular satellites that would go with it better than the stock parts. Right now I have the satellite system and the A300 about 70% done. The SOAR concept is halfway there only. Keep in mind this is an early version. [0.72] Download from SpaceDock Content: Video preview of version 0.5 by KottabosGames. Thank you sir. Features Texture Switch - 8 colours as shown above Remote tech support AntennaRange support AntennaRangeRelay contract pack support RealPlume support TweakScale support ScanSat support Stack Symmetry (2) Thanks to @Hexicube Known issues (if you have a fix thanks for sharing) It snaps on the node next to the one I want - No known fix - Workaround: Place it on the snapping node then Alt + LMB your module to copy it and place it on the desired node that will be easy to get now. Delete unwanted node Half core top module snaps on bottom module but doesn't stack properly. It seems to be due to the side nodes being on the top modules. - Workaround: Stack downwards. First an half core top module then half core bottom module. Antennae animation problem: doesn't extend when transmitting ( still looking for a fix) / No animation in VAB ( seems like stock don't either) The science modules don't register for contracts on satellite. See MM patch and more info here and in archive file. Texture switch works in VAB/SPH for shrouds but not ingame. To do/ Road map: Changelog Credits: BahaSP BDAnimationModules by @BahamutoD Firespitter by @Snjo ModuleManager by @sarbian/ @ialdabaoth Part Icon Fixer by @xEvilReeperx Thanks to the french speaking community for providing early feedback/help and great ideas. Installation: Delete previous version if you had one. Copy the content of GameData in your GameData folder You can remove folders to select what you want installed or not. There is no dependencies between the manufacturer. NSS for the Octosat, Airbus for the A300, S3 for SOAR Concept. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 Thank you for pointing out mistakes and correcting my english in-game ( names and descriptions) and in this thread. Feel free to post issues, ideas, suggestions, thoughts, whatever you want to share.
  25. Comm Sat Minimum Orbits

    EDIT: THIS MATH IS WRONG. I don't know what's inaccurate in my math, but it's outright wrong. I can't even get 500km satellites to work in a triangle and talk to each other. I'll work on it when I get some time but if someone beats on this and figures out where I made the mistake, please let me know. So I spent a bit trying to get myself figured out on what is the minimum altitude for a triangular comm sat system on Kerbin and sat down with all the math I needed. Attempting to do that I realized I needed a picture. While I was at it, I figured I'd make it pretty so I could share it. A LKO Comm Sat network needs to roll at a minimum of 281 km orbital height. Punch this up to 350k and you should be golden. If you're not concerned with atmospheric distortion, anything above 200km will work. The outer network (assuming MG-5s), to stay in comms with each other, can fly at most 3,799 km orbital height with 1 MG-5, 7,598 km with dual MG-5's. This isn't to say they can't reach Kerbin with that giant ground based DSN, but to be able to relay to each other. Hope this helps. Edit: Almost forgot to add the actual final equation if you need it for another body. Rp is the Radius of the Planet you're orbiting, Ra is the Radius of the planet + atmosphere (Ie: Kerbin is 600km radius, + 70km of atmo, so Rp = 600 and Ra = 670), Rs is the satellite's final orbital height. Can't get the radical sign to show up so SqRt(3) is the square root of 3. Rs = SqRt( ( (Ra * SqRt(3)) ^2 * SqRt(3)) /3 ) - Rp For Max Network intercommunication, the equation is (Max Comm Distance = Mc) Rs = SqRt( ( Mc^2 * SqRt(3)) /3) - Rp