Jump to content

[WIP] [Kopernicus] [1.12.2] Citizen Science Planet Pack


Recommended Posts

This is a planet pack that will include systems that I have found, helped find, or studied from NASA's K2 and TESS missions. The current name is probably going to be replaced with something better; I didn't really know what else to call it as of now.



I've been finding/studying transiting exoplanets using data from the K2 and TESS missions for the last several years now. Both missions looked at thousands upon thousands of stars at a time to search for tiny, periodic dips in starlight caused by orbiting planets passing between their star and our line of sight. The data is publicly available on MAST (Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes), and I used the program package LcTools to analyze it and search for transiting planet candidates. Me and several other citizen scientists found quite a lot in K2 data on the Zoonivese project Exoplanet Explorers back in 2017-18, and I've been studying TESS data since late 2018. I helped with the discovery of TOI-700d, the first small habitable zone planet from TESS; TOI-451, a 3-planet system in the 125 million year old Pisces-Eridanus stream; and LTT 1445Ac, an Earth-sized planet in a nearby triple star system. Over most of the year, I've gone back through K2 Campaigns 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 to record all possible planet candidates and refine their parameters to the best of my ability.



This pack will include many of the systems I have found and studied (but not all of them, because single planet systems with a hot sub-Neptune aren't very interesting). All systems will be scaled-down to KSP scale (1/10th the radius, 1/100th the mass, 1/10th the orbital distance) and will be three orders of magnitude closer to the Kerbol system than they are in real life. Most of the systems from my K2 surveys are hundreds of parsecs away; even 1/100th scale would be too far. With the exception of some TESS planets, the masses and compositions will be hypothetical, but are calculated to be as realistic as possible given what is known about these worlds. Most of these planets are unconfirmed, and it's possible that some might be determined to be false positives in later analysis. If that happens, I will still keep the planets in the mod, but it will be in the flavor text that the planet is a false positive.

For the first updates, I will only be adding and working on systems from my K2 surveys. TESS systems and other Exoplanet Explorers systems will come later. There will also be hypothetical moons added to many planets to make the systems more interesting and rewarding to explore.


SYSTEMS (upcoming v0.1 and in-Dev)



Green = Coming in the initial release

Blue = Coming in the second update

Orange = Development started but won't be out until later

Red: Planned but development has not begun

  • EPIC 212505650/C17-2: An M5V dwarf with one Super-Earth in the HZ.
  • EPIC 247094147/C13-7: An M3V dwarf with three Sub-Earths, one in the HZ.
  • GJ 1018/TOI-244: An M2V dwarf with a warm, possibly water rich Super-Earth.
  • K2-266AB: A binary system with up to 8 planets around the primary and a Warm Jovian around the secondary.
  • EPIC 249363326/C15-8: A G-type star with two Super-Earths and a Sub-Neptune.
  • EPIC 211506851/C18-5: A G5V main sequence star with two hot Super-Earths and a Hot Neptune.
  • EPIC 211939562/C18-16: An F5V main sequence star with five Sub-Neptunes and Warm Neptunes.
  • EPIC 212563850/C17-4A: A K9V dwarf with two Super-Earths, one in the HZ. Part of a binary system.
  • EPIC 251329823/C16-35: A K1V/G9V main sequence star with two scorched Earths and a Sub-Neptune.
  • EPIC 248731669/C14-28: An M1V dwarf with four Sub-Neptunes.
  • EPIC 211765695/C16-17: An M1V-K8V dwarf with a Hot Super-Earth, a Warm Sub-Neptune, and a Temperate Neptune.
  • EPIC 248657359/C14-26: A K3V dwarf with a long-period gas giant.

Systems are ordered by distance from our solar system (distance from Kerbol in-game). Many more are planned, but these are the ones that will be focused on in the earliest several updates.













Initial Release v0.1:

  • The C17-2, C13-7, and GJ 1018 systems
  • The first planet of K2-266A.
  • Several other stars, no planets yet
  • EVE and Scatterer compatibility 

Later updates:

  • The following K2 systems:
    • C18-5
    • C18-16
    • C17-4AB
    • C15-8
    • C14-26
    • C14-28
  • The following TESS systems:
    • HD 23472
    • TOI-2104
    • HD 48611
    • TOI-700



The latest stable version of Kopernicus

Environmental Visual Enhancements - Planetary clouds

Scatterer - Atmosphere and ocean scattering






Thanks to:

  • @prestja and @R-T-B for maintaining the current versions of Kopernicus
  • @blackrack for EVE-Redux and Scatterer
  • @OhioBob for his fantastic and incredibly helpful realistic atmospheres calculator
  • @OhioBob, @WarriorSabe, and @JadeOfMaar for help with realistic atmospheres, planet surface/atmo ideas and their feasibility, and more
Edited by ProtoJeb21
Plans updated
Link to comment
Share on other sites

I finally have nicknames for the C18-5 planets. Since the system is within the constellation Cancer, the planets have been named after names given to the constellation by the Greek astronomer/mathematician Eratosthenes.

Karkinos (C18-5b)


Onoi (C18-5c)


Kai (C18-5d)



Onoi/C18-5c has gone through like four different textures so far. I can never get something that I'm truly satisfied with. While I am mostly happy with the surface texture, this iteration of clouds didn't come out that great. I'm giving the planet a thick atmosphere, a mix of volcanic outgassing and its primordial envelope, mainly comprised of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, with small amounts of other volcanic gases (CO, CH4, SO2) and traces of hydrogen and helium. For a planet of this temperature (Teq=885 K for 0.3 albedo), the available cloud-forming molecules include sulfides and chlorides.

Kai/C18-5d will probably get a texture revamp. I used to think that more methane in an atmosphere would lead to a purple hue, but in reality, it'll just be deeper and deeper blue, so I'll probably change it to an indigo color. It too is hot enough for sulfide/chloride clouds; right now it has faint bands and a mostly uniform purple color.

Karkinos/C18-5b is basically done. I just need to get the surface working properly, because for some reason, the surfaces of the planets I make love to break in flight mode. However, the overall texture and the atmosphere are both finalized. Karkinos has an equilibrium temperature in the range of 1150-1200 Kelvin, and a substellar point temperature potentially as high as 1500-1600 Kelvin.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Progress report:

  • The textures for Karkinos, Onoi, Aine, and Enyalius are done
  • Nephelion might be completely re-worked; the other gas giant textures and Scatterer are finalized
  • The rocky/oceanic planets all have working realisitic atmospheres; Aine might need to be revamped a bit due to issues with its water content
  • Flight view surfaces of Karkinos and Onoi need work
  • Flight view surfaces of Aine and Enyalius are just about done
  • All of the gas planets except for Kai need new realistic atmospheres
  • WIP rings for Atlantiades



Link to comment
Share on other sites

Scatterer seems to have issues with objects beyond a certain distance from the Sun, leading to the Scatterer effects of C16-35b to not work correctly. They often don't even face the star that's literally right in front of it. Therefore, the C16-35 system will not be a part of 0.1, but will come in a slightly later update once I get this issue fixed.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 4 weeks later...
  • 1 month later...
  • 1 month later...
  • 2 months later...

WIP revamp for Aine. Its transit geometry suggests it could be in a very eccentric (e=0.48) orbit and be transiting at periapsis, which would make it about 1.8 Earth radii instead of 2.0 Re. The massive temperature swings would probably dry out the equator.





WIP initial texture for Melera/C13-7c, a Sub-Earth within the right temperature range to host liquid Iodine on its surface. Future texture iterations will reduce the liquid covering on the surface to some small seas and lakes - and will be hand drawn instead of some garbage from Grand Designer. The color scheme will remain more or less the same, however. Maybe the atmosphere will be changed to a light indigo, but I don't want Melera to feel like Eve but smaller.


Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 2 weeks later...

The initial release will likely just be the C17-2 and C18-16 systems. C17-2 contains Aine and its moon Aillen, while C18-16 has four gas planets and one ocean planet. This way, I can have an interesting multi-planet system in the first release, and dedicate a lot of time to a small number of rocky bodies to make them very high quality. I'm already working on a new, hand-made texture for Aine.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 2 weeks later...

K2-266Ab, an Ultra Short Period planet.


GJ 1018b, a warm water-rich Super-Earth.



The plans for the initial release have changed again. K2-266Ab and GJ 1018b will be in the initial release, alongside Aine/C17-2b and the three rocky planets of C13-7. As I mentioned before, I want to focus on just a few planets at first instead of rushing out like a dozen. Also, with the new Scatterer update out, I need to redo the visuals for every planet that will be in the first version. GJ 1018b is done and looks far better than before; in the prior version, the atmo rim was very faint and the day-night transition was very abrupt.

Edited by ProtoJeb21
Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 2 weeks later...
  • 2 weeks later...

Aine has gotten a complete overhaul. Instead of being an ultra-dense rocky Super-Earth, it is a volatile rich Mini-Neptune with a thick water mantle over a rock-iron interior. I gave it a ring system even though one is unlikely IRL. In the mod, it's from a moon that was shoved too close to the planet by the gravity of its star, ripping it apart.



Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 3 months later...
This thread is quite old. Please consider starting a new thread rather than reviving this one.

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Create New...