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  1. This is the development thread of KSP Interstellar Extended where new development can be discussed or request can be made. For any question on existing functionality, ask and discus them in the new Release Thread of KSP Interstellar Extended KSP Interstellar Extended is a plugin for Kerbal Space Program, designed to encourage bootstrapping toward ever more advanced levels of technology as well as utilizing In-Situ resources to expand the reach of Kerbal civilization. KSP Interstellar Extended aims to continue in Fractals original KSPI vision in providing a realistic road to the stars. Players will first gain access to contemporary technologies that have not been widely applied to real space programs such as nuclear reactors, electrical generators and thermal rockets. By continuing down the CTT tech tree and performing more research, these parts can be upgraded and later surpassed by novel new technologies such as fusion and even antimatter power. We attempt to portray both the tremendous power of these technologies as well as their drawbacks, including the tremendous difficulty of obtaining resources like antimatter and the difficulties associated with storing it safely. The goal being to reward players who develop advanced infrastructure on other planets with new, novel and powerful technologies capable of helping Kerbals explore planets in new and exciting ways. The principal goal of KSP Interstellar is to expand Kerbal Space Program with interesting technologies and to provide a logical and compelling technological progression beginning with technologies that could have been available in the 1970s/1980s, then technologies that could be available within the next few years, progressing to technologies that may not be available for many decades, all the way out to speculative technologies that are physically reasonably but may or may not ever be realizable in practice. For KSP 1.0.5 Download version: 1.7.6 from Here For KSP 1.1.3 Download version 1.9.11 from Here For KSP 1.2.2 Download latest version 1.12.16 from Here source: Github If you appreciate what I create, please consider donating me a beer you can make a donation by PayPal or support me by Patreon Download & Installation Instructions step 1: remove any existing KSPI installation (GameData\WarpPlugin folder) step 2: download KSPI-E and put the GameData in your KSP Folder (allow overwrite) step 3: re-install latest version of TweakScale step 4: (optionally) install KSP Filter Extensions. Recommended Star System/ Galaxy mods: ExtraSolar: Planets Beyond Kerbol extend an existing stock capaign ( with optional planet pack) into an Interstellar campaign Galactic Neighbourhood where your can visit your neighbour star systems with integrated planet packs To Boldly Go to create a unique procedural generated interstellar experience Real Solar System + RSS Constellations for the most realistic interstellar experience Kerbal StarSystems for a complete miniature galaxy experience Interstellar Adventure the name sais it all Other Worlds for an alternative interstellar experience Recommended Tool mods: Persistant Rotation for Timewarp propulsion PreciseNode for navigation More KSPI-E integration mods can be found in here Documentation & Tutotials KSPI is one of the most sophisticated mods for KSP. To help you get started, you can make use of the following resources: KSPI-E for Dummies KSPI-E Guide by Nansuchao KSPI-E Technical Guide KSPI-E Wiki KSPI-E Youtube Videos: Main Features KSPI Extended includes new improvements and fixes from which the following are the key features: Improved realism of diversity Nuclear Engines Electric Engines Reactors Thermal and Electric Propellant Fuel Modes for Fission, Fusion Beamed power transmission Support KSPI-E add support for the following mods Basics KSPI-E Construction There are 6 basic components needed to create a working KSPI-E propulsion module are as follow Reactor - A reactor is needed to produce heat energy or charged particles which is used by other KSPI components to convert it into useful energy. Pebble Bed is recommended for high thrust/atmospheric launches and Molten Salt is recommended for long term usage for upper stage/satellites. Your choices will change as you unlock more components Generator - A generator is required to produce Electric Charge and MegaJoules, both resources are needed on almost any KSPI vessel. Megajoules are needed for KSPI engines which have ‘Electric Power Needed’ = Yes or Partial Radiators - Radiators are required to expel WasteHeat from the reactor, generator or engines. Without a radiator you will not be able to generate any power! Engine - Without an engine this wouldn’t be much of a propulsion module. Most engines operate most effectively when directly connected to the reactor. The reactor heat transfer performance values will indicate how much of the original energy is available if an engine is not directly connected to the reactor. The Atilla and Arcjet RCS thrusters do not require any direct connection to function at 100%. I recommend starting with either the Thermal Turbojet or Thermal Rocket nozzle. Propellant/Fuel - All Reactors and most Engines require propellant/fuel to operate. The Interstellar Fuel tanks are the standard containers that will be used to store the propellants. Hydrazine or LqdAmmonia are performance fuels and are be strongly recommended for Launch stages. Control - A probe core or crewed command module is also needed to operate the vessel. Common Issues All engines (except vacuum plasma thruster) must overcome the static pressure in the atmosphere and is better suited for vacuum usage and may not show any thrust in the atmosphere. Smaller thrusters will help overcome static pressure Research KSPI Is a High tech, hard science mod which gradualy unlocks sophisiticed technologies with advanced research . When researching KSPI techs, your are not forced into following a single path. Instead there are mutliple paths you can focus on. Nuclear Propulsion is a stock tech but it unlocks the first Nuclear Engine, the Solid NCore Nuclear Engine a.k.a. NERVA. It intitialy can only use LiquidFuel or on Hydrogen as a propellant, but as more Nuclear Propulsion Technology is reseached it is capable of using a divere variation of propellants Nuclear Power unlocks the first reacor which is specificly ment for fission power production in space, the Molten Salt Reactor which contains a build in thermal electric generator Advanced Nuclear Power unlocks the the modular Thermal Electric Generator, which when connected to a reactor can produce electric power Advanceded Nuclear Propulsion allows the NERVA to function in LATERN mode, meaning adding exygin in the nozzle to increase thrust, and unlocks the Thermal Launch Nozzle which can be put under modular reactor High Energy Nuclear Power unlocks the Particle Bed Reactor, which is capable of generating high amount of thermal heat at a low reactor mass. THe High Trust to Weight ratio makes it suitable of beinged used as a heavy single stage to otbit, which is it's main intended purpose. Efficient Nuclear Propulsion introduces the Closed Cycle Gas Core Reactor which can achieve significantly higher Isp than the NERVA Experimental Nuclear Propulsion unlocks the Open Cycle Gas Core Reacor, which offers even higher ISP than the close cycle gas gore reactor but at the expanse of versatility as it is only capable of orating while in space. Exotic Nuclear Propulsion unlockes the Fission Fragment reactor, which thanks to its ncredible high Isp allow allow to the travel to anywhere in the solar system and behind. The reactor can also be used for High efficiency electric power production Fusion Power unlucks the First Reactors intended for power production, the Magnetic Confinement Fusion Reactor which used super powererfull magnetcs to contain a plasma at high temperatures. Although thesereactors are bulky, they have ability to contain charged particles which can directly converted into energy at high efficiencies or redirected to a magnetic nozzle for Insterstellar HIgh Isp. For smaller vessels, The Magnetic Target Fusion Reactor is a highly efficient heat engine, converting fusion fuel and lithium into thermal power. Fusion Propusion unlock the first fusion engine which are inteded for propusion. Advanced Fusion unlocks the second tier of fusion fuels and introduces 2 advanced fusion enginess, the Tokamak Fusion engine and the VISTA Inertial Fusion Engine. The Tokamak Fusion engine has an integrated magnetic nozzle which can use any single atom propellant at high Isp and the Vista offers High Isp with High thrust levels Nuclear Engine/Reactors The Core of KSPI are its engine/reactor, they make the magic happen. There are now 5 Fission engines and 5 Fission Reactors, 5 types of fusion reactor, and 2 eotic reactor each with the own characteristic behavior, excelling in a particular way (and therefore most fit for certain applications) Part Model Unlocking Technology Power Output (2.5m) Reactor/Engine Main Properties Description Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Solid Core Nuclear Reactor is one of the first nuclear engine available capable of using nuclear energy for propulsion, allowing Isp roughly twice the Isp of Chemical rockets. It's thrust to weight using Liquid Hydrogen is initially too low for any launch except in the upper stages. With Advanced Nuclear Propulsion technology is becomes possible to operate in Liquid Oxygen augmented mode effectively tripping the thrust at the cost of 36% lower Isp. With the advent of higher Nuclear propulsion technologies, other propellant then Hydrogen become available as a possible propellant, which is more or less adventurous depending on the circumstances. Solid Core Reactor can also be used for High power production, but due to it's inability to replenish its fuel, has only limited endurance. Traveling Wave Reactor a.k.a. Candle reactor is a small reactor specificly targeted for small probes. The reactor function in many ways like a candle, where is slowly converts it fisionable material into energy. Nuclear power Improved Nuclear Power Nuclear Fuel Systems High Nuclear Power Systems 0.444 GW 0.666 GW 1.0 GW 1.5 GW Min Diameter: 0.625m Dry Mass (2.5m): 8 t Fuel Mass (2.5): 6 t Cost: 18k Molten Salt reactor is the first high thermal power nuclear reactor available KSPI-E, they excel in reliable long lifetime thermal power generation using Uranium. At the expanse of 50% power output it can burnup 99% of all uranium fuel. Besides Uranium it is also capable of using Thorium which generated more power but it durability is significantly lower. On the upside thorium is cheaper than Uranium and can be mined much more abundantly. Because its nuclear fuel is mixed constantly, gases like Xenon gas are not trapped but are extracted and can be used for other purposes. This reactor is also very suitable for Tritium breeding where lithium is converted into valuable Tritium. Another advantage is that the heat from the reactor can be transported effectively to other modules thanks to Molten Salt transport medium. Improved Nuclear Power High Nuclear Power Systems Pebble Bed reactors become available a bit later than Molter Salt reactor but thanks to their significantly lower mass they are the first nuclear reactor with can provide a Trust to Weight ratio higher as 1, meaning it can be used as first stage or second stage rocket engine. Although Pebble bed reactors are ideal for providing high thrust, when used for power generation, they suffer from heat throttling, meaning the reactor will automatically produce less heat output when heat is building up. Although reactor uses a transferable fuel source, due to is inefficient fuel usage, (most of the mass is not uranium), it is not efficient for long term power production Particle Bed Reactor aka TIMBERWIND is the continued development of the Pebblebed targeted for propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion Closed Cycle Gas Core reactors excel in generating average amounts thrust combined with with significantly Higher Isp compared to it Nuclear counterparts. This makes them ideal for short range planetary missions to like Duna and Eve. The Closed Cycle Gas Core reactor is one of the few High Isp engine reactors which is capable of operating in an atmosphere. With the help of some boosters, it can be used to launch into orbit from Kerbin. Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion Open Cycle Gas Core reactor excel a generating high amount of thermal power at double the core temperatures the Closed Cycle predecessor with less mass. This is achieved my removing the walls that separate the propellant and the nuclear fuel. Although this allows much higher core temperatures, the disadvantage is the reactor cannot operate while under the influence of acceleration, which happens when it is either on he surface or when accelerating at high speed. Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 3 GW Min Diameter: 3.75m Dry mass: 16 ton Cost: 400k Fission Fragment Reactor (a.k.a. Dusty Plasma) improves over Particle Bed Reactor. When they first become available, they are less powerful as particle bed reactor, but it's the first reactor capable of generating charged particles. The generated charged particles are efficiently transported on your vessel using magnetic confinements and can be used for either Very High Isp propulsion in magnetic nozzle or directly converted into energy with Direct Conversion Power Generator. Fusion Power Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 3 GW 4.5 GW 6.75 GW 10.125 GW Min Diameter: 5m Dry mass: 16 ton Cost: 600k Magnetic Confinement Fusion Reactor (a.k.a Tokamak) is one of the first Fusion Power reactor and comes available with Fusion Power. This reactor is Big and Bulky and require a fixed amount of power to operate but it can be used wide variety of operations. The amount of power required depends on the type of fusion and the number of researched fusion technology. MCF is most suitable for fuel efficient, thermal efficient power production. One of the big advantage of Fusion is that it's fuel can be very cheap, relatively easy to store and has only low radioactive waste product. The Fusions product themselves can be directly converted into electric power, which allows it to be very energy efficient. Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 5 GW 7.5 GW 11.25 GW 16.875 GW Min Diameter: 3.75 Dry mass: 32 ton Cost: 800k The Stellerator Fusion Reactor is in essence a magnetic confinement Fusion Reactor with a significant higher efficiency at the cost of higher mass. This makes it most suitable power salilites in fixed orbit that need to maximize power output. Fusion Power Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory Diameter: 2.5m Dry Mass: 8 ton Cost: 180k Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor can be smaller than the MCF reactor, but it is limited to providing thermal power. This makes it ideal for build SSTO vessels which require large amount of thermal heat to generate thrust when connected with any thermal nozzle. It can also be used for Electric Power production, but it requires a large amount of radiator to be effective. Fusion Rocketry Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Magneto Inertial Confinement Reactor is the first fusion engine specifically meant for Direct High efficient propulsion. It cannot be used for power and It's not as efficient as electric propulsion but it produces minimal amount of wasteheat, which will reduce the overall mass of the vessel. Note that the propellant is limited to Lithium , which is required both for achieving fusion as converting the fusion power in effective propulsion. Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 1.0 GW 1.5 GW 2.25 GW Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor is the first reactor capable and specialized if the generation of Electric power from Aneutronic fusion reactions.The reactor has an integrated charged particle direct energy converter, which allows up to 85% of aneutronic fusion energy to be converted into Electric power. Since the direct energy converter efficiency don't depend on temperature, you can run the radiators a lot hotter, meaning you need a lot less radiators then other reactor which depend on thermal electric power conversion. This means it will be ideal when used with Electric propulsion engines and does not require any heavy thermal electric generators. The downside is the Engine cannot be used with either thermal or magnetic nozzles. Antimatter Initiated Microfusion (AIM) reactor can deliver more power in a smaller package but only runs on exotic antimatter, helium3 and enriched uranium. The engine can be connected to either thermal nozzles or magnetic nozzles. Antimatter reactors versatile , expensive, and incredible powerful, the only real problem is collecting significant amount of Antimatter. They produce up to 80% Charged Particles which can be used by magnetic nozzle to create a large amount thrust an high Isp Quantum Singularity Reactor is the ultimate Mass to Power converter technology. It uses a microscopically sized black hole to accelerate light atoms into charged particles and heat. The charged particles fuse resulting in heavier atoms, which can be used for other purposes. The black hole event horizon also creates small amount of antimatter which can be used by antimatter reactors. The amount of produced power is variable, but the amount of required power to sustain black hole is constant and it has a minimum power level at which the black hole can be kept alive. Reactor/Engine Technical details: Ractor Name Reactor Cost / Minimum Size (default 2.5m) Unlock Technology / Tech Ugrades Core Temp. (Kelvin) ISP (s) Max Power (GW) thrust thermal (kN) Empty Mass (t) Max Fuel mass (t) Build In Nozzle Base Power Req (MW) Thermal Propulsion Efficiency Thermal Power Efficiency Charged Power Efficiency Heat Trans Effic Min Utilisation Fuel transfer and Efficency Magnetic Nozzle Efficiency / ISP (s) Special Electric Power (KW) Tritium Breeding Nuclear Candle 5,000 0.625m Nuclear Propulsion Nuclear Power Improved Nuclear Propulsion 1730 2076 2491 873.66 0.0100 0.0150 0.0225 2.33 0.15 t 0.05 thermal 100% 0% 10% 100% no n.a. limited to 0.625m, No throtling, cannot be deactivated 50 no Microwave Thermal Reciever 10000 1.25m Advanced Solar 2268 1000s 20 4413 3 t n.a. none Requires Microwave beamed power 100% n.a. n.a. n.a. 0% efficiency depends on distance to tranmitter, and atmosphere density n.a. Requires connection with microwave tranmitter no no Nuclear Turbojet 15,000 1.25m Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.400 0.600 0.900 102 / 136 / 171 6 t 0.03 thermal 100% n.a n.a 0.1% no no 50+50 no Nuclear Ramjet 30,000 1.25m Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 1764 / 2000 / 2267 882 / 900s 1000s 0.600 0.900 1.350 102 / 136 / 171 8 t 0.03 thermal 100% 75% 80% 0.1% no no Build In Air intake 50 no Molten Salt 60,000 0.625m Nuclear power Improved Nuclear Power Nuclear Fuel Systems High Nuclear Power Systems 800K / 1008K / 1270K / 1600.0K 593s / 748s / 840s 0.444 0.666 1.000 1.500 147 / 174 / 206 8 t 6t UF6 none 100% 100% n.a. 95% 20.25% / 13.5% / 9% / 6% no no Fuel Recycling with Lab Integrated thermla generator yes Nuclear Sollid Core Engine 90,000 1.25m Nuclear Propulsion Improved Nuclear Propulsion Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 2000 / 2500 / 3000 939s 1050s 1150s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 / 267.64 / 369.37 / 509.79 12 t 0.1 thermal 100% 75% 80% 0.1% no no requires 10 sec for full Throtle 80+80 no Pebble Bed 120,000 1.25m Nuclear Fuel Systems Improved Nuclear Power High Nuclear Power Systems 2000K / 2500K / 3000K 939s 1050s 1150s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 267.64 / 369.37 / 509.79 8t Particle Bed 150,000 1.25m High Energy Nuclear Power Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 2500K / 2750K / 3000K 800s / 939s / 1111s 4.00 / 6.00 1020 / 1302 / 1823 12 t 1t pebbles none 100% 100% 75% n.a. 80% 4% pumped no Heat Throttling 50 no Magnetized Target Fusion OMEGA 180,000 1.25m Fusion Power Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 2500K 1050 1.20 / 1.75 / 2.45 / 3.43 6 t Q20 / Q40 / Q60 / Q80 / 100% none 80% pumped Magneto Inertial Confinement Rocket 210,000 1.25m Fusion Rocketry Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 180.000 K 3770s / 5200s / 6500s 1.33 / 2.00 / 3.00 / 6 t thermal Q150 / Q200 / Q266 / 100% lithium only none none 0% 0% pumped 30% / 40% /53% 20% propellant limited to Lithium or Aluminum none 50% Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor 250,000 1.25m Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 1.33 / 2.0 / 3.00 6 t Q40 / Q80 / Q120 none 100% build in direct converter pumped no Aneutronic fusion only, +1 Fusion Tech level Nuclear Lightbulb 300,000 2.5m Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 7890 / 12562 / 20000 / 1865s / 2354s / 2970s 2.00 / 3.00 / 4.50 368.00 427.83 496.03 16 t 0.1t U235 thermal n.a. 100% 50% n.a. n.a. 2% pumped no Limited to non oxidizing propellants 50 + 50 no Open Cycle Gas Core 350,000 2.5m Experimental Nuclear Propulsion Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 25124 / 50247 3328s / 4707s 4.00 / 6.00 154.62 / 247.39 12 t 0.04 U none 100% 50% 90% 20% 1-100% depending on gravity no Buoyancy effects no Dusty Plasma Bed 400,000 3.75m Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 3700 1260s 3.00 16 t 0,065 none 60% 60% (2) 100% 80% 40% pumped 46% 52700 - 527000 none yes Nuclear Salt Water Rocket (*) 500,000 3.75m Exotic Nuclear Propulsion 5000s - 10000s 70.00 4200 - 2100 21 t thermal 100% none n.a. n.a 0% Water + UraniumTetraBromide no Cannot be used in Low or Hyperbolic orbit of Kerbin none yes Sperical Tokamak 600,000 5m Fusion Power Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory 32000K Li: 6800s H2: 11800s -118000s 3.00 / 4.50 / 6.75 / 10.125 20 t 3t Li none Q10 / Q20 / Q40 / Q80 / n.a. 100% 2500K 100% 80% 0% pumped 100% 60% 15.000 - 1.500.000 Fuel recycling yes Antimatter Initiated Microfusion 800,000 2.5m Antimatter Power Antimatter Power Unified Field Theory n.a. n.a 8.00 / 12.00 / 18.00 6 t none n.a. n.a. 100% n.a 0% pumped 13.500s - 61.000 80% Charged Particles no AntiMatter 1,000,000 0.625 Antimatter Power Ultra High Energy Physics Unified Field Theory 100000K 150000K 220000K 6641s / 8133s / 9850s 20.00 / 30.00 / 45.00 16 t none 100% 100% 100% 80% 0% pumped yes Total fuel Annihilation no VISTA Fusion Engine 1.500,000 5m Advanced Fusion Exotic Fusion Unified Field Theory n.a. 15500s - 27000 46.0 / 92.0 / 184.0 600 / 1200 / 2400 24 t magnetic Q45.6 / Q91.2 / Q182.4 n.a. none none n.a 0% pumped 15.500 - 27.200 Kills Nearby Kerbals no DAEDALUS IC Fusion Engine 3.000.000 5m Exotic Fusion Exotic Fusion n.a. 1.000.000s 1500.00 / 3000.00 300 / 600 72 t magnetic Quantum Singularity 6,000,000 5m Unified Field Theory Ultra High Energy Physics 320000K none 160.00 / 320.00 64 t none Q50 / Q100 none 100% 100% but for power onlyi n.a. 10% pumped Need zero environment to startup intergrated thermal and charge particle generator (1) requires Improved Nuclear Power (2) requires Fusion Power (3) requires Fusion Rocketry (*) Not implemented Explanation table: Fusion Reactor Fuel Modes Fuel Mode Reactors Types Tech Requirement Reactor Power Reaction Energy Reaction Rate Power Requirement Multiplier Fuel Products Charged Particles Brems-strahlung Neutron Energy Ratio D-T Fusion MCF / MIF Fusion Power 1 1 1 1x LqdDeteurium + LqdTritium Helium4 19.3% 0.7% 80% Cold D-D Fusion MCF Fusion Power 0.3537 0.7074 0.5 0.9x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + Helium3 66.5% D-He3 Fusion MCF Advanced Fusion 0,884 1.04 0.85 2x LqdDeteurium + LqdHe3 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 79.13% 15.87% 5% T-T Fusion MCF / MIF Advanced Fusion 0.5457 0.642 0.85 2x LqdTritium Helium4 17% 3% 80% Full D-D Fusion MCF / MIF Advanced Fusion 0.6135 1.227 0.5 2x LqdDeteurium Helium4 31.1% 10.7% 58.2% Hot D-D Fusion MCF Exotic Fusion 0.3635 0.727 0.5 6x LqdDeteurium Helium4 + LqdTritium 10% D-Li6 Fusion MCF / MIF Exotic Fusion 0.889 1.27 0.7 6x LqdDeteurium + Lithium6 Helium4 18.2% 81.8% 2.5% p-B11 Fusion CBF Exotic Fusion 0.3458 0.494 0.7 6x LqdHydrogen + Boron Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 36,3% 63.6% 0.01% He3-He3 Fusion MCF / CBF Unified Field Theory 0.551 0.73 0.7 8x LqdHe3 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 41.9% 58.1% 0% He3-Li6 Fusion MCF / CBF Unified Field Theory 0.672 0.96 0.7 8x LqdHe3 + Lithium6 Helium4 + LqdHydrogen 41.9% 58.1% 0.1% Li6 Fusion Cycle CBF Unified Field Theory 0.5344 1.1875 0.45 8x Lithium6 Helium4 41.9% 58.1% 0.1% p-Li7 Fusion MCF / CBF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.6839 0.977 0.7 10x LqdHydrogen + Lithium Helium4 75% 24.9% 0.5% p-Li6 Fusion MCF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.159 0.227 0.7 10x LqdHydrogen + Lithium6 Helium4 + Helium3 75% 24.9% 0.1% p-N15 Fusion CBF Ultra High Energy Physics 0.1704 0.284 0.6 10x LqdHydrogen + Nitrogen15 Helium4 + Carbon 60% 24.9% 0.1% * MCF = magnetic confinement Fusion, MIF = Magnetic Inertial Fusion CBF = Coliding beam Fusion reactor ** = not implemented yet. This is an overview off all fuel modes and there effects on performance Non Fusion Reactor Fuel Modes This is an overview off all fuel modes and there effects on performance Reactor Fuel Modes Fuel Mode Type Reactors Tech Requirement Core Temp Modifier Reaction Energy Fuel Efficiency Fuel Products Charged Particles Brems-strahlung Neutron Energy Ratio Uranium Oxide Fission NERVA / JUMBO Nuclear Propulsion 100% 1 85% EnrichedUranium DepletedUranium ** 0 n.a 2% Uranium Hexafloride Fission Molten Salt / Gas Core Nuclear Power 100% 1 15% UF6 94% DepletedFuel + 6% Xenon 0 n.a 2% Uranium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 80% 0.8 80% UF6 80%DepletedFuel + 10%Plutonium 10%DepletedUranium 0 n.a 2% MOX Plutonium Burnup ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 115% 0.9% 30% 7%Plutonium+ 93%Anticides DepletedFuel 0 n.a 1% Thorium Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Power 138% 1.38 15% ThoriumTetraflouride Anticides 0 n.a 2% Thorium Fuel Cycle ** Fission Molten Salt Nuclear Fuel Systems 69% 0.69 99% ThoriumTetraflouride + Anticides 96%DepletedFuel + 2%Anticides + 2%Plutonium 0 n.a 2% Uranium Nitride Pellet Fission Pebble Bed Nuclear Fuel Systems 100% n.a. 5% UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 0 n.a 2% Uranium Nitride Nanoparticle Fission Dusty Plasma High Energy Nuclear Power 100% n.a. 97% UraniumNitride DepletedFuel 83.5% * 0.46 n.a 2% Microfusion Fussion-Fision Hybid AIM Exotic Fusion Reactions 100% 1 94% LqdDeteurium + LqdHe3 & UraniumNitride + AntiMatter Helium4 + Hydrogen + DepletedFuel 95% n.a. 5% AntiMatter AntiMatter Antimatter Antimatter Power 100% 1 22% AntiMatter none 80% 20% n.a * MCF = magnetic confinement Fusion, MIF = Magnetic Inertial Fusion CBF = Coliding beam Fusion reactor ** = not implemented yet. Power Generators Generators are electricity production parts in the KSPI mod. Generators come in 2 different types and function differently. Generators in KSPI generate both electric charge and MegaJoules. Generators must be directly connected to a reactor to generate electricity and can only use power from one reactorGenerator at a time. Radiators are required by the Generator to expel WasteHeat and will not function without them. Thermal Generators - These generators convert thermal power from a reactor into electrical power and waste heat. Their efficiency determines what percentage of that thermal power is converted into electricity. The rest becomes waste heat. Typical thermal generators in space use closed cycleBrayton gas turbines. For traditional molten salt-based fission reactors, this type of generator gives a maximum theoretical efficiency of 31%. Upgrading the electric generators changes them from Brayton Cycle Turbines to a KTEC Solid State Generator heat engine with no moving parts - this ups the theoretical efficiency to 60%! Charged Particle Generators - This type of generator produces power directly from the use of charged particles which are created in great quantities by fusion reactors. Charged particle generators have much higher efficiencies than their thermal counterparts. These generators will produce varying amounts of power depending on the reactor and fuel modes used The Thermal Generator and Charged Particle generators can both be used at the same time on reactors that produce both charged particles and thermal power. This maximizes power potential and lower your utilization and therefore minimise WasteHeat production and reactor fuel consumption. Radiators Radiators are used in KSPI to expel excess WasteHeat from a vessel. WasteHeat is produced by reactors, generators, microwave receivers and will build up over time. Once WasteHeat builds up in a vessel to 95% capacity than reactors and microwave receivers will automatically power down. If WasteHeat is allowed to reach 100% then the parts may start being destroyed from too much heat. Non retractable solar panels are exempt from the WasteHeat mechanic. The Thermal Helper addon included with the KSPI installation can be used to estimate a reactor’s WasteHeat output. The values in the addon will dynamically update depending on the connected components. The Thermal helper is only accessible from the VAB/SPH. Radiators Name Unlocking Technology Foldable Mass Resize Scaling Factor Radiator Area Temperature Special Inline Radiator 3 Build in Reaction Reaction Wheel Small Flat Radiator Heat Management Systems no 2 1600 / 3500 Physics-less Foldable Heat Radiator Heat Management Systems yes 0.8 2.25 400 / 680 1600 / 3500 Contains Folding automation technology Large Flat Radiator Specialized Heat Management no 2 1600 / 3500 Can be used for landing stability Note the radiator performance depend for a large part on unlocked tech nodes:. Radiator Technologies Technology Science cost Effect Graphite Radiator Only Start Max temp 1850K no Heat Management Systems 160 Max temp 2200K no Advanced Headmanagment 550 Max temp 2616K no Specialised Radiators 1500 Max temp 3111K yes High Energy Science 2250 Max temp 3700K yes Nanoloathing 1000 60% improvement Emmisive constant yes Availability KSPI parts and upgrades with CTT technodes: Nuclear Power: small Molten Salt reactor Large Scale Nuclear Power: High Energy Nuclear Power: Advanced Nuclear Propulsion Meta Materials: All Radiators: Mo Li Heat Pipe ----> Graphene Radiaton Exotic Reactions: Tokama Fusion Reactor -> Upgraded Tokama Fusion Reactor Improved Nuclear Propulsion: Thermal Rocket Nozzles (all sizes) Thermal TurboJets (all sizes) Gas Core reactor and Dusty Plasma reactors and Molten Salt and Particle reactors----> Mk2 Molten Salt / Particle reactors Magnetic nozzles Thermal TurboJets ----> hybrid thermal rockets Experimental Electrics Electric Generator: Brayton Turbine → KTEC Thermoelectric/Direct Conversion (better efficiency) Heat Radiator: Mo Li Heat Pipe → Graphene Radiator (better efficiency Fusion Power Nuclear Reactor: Solid Core Reactor → Gas Core Reactor (3x power output) Thermal Turbojet: Atmospheric Thermal Jet → Hybrid Thermal Rocket (Basic version can only work in atmosphere, Upgraded version can toggle over to internal fuel) D-T Inertial Fusion Reactor → High-Q Inertial Fusion Reactor Ultra-High Energy Physics Antimatter Reactor: Solid/Liquid Core Reactor → Liquid/Plasma Core Reactor (3x power output) Plasma Thruster: Magnetoplasdynamic → Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (uses no fuel) Antimatter Power Propellant Resouese Name Unlock Technology Chemical Thermal ISP multiplier EngineThrust Multiplier Thermal Decomposition Full Decomposition Energy Oxidising / Reducing / Inert Soot Effect Thermal / Electric Propellant Average Density ISRU Hydrogen LqdHydrogen Nuclear Propulsion H2 1 1 R -0.01 Both 0.07085 kg/l ++ Diborane Diborane Experimental Nuclear Propulsion B2H6 0.763 1 R -0.01 Gas core / Electric 0.421 kg/l -- Methane LqdMethane Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CH4 0.3503 - 0.78 1 - 1.6 1000K - 3200K 19.895 R 0.25 Both + +/- Hydrazine Hydrazine Exotic Nuclear Propulsion N2H4 0.744 1.4 R -0.01 Both ++ - Helium LqdHelium n.v.t He 0.7 1 I 0 Electric - + LiquidFuel LiquidFuel Nuclear Propulsion ? 0.65 1 R 0 * Both ++ -- Lithium Hydrate LithiumHydrate Experimental Nuclear Propulsion LiH2 0.65 1 R -0.01 Both 0.78 kg/l Ammonia LqdAmmonia Experimental Nuclear Propulsion NH3 0.63 1.4 R -0.01 Both 0.86 kg/l - Beryllium Hydride * BH 2 0.6 ? R Hydogen + Fluorine * LqdHydrogen + LqdFlorine Exotic Nuclear Propulsion H2 + F2 0.7 2.2 R 0 Thermal afterburner +/- - Hydrolox (Hydrogen + Oxygen) LqdHydrogen + LqdOxygen Improved Nuclear Propulsion H2 + 02 0.63 2 R -0.01 Thermal afterburner -- +/- Methalox (Methane + Oxygen) Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CH4 + 02 0.25 - 0.55 ? 1 - 2 1000K - 3200K ? 19.895 ? R 0.1 Thermal afterburner + + LOX (Liquid Fuel + Oxidizer) Improved Nuclear Propulsion 0.417 1 R 0 Thermal afterburner ++ ++ Water Exotic Nuclear Propulsion H2O 0.3333 - 0.4714 1.2071 2000K - 4200K 2.574 O -2.5 Both ++ + Kerosine Efficient Nuclear Propulsion 0.21888 - 0.42477 1.459 1000K - 3200K 12.305 R 0.4 Both + ++ Liquid Carbondioxide Experimental Nuclear Propulsion CO2 0.2132 - 0.4085 1.459 3200K - 7000K 12.305 O -2.5 - 0.33 Both +/- +/- Liquid CarbonMonoxide Efficient Nuclear Propulsion CO 0.3273 - ? ? 4000K - 10000K 6.1525 O 0.5 Both +/- - Liquid Nitrogen Efficient Nuclear Propulsion N2 0.3273 I -0.01 Both ++ +/- * Not implemented ISRU atmospheric scoop KSPI offers the ability to scoop gas directly from the atmosphere (or just above it) into resources which can be used for propulsion or ISRU refinery processes. The rate at which you can collect depends on the density and abundance of a gas. Note that you can also collect resource just above the atmosphere and that light gasses as Hydrogen and Helium gradually become more abundant the higher you get Planet/Mun Atmospheric composition: ISRU Refinery: The ISRU Refinery allows you to process resources into other resources ISRU Refinery Process Required Resources Resource Products Type Aluminum Electrolysis Aluminia LqdOxygen + Aluminum Deconstruction Ammonia Electrolysis LqdAmmonia LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen Deconstruction Water electrolysis Water LqdHydrogen + LqdOxygen Deconstruction CO2 Electrolysis LqdCO LqdCO + LqdOxygen Deconstruction Methane Pyrolysis (*) Methane LqdHydrogen + Carbon Deconstruction Water Gas Shift Water + LqdCO LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Contructor Reverse Water Gas Shift LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Water + LqdCO Contructor Sabatier Process LqdHydrogen + LqdCO2 Methane + LqdOxygen Contructor Antraquinonene Process LqdHydroden + LqdOxygen HTP (Hydrogen Peroxide) Contructor Haber Proces LqdHydrogen + LqdNitrogen LqdAmmonia Contructor Peroxide Process LqdAmmonia + HTP Hydrazine + LqdOxygen Contructor Interstellar Fuel Tanks Title Technology Volume (Liter) Bonus Mass (mT) Boiloff Exposure Power Req (kW) Breaking Force Special IFT X48 High Performance Fuel Systems 48000 15% 6 28000 70 250 IFT X24 High Performance Fuel Systems 24000 12% 3 16000 45 250 IFT X16 Advanced Fuel Systems 16000 8% 2 14000 35 200 IFT X12 High Performance Fuel Systems 12000 1.5 10000 25 200 NoseCone IFT X8 Advanced Fuel Systems 8000 5% 1 8000 20 200 IFT X10 Large Volume Containment 11000 0.8 8000 20 50 Radial IFT X2 High Performance Fuel Systems 2000 0.25 2000 5 190 Interstellar RCS systems: From left to right: Corner ResistoJet RCS, 5 way ResistoJet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS , Retractable 5 way Resitojet RCS (Curved), Linear Arjcet RCS, Arcjet RCS Tank Engines: Interstellar offers 11 different type of engines, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Thermal Nozzle is the first engine available. They directly use the thermal heat generated by the reactor to heat-up propellant. The Advantage is that this is very efficient, as minimum amount of power is lost, and many propellants can be used. The disadvantage is that Isp, which is lower than other form of propulsion, it dependent and the core temperature of the reactor and used propellant. On the plus side many propellants can be used and thermal nozzles benefits for the energy released by decomposition when propellant are subjected to high temperature. This means propellant like Ammonia and Hydrazine give a significant bonus to thrust and Isp. Although it offers you you to use many resources as an propellant, it might be wise to avoid propellant that contain carbon, as they tend to to produce clog the heat eachanges with soot, which lowers your maximum thrust and causing overheating. For optimal efficiency, connect a thermal nozzle directly to an reactor, but if desired you can put other parts between the thermal nozzle and reactor at the cost of lower efficiency. Thermal Turbojet becomes available at the same time as thermal nozzle. Their advantage is that they allow high amount of propulsion, without any propellant, that is they use the air as an propellant. This means you can save a lot of mass on propellant. The downside is that it only function inside an atmosphere, on the plus side, this includes any atmosphere, even those without any oxygen. Do note that in order to travel fast though the atmosphere, you need precoolers to cool the compressed air to a temperature that prevent the turbojet from overheating. Arcjet are the first electric engines offered by Interstellar. Instead of thermal heat, they use electric power to heat a propellant to high temperature. The advantage is that you can use any non oxidizing propellants and enjoy the same decomposition propulsion bonus. One of the big disadvantage is that electric propulsion is less efficient as a lot of power is lost by converting the power into electric power and then convert into heat again. This is compensated by its ability control it's trust at the cost of Isp and the ability to use multiple reactors to power the same set of engines. Arjcets can be connected any where on you vessel, just make sure it is fed with desired propellant, and the reactor has access to radiator to lose its waste heat. [TABLE=class: grid, width: 1600] Engines Type Technology Method ISP (LqdHydrogen) Efficiency Variable ISP Gimbal manouverability Functions in Atmosphere Functions in Vacuum Propellant Electric Power Need Jet Engine Special Thermal Thrust Bonus Wasteheat effect Operating Cost Nuclear Turbojet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no very high full no Atmospheric Air none Turbojet build in precooler & build in reactor no Consumes very low Nuclear Ramjet Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 203s 2000s 125% no high full no Atmospheric Air none Ramjet build in precooler and air intake no Consumes very low Thermal Launch Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal up to 3000s 100% no high yes yes any NTR propellant + Oxygen as afterburner none Can overheat when clogged full Consumes low Thermal Ramjet Nozzle Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal up to 3000s 100% no average yes in atmospheric mode yes Atmospheric Air or any NTR propellant none Ramjet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes low Thermal Turbojet Improved Nuclear Propulsion Thermal up to 3000s 100% no high partial with propellant thermal, full in jet mode yes Atmospheric Air or NTR propellant none Turbojet Can overheat when clogged full Consumes very low Nuclear Light Bulb Efficient Nuclear Propulsion Thermal 1850s - 2970s 100% no high partial any NTR propellant none full low Plasma Nozzle Plasma Propulsion Thermal 3000s - 12000s 100% yes (*) low partial mono atomic propellants yes (*) Low low 5 way Resistojet RCS Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 544s (heated) 80% partial RCS yes yes Any propellant partial Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High low VTOL Resistojet (*) Ion Propulsion Thermal 1000s 80% no high yes yes Any propellant yes Cannot use oxidizing propellants full Low average Linear Arcjet RCS Advanced Ion Propulsion Thermal 272s (cold) / 2000s (heated) 52% no RCS partial yes Any propellant partial Cannot use oxidizing propellants full High average ATILLA Advanced Ion Propulsion Magnetic/ Thermal 2854s - 5704s (*) 50-80% yes average partial yes Any propellant yes Cannot use oxidizing propellants partial Average average MPD Plasma Propulsion Magnetic 11213s ionisation efficency no average partial yes Any propellant yes Efficency depend on propellant no Average average VASMIR Advanced Electromagnetic Systems Magnetic / Thermal 2956s - 29,969s 30-60% yes low no yes mono atomic propellants yes Efficency depend on Isp and Atmospheric Density no High average EM drive Specialized Plasma Generation Quantum Vacuum > 10.0000.000 10% no low yes yes vacuum plasma from nothing yes reactionless propulsion no Very High low Magnetic Nozzle Advanced Plasma Propulsion Charged Particles/ Magnetic 12.000 - 1.200.000 100% yes none no yes LqdHydrogen + Charged Particles low, 1% charged power Requires charged particles no Consumes average VISTA Fusion Rocketry Fusion 15.500 - 27.200 > 10000% limited low no yes LqdHydrogen + LqdDeuterium + LqdTritium up to 2.5 GW Deadly radiation and Safety Features n.a. Extreme very high DEADALUS Advanced Fusion Fusion 1.000.000 > 10000% none none no yes LqdDeuterium + LqdHelium3 up to 5 GW Aneutronic n.a. high extreme (*) not yet implemented Type - This field describes the technology behind the engine. The technologies used in KSPI are based closely on real life engines or scientific theories. Note the distinction between Thermal and Magnetic. Thermal engines have limited Isp but benefit from thermal decomposition, giving it extra thrust and improved Isp. Magnetic engines first need to Ionize the propellant. Some engines like the Vasimr and Atilla engine use a combination of the 2 techniques. Method- This describes the engine's power input used to generate thrust. Engines can use Thermal (GW) power from a reactor, magnetic types use charged particles, quantum vacuum uses the vacuum of space to produce thrust and Fusion uses an internal fusion reaction to produce thrust. ISP (LqdHydrogen)- This section shows the ISP (fuel efficiency) an engine produces when using LqdHydrogen as the propellant. Different types of propellants can provide different thrust values in an engine which is covered in more detail the Propellants section. Efficiency - The efficiency of an engine is how much of the thermal power (GW) is used to produce thrust and the remainder is expunged as Waste Heat. A low efficiency engine may require additional radiators to radiate the heat into the surrounding environment. The efficiency of electric engines is highly dependant on the efficiency of the propellant used. Variable ISP - In KSPI some engines can have a variable ISP when operating. The ISP of an engine decreases as it produces more thrust. Higher thrust values also decrease the energy conversion efficiency. Gimbal - This describes if the engine has gimbal capability. Gimbaled engines can use thrust vectoring to control the attitude of a vessel. Note that RCS engines do not gimbal but are linked with KSP RCS system. Functions in Atmosphere - This is another self-describing value which explains if the engine can produce thrust when in an Atmosphere. Some engines rely on the vacuum of space or other methods to produce thrust and cannot be used in an Atmospheric environment. Many of the thrusters in KSPI are affected by static pressure. Which means the engine has to overcome the pressure of the atmosphere before producing usable thrust. Static pressure can be overcome by using a higher thrust propellant or by using a smaller nozzle. Propellant- The propellant section explains which propellants are compatible with a given engine. Note that some engines can be upgraded to allow for additional propellants than is initially unlocked. Electric Power Need - This section explains if Electrical Power (measured in MegaJoules) is required for the engine to operate. Engines can require partial or full electric power, as well as mixed types that also use charged particles. Some engines like the RistoJet RCS, will switch to unpowered mode when insufficient power is available. These engines can therefore be used without KSPI reactors. Special- The special column covers any extra information about an engine that does not fit into a specific category on the chart. Thermal Thrust Bonus - This describes an engines ability to produce extra thrust depending on the propellant used. The temperature of the thermal engine also plays a factor on the thermal thrust bonus when factoring in thermal decomposition of a fuel. (More below in the Propellants section) WasteHeat effect- This explains how much Waste Heat is generated when firing a particular engine. Engines can both consume WasteHeat as well as produce WasteHeat depending on the engine technology used. Operating cost - This gives a general overview of the operating cost of running a engine. Electric engines are more expensive than thermal engines, since thermal engines have require less radiators. Vista Engines are very expensive to operate due to their high rate of consumption of Tritium. Beamed Power Image Name Technology Cost Mass Receive / Transmit Diameter can receive thermal can receive electric can receive data Receive Wavelength Transmit Power @ 2.5m Can Transmit Science Can Link Up Can Relay Transmit wavelength Transmit Efficiency Receive Efficiency Role / Special Special Microwave Transducer Large Electrics 2000 4 t 10m no no no n.a. 4 GW yes n.a. no 8.56 mm maximum n.a. Integrated Microwave Generator Inline Thermal Receiver Mk1 Large Electrics 2000 n.a. maximum Can power thermal engine or generator Multi Bandwidth Dish Transceiver (Shielded) Advanced Solar Technology 5000 6 t 5m 10 nm - 1m yes yes yes yes n.a. high universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching Phased Array Transiever Advanced Solar Technology 1 t 5 m 2 GW 1 - 10 mm 1 GW no 8.56 mm n.a. 100% Deployable Phased Array Transiever Advanced Photovoltaic Materials 2.5 t 25m 5 GW 1 - 10 mm 2.5 GW yes 8.56 mm 90% 90% Radial Phased Array 2 35 Ghz , 94 Ghz, Inline Thermal Electro Phased Array 2 35 Ghz , 94 Ghz, 90% Sphere Thermal Electro Phased Array 2 35 Ghz , 94 Ghz, 90% Radial Microwave Rectenna 5m Diode Infrared Laser Turret 1 0.5 m n.a. 750 nm - 1mm no 85% n.a. Early IR trasnmitter with Build in Beam generator Integrated IR Beam generator Radial Thermal Voltalic Receiver 2 5 m 750 nm - 1mm no n.a. 60% Radial Photvaltalic Receiver 2 5m 10 nm -700 nm 60% Radial Rectenna 2 5m 1 mm - 1 m 750 nm - 1mm 10nm - 750 no no Oversized Thermal Dish Receiver Aluminum 3 100m yes 1/3 thermal power yes 0.005% 400 nm - 1m microwave only DIRECT yes Performs better in UV visible light wavelengths can receive in electric at 1/3 thermal power Oversized Thermal Dish Receiver Gold 3 100m yes 1/3 thermal power yes 0.005% 400 nm - 1m microwave only DIRECT yes ss Microwave Infrared Rectenna 3 10m no yes 750 nm - 1m no no no 75% Infrared Mirror 3 10m 700 nm - 1mm no no yes 95% Can directly relay beamed power can only relay UV Light Mirror 3 10m 10 nm -700 nm no no yes 90% Can directly relay beamed power can only relay Multi Bandwidth Dish Transceiver (Medium) Advanced Photovoltaic Materials 10000 8 t 10m yes yes with 0.005% Configurable 10nm - 1m yes RELAY yes yes Depends on connected beam generator Depends on wavelength universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching Multi Bandwidth Dish Transceiver (Large) Microwave Power Transmission 40000 32 t 20m yes 1 mm - 1 m 750 nm - 1mm 10nm - 750 yes RELAY yes yes Depends on connected beam generator Depends on wavelength universal transceiver In flight bandwidth switching Data Transmission Besides beamed power transmission, some of the parts used for beamed power are also suitable for data transmission. For comparison the stock transmitter are included Name Type Interval PacketSize Transmit Cost Standby Cost Dish Angle Transmit Distance Combinable Communotron 16 DIRECT 0.6 2 12 EC 5.0e+5 True HG-5 High Gain Antenna RELAY 0.35 2 18 EC 1.15 EC / s 90 5.0e+6 True RA-2 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 1 24 EC 2.0e+9 True RA-15 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 2 24 EC 1.5e+10 True RA-100 Relay Antenna RELAY 0.35 4 24 EC 1.1 EC / s 0.025 1.0e+11 True Communotron DTSM1 DIRECT 0.35 2 12 EC 2.0e+9 True Communotron HG-55 DIRECT 0.15 3 20 EC 1.5e+10 True Communotron 88-88 DIRECT 0.1 2 20 EC 1.0e+11 True Microwave Phased Array Transceiver RELAY 0.1 1 25 EC 2.5 EC /s 160 1.0e+7 True Deployable Microwave Phased Array Relay Reciever RELAY 0.1 1 100 EC 10 EC /s 160 5.0e+7 True Radial Thermal Dish Receiver DIRECT 0.1 1 50 EC 5 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+12 True Folding Thermal Dish Receiver Gold DIRECT 0.1 1 50 EC 5 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+12 True Multi Bandwidth Rectenna Dish Transceiver (10m) RELAY 0.1 1 100 EC 10 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+13 True Multi Bandwidth Rectenna Dish Transceiver (20m) RELAY 0.1 1 400 EC 40 EC /s 0.005 5.0e+13 True Oversized Microwave Infrared Thermal Receiver DIRECT 0.1 1 800 EC 80 EC /s 0.005 1.0e+14 False Warpdrive (Faster Than warp drive) Fast than light speed is only possible by folding space itself. Space in front of the vessel needs to be shrunken while space behind it the vessel is extracted. To shrink and expand space, you need to generate negative mass which can be achieved by exciting exotic matter. KSPI warp drive can generate exotic matter and use it to create a warp field. The amount of power required to create a stable warp fields depends on the speed and power of the warp coils. The speed of light itself requires the least amount energy. Traveling faster or slower requires more power. However speed is influenced by a large degree by the curvature of space, in other words, gravity. It means that the higher the gravity pull of any heavily body, the lower the maximum speed possible for a finite amount of power requirement. This effectively means that when a vessel is in a low Kerbin orbit, where the pull of gravity is significant, the maximum warp speed is very low. And since traveling slower than the speed of light requires more power, it means that it will be hard or impossible to generate enough power. To get around it, you need to bring your vessel further away from the gravity source or install more warp drive power. Warp Power is achieved by any of the 3 warpdrives in KSP, The Light Warp Engine, the Foldable Warp Engine and the Heavy Warp Engine. The amount of warp power is directly dependent on the mass of the warp drive. Warp drives also stack linear, which means it will not matter if you use 24 ton of light warp drives or a single large warp drive. Work In Progress Note that do not consider myself the person that have to determine the future of KSPI, it's just that nobody else seems to want to do it. I would be more than happy to share that responsibility. Anyone that actively want to develop KSPI is free to do it. It would appreciate it as it would allow me to focus more on advanced features I have ideas about. Also notice I haven't had the time yet to play a serious KSP 1.0 campaign yet. But now my hands are full just making KSPI-E functional again. I think KSPI could develop into something much better. The simply truth is, KSPI is too big for a single developer. I don't have the time nor the skills to implement everything that it deserves. I'm especially frustrated about the lack of artist support. Many of KSPI models and effects look dated and ugly compared to more resent mods. There have been some artist and programmers offering their help but they often go AWOL after a short time. I'm not sure If I can keep it up myself indefinably. I would prefer to create a team of developers that works on KSPI together. I guess that's the only way to ensure KSPI Future
  2. Current Version v0.5.4 Solaris Hypernautics is proud to bring you the very latest in virtual particle tech! This a parts pack that takes the all parts of the venerable Ion Hybrid Electric Pack, http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/threads/31286-0-22-Ion-Hybrid-Electric-Pack-30-08-13-Soon-FKSP!!!-See-Development-Monitor, and reimagines them in the next generation propulsion devices that use virtual particles! Now we've expanded our line of technology and engines to include adaptations of Nazari1382's Aurora Atomic Thruster part, nil2work's Retro Future Planes parts, dtobi's Asteroid Cities parts, and various of Zzz's parts. This shows all the parts the mod used to only have, it currently has a full set of comprehensive components. Long ranged designed for high speed aerocaptures, the Fafner Descent Vessel. CRAFT FILE DOWNLOAD LINK: http://kerbalx.com/Carbonjvd/Fafner-Descent-Vessel Massive IPV meant to transport small vessels and modules within its cargo bays to any destination. Can even function as a mobile operations station and refueler, the Armetis IPV. CRAFT FILE DOWNLOAD LINK: http://kerbalx.com/Carbonjvd/Armetis-IPV So what do these tiny particles have to offer when I already have nuclear engines and warp drives? Well, for one these babies don't require the power budget of a small country, though plenty of power is still advised. These drives don't use exhaust so you'll never have to worry about accidently blasting away those fragile solar panels! Electricity is the only thing you need to keep the whole system running, so no more running out of fuel or need for mining! How do I use this crazy new technology?! Easy as one-two-three! One: Generate them via a Virtugenic (and a lot of power). Two: Store it in a Stasis Tank. Three: Propel your ship with it! Told you it's as easy as one-two-three! I heard that you've expanded beyond virtual particles, what else is there?! Glady you asked! We now also have a wide range of parts that utilize the exotic reaches of magnetic fields and dust, yes dust! Our scientists and witch doctors have devised ways to make dust useful like getting xenon out of it or compressing it into ore, which is actually useful. For our line of magnetic fields research, mostly from our bored co-workers playing with the fridge magnets in the break room, we've figured out how harness their power as an ablative to keep systems cool! How cool is that?! Thanks to some serious work with an unmentioned scientist, we've devised even more ways to get power from various resources, nuclear power here we come! I'm sold, so what parts does this pack actually have? Passive Intakes for collecting compressed atmosphere. Huge Docking Port for connecting really big ships. Nuclear Fuel Tanks for holding blutonium. Industrial Nuclear Facilities for refining ore into blutonium. Advanced Grabbers for more options to attach to asteroids. Stasis Tanks for storing virtual particles. Virtugenics for generating virtual particles using lots of power. Kannae Drives for moving vessels and probes using only virtual particles and some serious power. Side Adaptor for attaching things on the side. Virtual Ore Reactors for powering things from ore and virtual particles, the bigger one even has a backup reactor that uses xenon instead of ore. Catalytic Engines for higher thrust rocket propulsion and the ability to draw dust from any atmosphere. Magnetic Drag Array for atmospheric entry with huge vessels, uses its magnetic charge as an ablative, has a built-in SAS system and cooling system. Nuclear Jet Engines for travel through an atmosphere without having to worry about needing oxygen. Retro-Propulsive Unit for a heat shield and an engine all in one part, uses it magnetic charge as an ablative. Nuclear Plasma Engine for when need the absolute biggest space borne propulsion using liquid fuel and electricity. Ionic Plasma Thruster for when don't need a monster engine, but a modest propulsion using liquid fuel and electricity. Magnetic Cooling Unit for dropping the temperature at the cost of power, perfect for fighting overheating. Virtual Dust Containment Tanks for storing dust and virtual particles, though the compression requires constant power or it'll leak virtual particles. Spherical Dust Tanks for storing dust and only dust. Dust Accumulator for gathering dust in any environment over time, but requires constant power to keep the magnetic trapping field up. Dust Processing Unit for extracting xenon from dust or compressing dust into ore, both using a lot of power at the risk of slight overheating. Nuclear Reactors for using ore and a bit of electricity to produce a ton of power, but it tends to overheat so make sure to use the built-in cooling system that also takes power. Nuclear Forge for producing power like a reactor but can also transynthesize virtual particles directly into dust, also has a cooling system built-in. Thermal RCS for maneuvering massive ships without then need for an army of normal RCS thrusters. Spectrometer for getting an area's composition to get some juicy science. Virtugenic Refinery for processing dust into more ore and converting dust into virtual particles. Dust Ring for higher speed drawing in of dust. Solar Wind Panel for truely passive dust collection from the Sun. Micropulsed Magnetic Drive for high efficiency burst of acceleration at the cost of endurance. Zurbin Nuclear Drive for massive propulsion on par with the Indominus in and out of the atmosphere. Gallery of Parts and Usage Details http://imgur.com/a/TFdao#0 PRIMARY DOWNLOAD: http://spacedock.info/mod/187/Solaris%20Hypernautics CURSE DOWNLOAD: https://kerbal.curseforge.com/projects/solaris-hypernautics CKAN AVAILABLE: YES Development Thread Licensing The contents of this pack are licensed as GPLv3. Zzz parts are licensed as Public Domain. Recommended Mods Module Manager 2.6.2 or more Integratable Mods Engineering Tech Tree by Probus Community Tech Tree by Nertea THE ION-HYBRID PACK FOR CURRENT KSP IS OUT NOW GO CHECK IT OUT:
  3. The ion engines from @Nertea's mods are just awesome aren't they?! One might even call them sexy. And I'd agree because come on. But how do you balance the reactors, engines, radiators and overall dry mass to get decent TWR, consistent burns and keep the reactors in their prime too? Here are a few steps to get you going. Topics will be added over time so don't worry too much about things missing from this post. Reactor + Engine Balance When picking a reactor, watch its Power Generated value and Required Cooling value. When picking an ion engine watch its EC consumption and you'll find that this consumption will tend to be exact to the output of a given reactor and that there are several more such pairings begging for you to notice them. Reactor + Radiator Balance Once you can keep in mind how much the Required Cooling of a given reactor is, it should be easy enough to look at the stock radiators and add or multiply their Core Heat xFer values. Once your total exceeds the reactor's Required Cooling value that's it, that's how many of that radiator you need. This is a good setup: 400kW from 2x large static radiator > 300kW from 1x Garnet. Also, never forget that static radiators must be attached directly to the reactor or its parent part or else. I don't need to install a radiator mod to show how to balance a reactor with them, but I would need to install one because stock radiators do have their limitations, and "options" are especially important for ion-powered vehicles that dare to pass through an atmosphere with their reactors running. Reactor Longevity Don't get swept away with the power of a nuclear reactor that you decide to or completely forget to put an RTG or solar panel on your craft. Always include an alternate means of power generation so that the probe core can be kept alive and that you don't waste the reactor's nuclear fuel Enriched Uranium between the last orbital maneuver and the next. In flight there is the danger of the reactor overheating and the loss of core health (separate from core life). Core Health is expressed as a percentage and iirc, once health is lost, total output becomes capped and it can eventually meltdown and become dead and useless (I don't know if it explodes, haha). Core Life is the amount of time you get depending on how full it is with Enriched Uranium and what the output cap is. The output cap is controllable via a slider in the NF Reactor toolbar panel between 0 and full EC/s rate, technically allowing the reactor to run for decades or centuries as an oversized RTG. Capacitors As @Supercheese mentions below (which helps me a lot in do this part, so thanks muchly ) installing capacitors instead of a reactor can save cost and weight and increase deltaV by quite a lot. As shown in the first picture, you get 8x the amount of StoredCharge to ElectricCharge for the same mass and volume of the part. Each part here weighs 0.25 tons but one quarter-ton of capacitor shines brightly against 2 whole dark tons of normal battery. (Stock 2.5m batteries featured here) While that is a great thing, they have their disadvantages. They are not a 2-way street like batteries and cannot be used out of while they're charging. A capacitor can be paused from charging (and when charging it will feed from everything that produces or stores ElectricCharge) but it cannot be paused while discharging (in doing so it will feed everything that stores or consumes ElectricCharge). You can control* the discharge rate of a capacitor in the VAB and in flight at the Near Future Capacitor toolbar button. As shown in the second picture: because the visible ion engine consumes 1999 EC/s I set the discharge rate to just over that to feed the engine and any vital systems. Unfortunately, as far as I know, you must manually discharge capacitors in series to feed your engines. If you discharge them all at once that's quite literally wasting tons of power. * There are certain lower limits to the discharge rate depending on a capacitor's size which will occasionally force you to add an engine or else waste a portion of the released power. Even if for some reason you end up stacking a reactor's weight or more in capacitors (and heavy, heavy solar panels...) on a craft, you're still saving more than just cost. You're avoiding the troubles of nuclear fuel and reactors themselves if you're still skeptical about the things, but you'll remain at the mercy of solar panel efficiency if you're operating very far from a star. The next thing to consider is how many capacitors set at a given discharge rate will afford a consistent engine burn up to a desired maximum length. The reference formula to measure by is very simple: Total StoredCharge / Discharge Rate = Maximum burn time in seconds. Fuel Performance If you're a nut for fuel performance, then here are a few opening stats including engine sizes to help weigh Near Future's propellants in your mind before you read about them below. Argon Engines 1 ~ 54.55 kN, 2800 ~ 5500 Isp 0.6m, 1.25m, 2.5m Xenon Engines 1.4 kN, 4000 Isp (Stock Dawn engine) 2.3 ~ 5.6 kN, 6500 ~ 19300 Isp 0.6m only VASIMR Engines (can halve their Isp for nearly triple thrust, no change in propellant consumption) Xenon mode: 4 ~ 68 kN, 6000 ~ 7000 Isp Argon mode: 2.5 ~ 44 kN, 8500 ~ 9500 Isp 0.6m, 1.25m, 2.5m Lithium Engines 46 ~ 237 kN, 2900 ~ 3800 Isp 0.6m, 1.25m, 2.5m Argon Probe I personally prefer ArgonGas over XenonGas because it's more abundant in-game (as it is irl) than Xenon and is hence easier to harvest from Duna and other planets with atmosphere. Here I modify a probe that was never meant to go far from wherever it's deployed, to (almost) be able to cross SOI. Almost = not enough fuel but there's plenty, plenty room to fix that. Adding a radial Argon tank (or 4) and changing the Garnet to its TopNode subtype so I can attach things to its other end. Xenon Probe Here's a Xenon-powered Duna probe I launched soon before KSP 1.2.0 was even announced. This is 6 tons, 1 TWR in low Mun orbit iirc, and 11km's dV! The Garnet reactor underneath has 2x Radiator Panel (edge), the straight ones with 150kW cooling power directly attached and they're exactly enough (300kW together) to keep it at/within its limits (300kW). The particular Xenon engines on this one have been deprecated so I can't explore them now. Refueling There are two mods I know of that supply a means not just to use Argon or Xenon, but to replenish your tanks. The first is Karbonite, part of USI. Its low-altitude atmosphere scoops come in 1.25m and 2.5m size. They have very poor intake values since they are firstly filter type devices, and they operate better the faster you're moving and the thicker the atmosphere. Strap some of these, a karbonite power cell and a USI kontainer (for Argon) or a stock Xenon tank to your airplane and fly around (if you have the patience or an autopilot mod). Have the scoops filter karbonite too to feed the power cell and even better, feed some karbonite jet engines so you can infinitely fly and refuel faster.... Or you know, spam them on a landed craft and do the timewarp disco. (Forgive me for mentioning so much karbonite.) Then there's Near Future, of course. It provides the AIReS Atmospheric Sounder (Science category) and the M-2 Cryogenic Gas Separator (Utility category) for harvesting Argon and Xenon. The AIReS is a scanner and both parts only work in atmosphere. Unlike karbonite's scoops, the M-2's performance is not influenced by whether it's moving, and it consumes between 12 and 24 EC/s, or 12 + 24 depending on which gas, or both, you're processing. Lithium The story isn't very different for lithium-fueled crafts, except that Lithium, being a solid material is much denser than Argon and Xenon and that makes it better for crewed ion vessels. TWR is much better at the cost of Isp, and empowers heavy landers and even enables Duna SSTOs. I've made Argon-fueled SSTOs (in KSP 1.1.3) but those required very, very tedious mixing and matching of USI and NFT's reactors, karbonite scoops (to refuel themselves), and engines for sufficient dV and TWR. I don't know if it's still possible now. I haven't been at this kind of thing since KSP 1.2 arrived. Sometime perhaps I will post examples of a perfected ion-powered SSTO. Near Future Propulsion adds Lithium modules to the stock drills and stock ISRU (and the ISRU of Kerbal Planetary Base System if also installed). Here we have an Augustus-capable Lithium SSTO prototype. Since I always have Galileo's Planet Pack installed, I have KER set to Augustus, a moon, and it compares as follows: Augustus: 0.35g, 65km atmo, 350km radius. Duna: ........0.30g, 50km atmo, 320km radius. The Garnet reactors have just enough cooling and this Lithium engine pairs it perfectly for EC flow. The 3 tons of Ore simulates precious cargo like LS resources. Full or empty, though, this craft can make it (however, it's not aerodynamically sound). When devising a Lithium-driven vessel and want to make your engine setup controllable, make sure to add this to your procedure: Setup the reactor on its own stack and if possible, attach all the needed radiators to it. Attach its complement engine and if necessary, nerf the engine so it doesn't drain more EC than is produced (this is only necessary for the huge engines). Take that stack now and multiply it with symmetry until you get a satisfying number for TWR. This only really matters if you want to land or launch in atmosphere. With the prototype craft below, 2x is not enough and 4x is even better. But this isn't always the case. Diminishing returns are hard to avoid or control, especially when the payload fraction goes up from here. Here's a mothership I launched from Minmus. It doesn't claim to be an SSTO but it had about 6km/s dV fully loaded and had some LFO and roughly 1.2km/s for its VTOL mode and a tiny chemical rocketed lander. it was rated for operation with the surface gravity of Vall which is greater than that of Mun. It also contained 3x Near Future's 8 ton Prometheus reactor and 6x 1.25m Lithium engines.
  4. >>Please note that this mod is currently all rights reserved until I can find a better licence<< I have been trying to create a mod for 1.2 and made this: New! The super-boosters 1 & 2 are the latest way to get into space without more than the bare essentials. Ridiculously overpowered and ridiculously overpriced the super-boosters are the latest way to get into space-with a price. Comes in rockomax and 1.25 sizes. They are on 1.2 and uses lv-t30 config with extra power. It is my first mod and 3D creation so it is rather shoddytm . I want support from the community, so don't be afraid to criticize. Anyone who can help me with part attachment node offset will be greatly thanked Curse Download: https://kerbal.curseforge.com/projects/superbooster?gameCategorySlug=ksp-mods&projectID=253110 Thanks to @Vjrcr ,@steedcrugeon , @JPLRepo , @SpaceMouse , @tg626 , @Gamax19 Owen Maley. To Harry Maley- My Rocketing cousin
  5. I think I mentioned this back in 2013, but there wasn't much science behind the concept. Basically I propose an inline rocket engine (nozzle). It's an upside-down inline aerospike (only noticed that after functionally modeling it) that let's you stack tanks or other engines directly behind it. Back in the day IIRC we didn't have radial thrusters yet, so I realize that three years later the utility is a little lost, BUT, I still think it's interesting that it may actually work, and may potentially be used to reduce surface drag. In any case, it would have helped with regular staging in lieu of the abominable asparagus staging that is so common nowadays. This idea was motivated by the concept of aerodynamic skin effects (IDK what they're actually called, I'm just a pretend engineer) Well anyways, let me share with you my findings, and you can let me know what y'all think: the nozzle: now to validate this thing a little I ran a couple sims. here's a 2d prototype: and here's the thing in 3d. although I think the 2d cross section is more useful. The boundry conditions here are all the walls at 1atm pressure, and the spigots in the engine shovel 1kg/s of air through the engine. Color is temperature. Now in the 2d pic we almost see an airstream that stays under sqrt(x). that would mean that the efficiency on these things (given the right geometry) could be really good! What I really didn't expect to find was this low pressure area/hourglass air density around the nozzle. that surprised me, but it's possible that I set up the boundaries wrong. (not a real scientist). So I was wondering if y'all had any opinions on the concept, or if someone was willing to independently verify this. you think this type of engine would be a nice addon for ksp? PS: a name for this thing would also be nice, if it doesn't already exist.
  6. dear community, as discussed here first images of following mod 'Rocket Factory' : STS - AIAKOS 1 - Space Transport System projectstatus : work in progress. get AiKOS Project album on IMGUR view album on IMGUR and here
  7. Remember the fusion rocket concept I posted a couple months ago? It turns out the company responsible behind it is also developing what the thread is named after - ELF thruster, for short. Here's a couple papers. In a nutshell (as far as I can understand), the thruster turns whatever propellant it was fed (water and simulated Martian atmosphere was tested) into a blob of field-reversed configuration plasmoid, then accelerating it with magnetic coils. If this works, we may have what could be a revolutionary engine for aircraft - an electric jet engine without moving parts. Still needs some way to power it, though. So, what do you guys think?
  8. *points to the title* Now there's a combination of words I never expected to see... or at least not in a serious context! But a company called Tethers Unlimited is quite serious about it. They've built a hydrolox thruster for microsatellites - main propulsion for large cubesats, or attitude thrusters for slightly larger craft. However, it doesn't carry cryogenic liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. No, it carries plain old de-ionized water. And it will use electricity from the satellite's solar panels to electrolyse that water, creating oxygen and hydrogen which is then injected into the combustion chamber. The main idea behind it is that small satellites that ride as secondary payloads often struggle to find rideshares if they carry propulsion, because those propulsion systems and the fuel they contain pose risks to the primary payload (or to other secondaries). These risks need to be insured, which costs insurance money, and mitigated, which costs development money. But a spacecraft carrying water needs neither of those two, because the propellant is "non-toxic, non-explosive, and unpressurized". It's also dirt cheap, and (in a future scenario) can be easily replenished by ISRU in space. So much for the theory, but in practice? The system may launch into space for the first time as early as 12 months from now. It's been test fired plenty of times on the ground. (Source) What do you guys think? Hydrolox has the potential for the best specific impulse by a wide margin among the chemical propellants typically used today, and removing the need to carry the low density, hard cryogenic LH2/LO2 bipropellant instantly removes its biggest drawback. But how much extra dry mass and volume does the electrolysis equipment require? How much effort does it take to consistently draw the right amount of liquid from an unpressurized tank in zero gravity? How much electrolysis power can a cubesat's solar arrays provide - will that be enough gas to build sufficient combustion chamber pressure and temperature to actually get the nice, high Isp? Or is the system ultimately no better than a common hydrazine thruster, and its only advantage is the propellant safety? And what about comparing other options for solar electric supported propulsion, such as electrothermal rockets (resistojets)?
  9. http://www.engadget.com/2014/08/18/nasa-origami-solar-panels/ I was going to add this to a pre-existing thread that would have been perfect for this topic, but for some reason moderator locked it, if said moderator feels the urge to unlock the thread, then please merge this post with that thread.
  10. Hi! I have been much idle time, but I'm back and I'm back with a new idea: more nuclear propulsion. Justification of more nuclear propulsion: In Kerbal no evidence of the existence of a cold war, nuclear testing and non nuclear proliferation treaty; and also the only life there are those green people living in the rocket base, so no problem with nuclear contamination. (forever alone) The atomic propulsion that I suggest: - Nuclear thermic engine (update): Now make use of only hydrogen (more down) instead fuel and oxidizer. - Radioisotope engine: A little engine similar to ionic engine, little more heavy, that make use of hydrogen (instead xenon) and not requires electricity. - Atomic bulb: A big powerful engine that make use of hydrogen and little of uranium (more down), and produces electricity. - Nuclear liquid uranium engine: A medium powerful engine that make use of hydrogen and uranium. - Nuclear gas uranium engine: A big very powerful engine that make use of hydrogen and lots of uranium. - Uranium bubble: A medium very powerful engine that make use of only uranium (need a new animation to represent ioniced uranium bubble), and lots of electricity. - Nuclear pulse engine: A very big and very powerful engine that make use of 0,8 to 25 kilotons range nuclear detonations to propelling (need a new animation to represent engine move and nuclear explosions), make use of nuclear nukes (there is of different types, mass and power). - Advanced nuclear pulse engine: A extremely big and powerful engine that make use of 25 kilotons to megaton range nuclear detonations. - Polywell nuclear thermic engine: A little-medium engine that make use of a controlled fusion reactor to heat up hydrogen (make use of only hydrogen), and produces much electricity. - Antimatter injection thermic engine: A little-medium engine that make use of very low amounts of antimatter to heat up hydrogen (make use of hydrogen and antimatter), and produces much electricity. Fuels and materials to propulsion: - Liquid hydrogen: in containers of similar size to "fuel-oxidant" containers (any size). - Uranium: in little and shorts containers. - Antimatter: in little and shorts heavy containers, with reinforced texture, these containers consumes a lots of electricity to contain the antimatter, if there is no electricity, it will explode. - Nukes (very expensive, care): of various types, in very width and shorts containers: - 0,8 kt (60 units) - 2 kt (30 units) - 5 kt (20 units) - 10kt (10 units) - 25 kt (5 units) - 50 kt (3 units) - 100 kt (1 unit) of various types, in very width and large containers: - 25 kt (30 units) - 50 kt (20 units) - 100 kt (10 units) - 250 kt (5 units) - 500 kt (3 units) - Megaton (1 unit) Utilities: - Big radioisotope battery. - Nuclear isomer battery: like classic radioisotope battery, but with more intensity, less duration and rechargeable. - Nuclear power reactor (produces a lots of energy, consumes uranium). - Polywell power reactor (produces more energy than fission nuclear, consumes hydrogen and requires big quantity of energy to start). Technology tree: After nuclear node (thermal nuclear engine): - Add: little and medium hydrogen containers/tanks After nuclear node (thermal nuclear engine): - Advanced nuclear node: nuclear power reactor, big radioisotope battery, radioisotope engine, little uranium container/tank, big hydrogen containers/tanks. After advanced nuclear node: - More advanced nuclear node: atomic bulb, gas nuclear thermal engine, liquid nuclear thermal engine, medium uranium container/tank. - Basic nuclear fusion: polywell power reactor, isomer battery. After more advanced nuclear node: - Kiloton: nuclear pulse engine, little nukes containers, uranium bubble. After basic nuclear fusion node: - Advanced nuclear fusion: polywell engine. - Antimatter: antimatter containers, antimatter injection engine. After kiloton node: - Megaton: advanced nuclear pulse engine, big nukes containers.
  11. We have been having a running discussion in this subforum for the last year or more concerning a type of energy that does not require an apparent mass to generate momentum. Although energy can be converted into light which has momentum it has very little momentum given the energy contained within, and so finding something that has a magnitude more momentum per input energy created alot of discussion. In the end here I hope to show that it really matters little. To start off this analysis lets imagine the settlers of the mid 19th century American west. To accomplish their journey they had wagons with supplies and draft animals to pull the supply, this carried them across an expanse that was devoid of trade goods to either feed themselves or their livestock. Along the way the live stock feed, and because high energy foods spoiled they would kill animals and butcher them for meat and fat. There was a thing called winter, at which point unless you had settled in, it would not be a good thing to be in space. Conceptually speaking all major exploratory journeys are like this, if we imagine the discovery ships, they had to have supplies to last them several weeks, they might stop at islands to pick up water and supplies, and they would not want to be caught in a hurricane. Therefore the concept of expanse, resource management and risk have been dealt with. So now lets consider the trip to or any planet. Our Mississippi river is the LOE, we first have to get our ship up across the problem of drag and its desire to fight orbits. During this phase of the journey we cannot rely on any space resource and so it is a given that the initial state provides the energy and mass to create momentum. Once we have a semi-stable orbit we then can examine the problem of space. Space is a name, it has a sort of implicit meaning that it has no stuff in it. Actually space has alot of stuff, at least our local space, relative to the vast expanses of emptiness between galaxies. The stuff in space however tends to get concentrated into inertially defined bodies. Between these bodies are gases and for a traveler these gases are always in motion and because the gases are almost always charged (that means gas is a mixture of plasma and gas), the gas is maintained in a rarefied state by momentum and electromagnetic energy from the sun, as a consequence it can at times be non-inertial. To be clear here, the density of gas, even in the atmosphere of the sun, is so dilute it is of little practical use. That is to say in the time frame of our journey their is neither the time or a relevant volume of space to collect this an use it. The material state of vacuum space is more than an annoyance if anything, in LOE it creates drag and in interplanetary space it carries ions that can damage equipment or injure travelers. The bodies in our space fall basically into three categories. The smallest of these are asteroids and comets. Asteroids are the left overs from planetary genesis, the gas from our sun slows down and hits things out in the outer system, cools, and gases and dust that did not form large bodies eventually coalesce into dirty ice balls that get tugged by our planets and burn up, eventually. The planets clear orbits and thus are clearly inertially defined in their motion, since they are no longer colliding. Finally you have the bodies in which atomic conversion is a major character of the bodies visible appearance, at high enough energy these also emit gases. To our traveler these are the resources of space, so lets define these as such 1. Asteroids and Comets. Resources - Mass (Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nickle, Silica, Aluminum): sub resources (metal for building, water for drinking or fuel cells, carbon for food or electronics, all for momentum), trivial amount of inertia, and transitory or impermanent destination. 2. Planets and Moons. - Inertia (as in they warp space), destinations, and the resources of #1. 3. Stars - Electromagnetism, Inertia, trivial emission of Gas and Plasma (as such also a source of electric charge) 4. Not 1 to 3 above - Quantum space - Non-zero rest energy of fields that permeate our universe (which of yet we are not fully aware or know how to exploit). So basically above we can define space as a list of virtual items, in this we can then rank them to our Space traveler. My ranking may shock but . . . A. [Quantum] space - this is the most important resource of space because it permits long distance travel and because its fields make it possible to establish travel strategies. The physical distance between destinations is in the >109 meters, traveling in drag affords speeds of 100s of meter per second, therefore matter just slows down the process. Matter also creates lots of other problems like gravitational collapses and complex body problems. B. Destinations (virtual and physical) - travelers will eventually need resources or a travel interest. C. Electromagnetic radiation - discussed below. Essentially EM is the purest source of energy, that is not to say it is the sole source of energy, but rest mass as an energy source has an investiment cost (in space this translates into mass). D. Inertially derived warping of space time - for the occasional Oberth effect. E. Mass - E = mc^2, p = m * v These are the resources what are their costs. A. Space - Not suitable for biota, no push-off mass, all* momentum must be derived within (*the status of the rf resonance cavity thruster goes undefined), energy required to reach space and return, energy taken by contamination within vacuum space. B. Destinations represent almost always a non-inertial logic, a dV required to reach them, we talk about space-time, we also have to consider dT. Destinations may have other problems like too much or too little of some other resource (Namely light). C. EM - heat dissipation with too much, energy conversion for use in propulsion and systems. D. Oberth masses - Friction or obstructions, space-time (see B). E. Mass - collection, landing, mining, conversion (not to mention cooling equipment) So basically we have a list of issues for our traveler. Breaking this down much of traveler concerns are non-inertial movements in space-time which require energy and for the most part momentum derived from mass ejection. The above is not the intent of the article, it simply breaking things down into abstractions that the next part can deal with. So what is the problem of traveling (not the traveler). If you are not going to something that cross the same space-time (in some relevant timescale) point dV needs to be applied somewhere. We derive dV Light - almost never used, but requires no mass (we have to assume at this point that the rf resonance cavity thruster is not this type of drive) Chemical - the fuel becomes the ejection mass - limited to bond breaking partial bond formation energy of the fuel. Basically at high temperature unfavorable bonds break the most stable reform as the cool. There is a finite limit on how much energy can be obtained from a chemical bond, it is defined in calories per mole and typically is in the form of O-O, H-H, N-O, N=O, C-C, C-H, C-N, C=C, C=N. Electrodynamic - the mass becomes energized by the input of energy and accelerates. (Ion, plasma, VASIMR, Hall effect, rf resonance*) Atomic - a source of heat is used to rarefy gas or liquid which then expands like chemical energy drive. We can see we need energy to produce light, we need to carry mass to produce chemical energy, we need to carry a nuclear reactor or we need to accelerate ions. Unless you want to carry all the energy with the craft there is a limitation of space, right now its solar power, (given the high mass issues with nuclear and cooling issues) Space gives effectively about 1N of thrust for every 233kg of solar panels (C). This gives a maximum 4.2 mm/s2 of acceleration (0.0004g), with that one needs about 233 meters of space. You can assume that a manned spacecraft this will be 10% of the mass so you are effectively limited to about 0.04g. I have created new ion drives and panels in the game to reflect this (HiPep design thrusters). The major problem is orbiting, this designed requires another source of accelation and is not suitable around low hv objects. Nuclear is worse, the reactors cost as much as the panels in terms of weight but much more in terms of cooling. if we argue that solar is kg per sqm then any means of reducing this improves the portability of the system. Modern age silicon lens are light weight and can focus light on a panel of much lower size and weight. This type of system works great in interplanetary flight, however only at a tangent to orbit, so inefficient transfers are not optimal unless the lens are placed on tracks that can move their positions. They also do not work well in non-inertial manuevers close to inertial bodies, this is because the incident angle shift with prograde motion. The mass of the ion drive is trivial (the most efficient drives of a few kilograms will easily consume all the energy we can currently produce), at 9000 dV the mass of the fuel becomes trivial (because you cant produce enough energy to eject it), the mass of energy production facility is just about everything. Find a way to lower the mass of energy production and Manned missions to (but not landing on) are possible.
  12. I have a proposal for a (really really)endgame engine that is a nuclear powered R.A.P.I.E.R in it`s open cycle it utilizes the nuclear reactor to heat and expand the atmosferic air to provide thrust,when clear from the atmosphere you would change to the closed cycle that uses the internal propelent like the Nerv engine. Well: It would be much overpowered? Yes. Even for a endgame engine? I guess not,it would be the game`s last engine. Why would you make such a engine? To make more dinamic SSTOs that can make a bit longer trips not using mk3 parts. So, what you guys think of this in the stock game? And if there`s a mod that have a engine like that let me know please.
  13. So, photons exert a tiny force when they reflect off of something. I was thinking about the EMDrive yesterday, and how it supposedly uses radiation pressure for thrust. Then I had this ridiculously funny and impractical idea of how the EMDrive is supposed to work, according to the physics we know. It would best be explained by a picture: It would use mirrors as fuel, and would leave a stream of mirrors in it's wake as it slowly gets pushed along. It's completely impractical, but would work. I thought it was a funny idea...