Jump to content


  • Posts

  • Joined

  • Last visited


3,811 Excellent

Contact Methods

  • Skype
  • Twitter

Profile Information

  • About me
    K2/TESS Citizen Scientist
  • Location
  • Interests
    Earth and planetary sciences, exoplanets, entomology, meteorology (tropical cyclones), Star Wars, Greek mythology

Recent Profile Visitors

86,351 profile views
  1. Is citizen science planet pack still alive?


  2. Scatterer seems to have issues with objects beyond a certain distance from the Sun, leading to the Scatterer effects of C16-35b to not work correctly. They often don't even face the star that's literally right in front of it. Therefore, the C16-35 system will not be a part of 0.1, but will come in a slightly later update once I get this issue fixed.
  3. Progress report: The textures for Karkinos, Onoi, Aine, and Enyalius are done Nephelion might be completely re-worked; the other gas giant textures and Scatterer are finalized The rocky/oceanic planets all have working realisitic atmospheres; Aine might need to be revamped a bit due to issues with its water content Flight view surfaces of Karkinos and Onoi need work Flight view surfaces of Aine and Enyalius are just about done All of the gas planets except for Kai need new realistic atmospheres WIP rings for Atlantiades
  4. I finally have nicknames for the C18-5 planets. Since the system is within the constellation Cancer, the planets have been named after names given to the constellation by the Greek astronomer/mathematician Eratosthenes. Karkinos (C18-5b) Onoi (C18-5c) Kai (C18-5d) Onoi/C18-5c has gone through like four different textures so far. I can never get something that I'm truly satisfied with. While I am mostly happy with the surface texture, this iteration of clouds didn't come out that great. I'm giving the planet a thick atmosphere, a mix of volcanic outgassing and its primordial envelope, mainly comprised of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, with small amounts of other volcanic gases (CO, CH4, SO2) and traces of hydrogen and helium. For a planet of this temperature (Teq=885 K for 0.3 albedo), the available cloud-forming molecules include sulfides and chlorides. Kai/C18-5d will probably get a texture revamp. I used to think that more methane in an atmosphere would lead to a purple hue, but in reality, it'll just be deeper and deeper blue, so I'll probably change it to an indigo color. It too is hot enough for sulfide/chloride clouds; right now it has faint bands and a mostly uniform purple color. Karkinos/C18-5b is basically done. I just need to get the surface working properly, because for some reason, the surfaces of the planets I make love to break in flight mode. However, the overall texture and the atmosphere are both finalized. Karkinos has an equilibrium temperature in the range of 1150-1200 Kelvin, and a substellar point temperature potentially as high as 1500-1600 Kelvin.
  5. This is a planet pack that will include systems that I have found, helped find, or studied from NASA's K2 and TESS missions. The current name is probably going to be replaced with something better; I didn't really know what else to call it as of now. BACKGROUND I've been finding/studying transiting exoplanets using data from the K2 and TESS missions for the last several years now. Both missions looked at thousands upon thousands of stars at a time to search for tiny, periodic dips in starlight caused by orbiting planets passing between their star and our line of sight. The data is publicly available on MAST (Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes), and I used the program package LcTools to analyze it and search for transiting planet candidates. Me and several other citizen scientists found quite a lot in K2 data on the Zoonivese project Exoplanet Explorers back in 2017-18, and I've been studying TESS data since late 2018. I helped with the discovery of TOI-700d, the first small habitable zone planet from TESS, and TOI-451, a 3-planet system in the 125 million year old Pisces-Eridanus stream. Over the last two months, I've gone back through K2 Campaigns 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 to record all possible planet candidates and refine their parameters to the best of my ability. MOD ADDITIONS This pack will include many of the systems I have found and studied (but not all of them, because single planet systems with a hot sub-Neptune aren't very interesting). All systems will be scaled-down to KSP scale (1/10th the radius, 1/100th the mass, 1/10th the orbital distance) and will be three orders of magnitude closer to the Kerbol system than they are in real life. Most of the systems from my K2 surveys are hundreds of parsecs away; even 1/100th scale would be too far. With the exception of some TESS planets, the masses and compositions will be hypothetical, but are calculated to be as realistic as possible given what is known about these worlds. Most of these planets are unconfirmed, and it's possible that some might be determined to be false positives in later analysis. If that happens, I will still keep the planets in the mod, but it will be in the flavor text that the planet is a false positive. For the first updates, I will only be adding and working on systems from my K2 surveys. TESS systems and other Exoplanet Explorers systems will come later. There will also be hypothetical moons added to many planets to make the systems more interesting and rewarding to explore. SYSTEMS (upcoming v0.1) WIP SCREENSHOTS UPCOMING FEATURES Initial Release v0.1: The C17-2, C18-5, C18-16, and C14-26 systems with their known planets Several other stars, no planets yet EVE and Scatterer compatibility v0.1.1 and v0.1.2 Moons for Atlantiades, Despoina, and Enyalius A system of 9 moons around Taranus Additional star lighting improvements, if needed C16-35 planets and moons v0.2 The 4-planet C14-28 system The 2-planet C15-20 system Later updates: The three planets of C13-7 The two-planet system C17-4AB The three-planet system C15-8 Moons in the C16-35 system REQUIREMENTS The latest stable version of Kopernicus Environmental Visual Enhancements - Planetary clouds Scatterer - Atmosphere and ocean scattering DOWNLOAD TBA ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to: @prestja and @R-T-B for maintaining the current versions of Kopernicus @blackrack for EVE-Redux and Scatterer @OhioBob for his fantastic and incredibly helpful realistic atmospheres calculator @OhioBob, @WarriorSabe, and @JadeOfMaar for help with realistic atmospheres, planet surface/atmo ideas and their feasibility, and more
  6. Liolan (Tau Ceti f) really needs to be puffed up. There's no need to alter any of the other planets; I really like the variety of compositions for the <2 Earth mass planets. Maybe there could be some more Super-Earths, Mega-Earths, and Mini-Neptunes in the 1.5-2.5 Earth radius range for future systems for variety? They would be a lot more difficult to land on or take off from, but if they're far enough from the star, there's opportunity for a lot of big moons. Although if I ever publish a planet pack with a bunch of systems from my K2 Campaigns 13-18 survey, there'll be no shortage of 1.5-2.5 Re planets lol. At least 60% of the planets from just Campaigns 16, 17, and 18 are in that size range, and while I haven't finished refining parameters for the other three Campaigns' candidates, the percentage of 1.5-2.5 Re planets appears to be a little higher. There are even a couple of planets that are decent candidates for being Mega-Earths.
  7. Here are a bunch of the GU objects above 0.85x Earth radius on the exoplanet mass-radius relationship diagram. Smaller planets won't fit, and I didn't include the TRAPPIST analogue planets because their real-life counterparts have already been plotted on such diagrams. Also, the 0.9-1.1x Earth radius section is way too crowded. All planets were converted up to IRL scale (10x the radius and 100x the mass). Teeb, Tide, Infurus, Atlas, Phobor, and Liolan are all >50% iron by mass and are technically iron planets. Teec, Blalo, Narath, Kaith, Eolus, Sicar, and Aquel have a relatively Earth-like mix of silicates and iron.
  8. Are you planning to add analogues of the other potential planets around your Tau Ceti interpretation? While only 4 are confirmed so far, a couple of recent studies have brought up the possibility of a Jupiter analogue, another planet in the HZ, and the original three inner candidates actually being real. A 2018/19 study using Gaia astrometric data (Kervella et al) noticed a shift of around 11.3 m/s, which could be from a Jovian-mass planet (1-2 Mj) in an orbit anywhere from 3 AU to 20 AU from the star. Unfortunately, that's as much constraint as they were able to obtain, which isn't much. Since the debris disk is roughly between 6.2 AU and 52 AU (with a high amount of uncertainty), I would have to guess that either this "Tau Ceti i" orbits around 3-6 AU and closer than the inner limit of the disk, or it orbits further out and has carved a so-far unseen gap. A more recent study, Dietrich and Apai 2020, used the DYNAMITE algorithm to explore the architecture of the Tau Ceti system. DYNAMITE takes into account exoplanet population statistics and information of the target system to predict the orbits of additional planets, and has been used successfully on a few dozen TESS systems by the same authors of this paper. When taking into account the orbits of Tau Ceti g, h, e, and f, DYNAMITE predicts three additional planets, which correlate with the Tau Ceti b, c, and d signals from Tuomi et al 2013. While Feng et al 2017 could not confirm those signals and found a multitude of problems with them, this study provides statistical support that they could exist. Additionally, DYNAMITE predicted PxP-4, the planet you based Aquel on (which I originally thought was a best-case-scenario version of Tau Ceti e until scrolling up a bit). Another thing worth noting is the potential compositions of the Tau Ceti planets. D&A20 mentioned that planets at the orbits of Tau Ceti b, g, and c receive enough radiation that their original hydrogen atmospheres were likely eroded away billions of years ago. However, starting at Tau Ceti h, the insolation from the host star isn't quite enough to have destroyed these original H/He envelopes, so it's a coin toss as to whether or not they're rocky, especially with their true masses likely being in the range of 4-7 Me. I would like to point out that Tau Ceti is quite a metal-poor star, and similarly metal-poor stars appear more likely to host large rocky planets (exceeding 1.6 Re or 6 Me). A couple examples include LHS 1140 and HD 48611 (TOI-214). The theory is that the protoplanets around metal-poor stars take longer to form, so by the time they get large enough to accumulate thick H/He layers, the hydrogen gas in the inner part of the disk has been blown away. Also, your Tau Ceti f analogue is ridiculously dense. Like, it's compatible with a composition of 75-80% iron. Is it going to be made "puffier" in the update? A gaseous Sub-Neptune of 6.7 Earth masses should be around 2.35 Re (scaled down to 1,497.185 km for KSP scale).
  9. The latest version works perfectly fine with 1.11.2 for me. My planet pack I was developing in August (I believe KSP was in v1.10) loaded up correctly, I was able to make a new star system without any issues besides me messing up file paths, and even the enormous Galaxies Unbound mod worked. Every object and custom orbit icon loaded, and the custom ground scatter worked too. I haven't tried to see if Kittopia still works with 1.11/1.11.2, though.
  10. @R-T-B The planet pack I'm developing ran into an error with 1.10-1. I got a message once the game loaded that "Kopernicus was not able to load the custom planetary system due to an exception in the loading process". Here are all of the recommended log files: https://www.dropbox.com/s/pqau27lp7cfzx6v/Logs-Kopernicus.zip?dl=0 I love how Kopernicus now automatically creates a zip file with a copy of the KSP log file, the planet log files, and ModuleManager.ConfigCache. This is going to make bug reporting far easier. NOTE: all 8 of the terrestrial planets currently lack a color and normal map, and are currently only using a flat height map. This is just the first test to make sure they load in properly. A proper height map will be given to each later on, and I will build the color and normal maps via KittopiaTech (assuming it will work).
  11. As I should've anticipated from the name of the patch, Kopernicus 1.9.1-9 does not work in KSP 1.10.1 (although the Nyan Cat loading screen does). And I had just spent the last hour or so prepping the configs for a system of nine planets I'm working on.
  12. My main method of creating planet textures — well, the main method from when I was actually making Kopernicus planet packs — was to customize a planet in SE, export its height map, and use that as a base to create a better height map using a variety of PQS mods (vertexsimplexheight, vertexsimplexheightabsolute, vertexheightnoise, vonoroicraters) and a color map via vertexheightcolor. The reason for an SE height map as a base is because it can include some smaller details and ideal continent/ocean shapes that are difficult to replicate with PQSMods. For example, often I want only a few areas of some mountains, but PQSMods will generate mountains and hills all over the surface and not in specific areas. Custom SE height maps give me the specific terrain details, and PQSMods help refine it. I only mentioned using pure SE textures as a last resort option. They might look cool from a distance, but most surface details scale terribly from SE to KSP (hence why I try to refine the height maps I get and make sure they’re the maximum resolution possible). And trust me, I know plenty well how poorly SE textures are received in the Kopernicus community.
  13. So, just for clarification, since I've been absent from the Kopernicus community for ages: Has the time warp altitude limit feature been removed now that there are no longer altitude limits for the stock bodies (except for the minimum time warp altitude)? Is KittopiaTech permanently not working? Will there ever be a feature to generate and update textures/height maps like it? Have PQSMods remained the same since 2018/19? I'm under the assumption that the latest patch(es) work for KSP 1.10.1, but since I'm hoping to develop a new planet pack in the coming weeks (I'm almost finished calculating the physical, orbital, and atmospheric parameters of all objects I currently plan to add), I'm mainly concerned about whether or not Kittopia can ever be used. I suck with custom terrestrial planet textures, and I can't even fall back on Space Engine textures for two reasons: I'd need to spend $60 on SE Pro for the texture export feature, and the latest update broke the game for me and now 99% of all objects won't load due to an issue with shaders.
  • Create New...