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About ProtoJeb21

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    The Exoplaneteer

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  • Location EPIC 248435473 g
  • Interests Astronomy, planetary science/exoplanetology, entomology, meteorology (mainly tropical cyclones), Star Wars, Gravity Falls, drawing, data analysis, mathematics, and hiking.

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  1. For once, I'm doing a post here on schedule! I promised I would write about my TESS candidates this weekend, and here they are. For this post I'm only writing about the ones I am by far the most confident about and are unlikely to be eclipsing binaries. Believe it or not, EBs have been even more of an issue than before with the K2 mission, likely because TESS is looking at a greater amount of brighter and larger stars than Kepler was. That doesn't mean I don't have any cool red dwarf candidates, and the increased difficulty doesn't mean I don't have interesting finds to share. TIC 30312676 b Radius: 11.11 R⊕ Orbital Period: 2.201266 days Semi-major Axis: 0.04306 AU Equilibrium Temperature: 2,783 K (4,550oF) Insolation: 14,244.07x Earth Type: Ultra-Hot Jupiter The first likely planet I found with TESS data is also one of the hottest and weirdest I've ever found. If that isn't a strong enough sign that I'm in for some bizarre planets with this mission, than I don't know what is. TIC 30312676 b is roughly the size of Jupiter and orbits every 2.2 days. At first glance, that doesn't seem very odd -- there are a few other Hot Jupiters with similar sizes and orbital periods -- but everything becomes horrifying once you realize that the host star is huge. At 2.24 solar radii with a temperature of 8,747 K and over 26 times the luminosity of the Sun, it is the largest and hottest star I've found to host a planet. This results in TIC 30312676 b to have an equilibrium temperature of nearly 2,800 K; for comparison, the star TRAPPIST-1 is about 2500 K. At these temperatures, the planet is probably extremely inflated and losing its gaseous envelope, with a day side of at least 3,100 K. But it may be worse. A different analysis on the same planet by an automated program designed by the TESS team found that this planet could have an orbital period of 1.1 days instead, which would give it an equilibrium temperature of 3,504 K (5,848oF). If this is true, it would make TIC 30312676 b the second hottest gas giant planet known, just behind Kelt-9b. TIC 388348917 b Radius: 1.73 R⊕ Orbital Period: 1.092019 days Semi-major Axis: 0.023268 AU Equilibrium Temperature: 2,408 K (3,875oF) Insolation: 7,977.55x Earth Type: COSSN (Closely Orbiting Scorched Sub Neptune) It's almost ridiculous that my FIRST TWO planets found with TESS are some of the hottest I've ever found. While not as horrific as the previous planet, TIC 388348917 b is still easily among my top 10 most hellish worlds, with an equilibrium temperature of around 2,400 K. For comparison, that's even hotter than the day side of K2-229b. It is my first COSSN candidate of the TESS mission, but not the first overall; the TESS team managed to find a ~2 R⊕ around HD 213885 with an equilibrium temperature of almost 1,900 K. But back onto TIC 388348917 b, as amazing as it is, it's currently the least likely planet in this post to exist, as its transit depth is very small (~100 parts per million) and could be stellar noise. Thankfully, the host star is very bright (visual magnitude of 9.1), so if it does exist, radial velocity measurements should easily be able to detect it. TIC 62762339 b Radius: 2.41 R⊕ Orbital Period: 4.805032 days Semi-major Axis: 0.04224 AU Equilibrium Temperature: 491 K (424oF) Insolation: 13.844x Earth Type: Warm Mini-Neptune TIC 62762339 b is my first TESS planet around a red dwarf, and is also one of the largest I've ever found around such a small star. At 2.4 times the size of Earth, it is a Mini-Neptune and likely has a thick layer of volatiles like hydrogen, helium, water, and/or methane. However, unlike most TESS targets, the host star is too dim for radial velocity studies with current equipment, so we'll have no idea what it's actual mass and composition is. Since there are no other planets in the system, TIC 62762339 b is probably rather massive, as it would've needed to accumulate nearly all the inner system's planet-forming material for no companions to exist, or be massive enough to toss any planetary siblings out of the way. It could be as massive at 12 M⊕ with a 50-70% silicate and 30-50% water/methane composition. TIC 141708335 b Radius: 1.95 R⊕ Orbital Period: 4.759894 days Semi-major Axis: 0.03817 AU Equilibrium Temperature: 438 K (329oF) Insolation: 8.724x Earth Type: Warm Super-Earth Yet another red dwarf planet candidate, TIC 141708335 b is currently my coolest TESS find, with a temperature around 440 K. While hot by human standards, it is also one of the coolest TESS candidates overall, and cool enough for it to retain a decent volatile envelope. This is reflected by its radius, just under twice that of Earth and above the 1.6-1.8 R⊕ radius gap where rocky Super-Earths start to accumulate large water layers or hydrogen atmospheres. Thankfully, unlike the previous planet, TIC 141708335 b orbits a host star just bright enough in the J-magnitude to be targeted by the CARMENES spectrograph for radial velocity studies. For a water layer comprising about 20% of its total mass, TIC 141708335 b would be about 7 M⊕ and have a RV semi-amplitude of about 5.6 m/s, which would be very easy to detect with CARMENES. TIC 381855507 b Radius: 5.16 R⊕ Orbital Period: 0.808939 days (19.414 hours) Semi-major Axis: 0.01826 AU Inclination: 59.68o Equilibrium Temperature: 2,954 K (4,856oF) Insolation: 18,063x Earth Type: Neptune From Hell, COSSN How many more of these ultra-hot gas planets are there? TIC 381855507 b really tests the limits of what we know about planets and planetary formation. With a radius more than five times greater than Earth, it is the largest planet in the "Hot Neptune Desert", a range of planetary radii (2-6 R⊕) and orbits (<0.1 AU) where there are very few known exoplanets. It is believed that most Hot Neptunes are unable to survive and have their hydrogen envelopes blown off, leaving behind Mini-Neptunes and Super-Earths. This makes it quite hard to believe that a Hot Neptune is somehow still alive with a temperature of nearly 3,000 K. In addition, the F-class host star is extremely metal-poor, and is possibly the most metal-poor exoplanet host star known, which makes it even more unlikely for TIC 381855507 b to even exist. It doesn't help that it would probably have to be around 80 M⊕ with a huge core to not be destroyed in astronomically quick timescales, which may not be possible given the host's low metallicity. Thankfully, since the star is extremely bright with a visual magnitude of 8.81, it should be quite easy to learn more about this system and get a better understanding of why and how it exists. HD 48611 b Radius: 1.78 R⊕ Mass: 6.70 M⊕ Density: 6.55 g/cm3 Gravity: 2.114g Composition: >95% MgSiO2/Fe, <5% H2O Orbital Period: 18.552713 days Semi-major Axis: 0.1308 AU Eccentricity: 0.3 Periapsis: 0.09156 AU Apoapsis: 0.17004 AU Equilibrium Temperature: 593 K (608oF) Summer Temperature: 709 K (817oF) Winter Temperature: 520 K (476oF) Insolation: 29.33x Earth (average), 59.86 (max), 17.36 (min) Type: Hot Rocky Super-Earth I saved the best for last. While not a find of my own, HD 48611 b -- formerly known as TOI-214.01 -- is now TESS's first rocky or mainly rocky Super-Earth, thanks to the efforts of citizen scientist EEfinder. He managed to uncover archived HARPS data of the host star gathered back from 2003 to 2006, but for some reason had never seen the light of day until now. The HARPS data, despite being limited in quantity (only about a dozen measurements), was enough to tease out the 1.8 m/s signal of this planet. That semi-amplitude corresponds to a planetary mass of 6.7 times that of Earth, which when combined with my radius estimate of 1.78 Earth radii, gives HD 48611 b a density of 6.55 g/cm3. When plotted on the exoplanet mass-radius diagram, HD 48611 b is right on the 100% MgSiO2 line. However, this doesn't mean it's purely rocky. It is probably almost entirely made of rock and iron with a thin volatile envelope or thick atmosphere that makes it seem less dense. Not only is the planet notable for having a nearly terrestrial composition, but it also has a rather eccentric orbit, swinging from 0.092 AU to 0.170 AU. This causes the planet to nearly double its temperature between winter and summer. However, such orbit swings likely impart significant tidal forces into HD 48611 b, which would lead to increased volcanic activity and a massive release of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and other kinds of volcanic material. Not only would a volcanic atmosphere caused by tidal heating create a Venus-like greenhouse effect, but it may also be the explanation behind the planet's thin volatile layer. The Super-Earth 55 Cancri e has shown us that atmospheres of heavy gases can make planets appear less dense, meaning that many worlds straddling the 100% MgSiO2 line don't need water envelopes to explain their densities. HD 48611 b could be one of them, and since its host star is bright, its own atmosphere may be able to be analyzed by either Hubble or the James Webb Space Telescope. Those are all of my significant finds as of now. I do have a few more likely planet candidates, but they're all hot Neptunes and Mini-Neptunes that aren't very interesting or worth talking about. I hope to have some more cool finds for the end of the year, where I'll do a look back on my progress in 2018 and reflect on the year as a whole.
  2. I’ve been pretty inactive on the forums lately because TESS Sectors 1 and 2 data was released on Friday, and Planet Hunters was revived as well. Over the last week I’ve been searching for new planets, and me and a few other citizen scientists have found some pretty significant and bizarre finds. I’ll make a post on these planets this weekend.
  3. Hi ProtoJeb21, just saying I wanted someone to make a mod for me if it was ok with you, no offense.

    I'm only a child, and I don't have a clue to how to make a new solar system, and I don't have any textures.

    1. ILoveStars


      I thought you'd be the best person to ask.:/

  4. ProtoJeb21

    InSight launching in 2018

    That was just about as good as a Mars landing could go. I didn’t even expect a first picture this quickly.
  5. ProtoJeb21

    [1.5.1-1 + Backports] Kopernicus & KittopiaTech

    I’m actually kind of embarrassed to ask this, but how do I use the new version of KittopiaTech for KSP 1.5.1? Not only is the setup pretty new to me, but I can’t access the ScaledVersion section in the menu, and I don’t know where or how to update a planet’s scaled space with this new version.
  6. ProtoJeb21

    Thread to complain bout stuff

    Here in New England, we have some absolutely great weather for Thanksgiving. Clear and gorgeously sunny skies, no chance of rain... ...and temperatures that won’t get above 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Today is WAY too cold for this time of year. The high won’t get any higher than 20 F (-6.7 C) with winds chills as low as 6 F (-14.4 C). Things will get even worse later today, with temperatures dropping to as low as 10 F (-12.2 C), and wind chills may get close to 0 F (-17.8 C). Seriously, it’s only November. Why is it now as cold as January here?!
  7. I will be updating the EPIC 220221272 with larger parameters calculated by fellow citizen scientist Mark Omohundro. While EPIC 220221272 f is no longer potentially habitable (although it could still be some weird steamy ocean planet), all the planets are significantly larger and now more dynamic and interesting. EPIC 220221272 b likely has retained an atmosphere, while EPIC 220221272 c, d, and e all likely have significant geological activity and thick terrestrial atmospheres. All the planets likely migrated inwards from near the Frost Line, so they all would’ve formed with about 5-20% water by mass. Depending on their size and final orbits, some would’ve lost this water, while for other planets it would’ve turned into a thick atmosphere. EPIC 220221272 b and c are probably too irradiated by stellar flares and too small to have retained their initial water layers, which would’ve made them 5-10% more massive than we see them today. EPIC 220221272 d and e may have formed with about 15% water by mass, but due to their low masses (around 2-4 Me) and exposure to stellar flares, most of this would’ve been lost as well. But keep in mind, I said most. EPIC 220221272 d is probably large enough to have held onto a thick water vapor atmosphere, and EPIC 220221272 e is far enough away to be the same. The latter probably formed with more water due to being further out in the system, and as a result its steam layer would be much larger and more Venus-like than EPIC 220221272 d. Finally, EPIC 220221272 f is now technically a Mini-Neptune, but could have a water fraction of 20-75%, depending on its exact size, with little to no hydrogen at all. Also, I’ll be adding the possible candidate EPIC 220221272 g as well, although it’s been a big maybe for over a year now. If it does exist, it’s a little smaller than Earth and gets about 38% more sunlight, making it like a smaller version of Ross 128 b. It also probably would’ve formed out near the Frost Line with more water, but due to its small size and mass, most of it would’ve been lost. A rather thin global ocean probably remains. But EPIC 220221272 g may not be a real planet, so don’t get too excited about it being potentially habitable just yet.
  8. I always think that, when a bizarre Hot Jupiter with star-like temperatures or glass rain or clouds of sunscreen is discovered, we have reached a limit to how utterly weird these planets can get. Time and time again, I am proven wrong. HATS-70b continues this trend. This Hot Jupiter is so large and so hot it can’t even really be called a Hot Jupiter. HATS-70b is a 13 Jupiter mass object orbiting a luminous A-class main sequence star every ~1.8 days, resulting in an equilibrium temperature in excess of 2,700 K and an insolation nine thousand times greater than Earth. Something like this would easily fall into the new Ultra Hot Jupiter category, and its mass means it’s likely a Super-Jupiter or a small brown dwarf. HATS-70b is also probably the hottest and “puffiest” object of its mass, not only with a temperature hotter than TRAPPIST-1, but with a density of “just” 6.6 g/cm^3 and a radius 40% greater than Jupiter’s. Brown dwarfs and Super-Jupiters are so massive that they should be crushed to 1 Jupiter radius, but this one gets so much heat that it’s enough to overcome its own powerful gravitational force. That doesn’t mean its gravity is weak — HATS-70b has a surface gravity somewhere around twenty gees, easily enough to crush your legs into rubble and render your unconscious if there was a solid surface to stand on. All this planet has is a thick, superheated atmosphere likely filled with plasma water, metal vapor, and molten rain, not unlike other planets of this temperature range. You can read all about this abomination here: I wonder how long it’ll take for something even more ridiculously absurd and horrifying to be discovered and make this look normal. Probably a few months at the most.
  9. I spent several hours today updating the OP with multiple systems found by me, Vidar87, and shutcheon from Exoplanet Explorers, including K2-183, K2-155, and K2-229. The Planet Candidates section presents what we currently know about these worlds in an easy-to-read fashion that is far easier to understand than going back through all the posts in this thread and reading about the ones pertaining to a specific system. Seriously, don’t do that; some of the systems in the Planet Candidates section in the OP have barely been mentioned in the rest of the thread.
  10. My computer had other ideas. The battery isn’t working right and now it’s too slow to run KSP with a ~1 GB planet pack.
  11. Then what was it from? MAVEN? Mars Express? Or something else that was misinterpreted?
  12. ProtoJeb21

    Finally, a planet around Barnard’s Star!

    The phase “Super-Earth” is usually used for any planet between the size of Earth and Neptune, either if they’re entirely rocky or have some amount of volatiles. I like to use it for planets between about 1.2 and 1.75-2.00 Earth radii, or 2-10 Earth masses, unless the planet is revealed to be volatile rich (Kepler-138d is a good example). Most Super-Earths are not in any way friendly for life, although in the case of Barnard b, it could have a subsurface ocean like Europa or Enceladus due to its likelihood of being more geologically active.
  13. ProtoJeb21

    Finally, a planet around Barnard’s Star!

    I read about that project when I was a little kid and thought it actually launched, so for years I was waiting for it to arrive at Barnard’s Star. Eventually I found out it was nothing more than a proposed spacecraft that never say the light of day. Bummer. I think the potential for this to be directly imaged makes up for the fact that we likely aren’t visiting the system anytime in the next half a century. Not only could the surface be resolved in pre-New Horizons Pluto quality, but looking for little blobs in or around the disk of Barnard b could reveal orbiting moons. It’s certainly massive and far enough from the star to host at least one.
  14. I can’t believe just a few days ago we were talking about the hopes of imaging Super-Earths, and now there’s Barnard b, a nearly perfect candidate for direct imaging. It’s very nearby, orbits a very faint and small star, and has a pretty wide orbit. I used to think that we wouldn’t get a direct image of a Super-Earth until the 2030’s at the earliest, but if Barnard b does exist — and most evidence says yes — it could be imaged in the mid 2020’s by the new Extremely Large Telescope or the JWST. Unlike every other exoplanet in our solar neighborhood, Barnard b orbits far enough away that it probably hosts moons, which may be detectable by monitoring any changes in the disk of the planet (I’m assuming it’ll only be a dozen or so pixels across). Just the possibility of being able to directly see a rocky Super-Earth and potential detect exomoons at the same time is incredibly exciting.