Ahhh The devil is in the details as they say.
No, you're not going to print a carbon fiber tube. What you are going to print is with a carbon fiber infused filament. IIRC these materials have shown increased strength along all axes, even between layers, as some of the fiber does tend to span layers somewhat.
If you need a CF tube or spar or sheet, you're better off just buying said material from a place like McMaster-Carr and cutting it to your need. But if you have a custom shape that needs to be in CF.... well.... they make CF molding kits, you just have to provide the mold..... which 3d printing excels at. Make a mold of the item you want in CF, print it in PLA, finish the mold to perfection, and then mold the CF to that mold. Boom. And that's repeatable, relatively cheap, and fast compared to what you'd get from FDM printing.
You shouldn't treat 3d printing as the end-all of home manufacturing, but merely a cog in the bigger picture. Yeah, for the average person, a FDM 3d printer will cover 98% of their needs, but if you're looking to move into a finished commercial product, you might have to consider other methods used along with a 3d printer to make your product repeatable, consistent and of a high enough quality while keeping costs down.
There are many many many different materials available for 3d printing, each with their own properties. You Tuber CNC Kitchen did some really good research into the various properties of common printing materials, doing actual practical experiments to compare them. 3D Printing Nerd has a really good episode where he walks through all the "common" 3d printing filaments (Common as in you probably don't need specialized purchase orders to obtain them, but some might be harder to find) and their advertised properties.
If you're looking at really high temp, or even moderately high, SLA 3d printers (where the object is printed using a liquid resin rather than melted filament) might be what you should be investigating. They are cheap enough now that they are comparable to FDM printers, but the resins do tend to run somewhat expensive. YouTuber Integza (who is an absolute genius nutcase, he makes Colin Furze look like an OSHA safety officer) has been working on making pulse jet and turbo jet engines from 3d printed ceramics, all done with desktop printers and not much of a budget.
I'd recommend looking at those channels, plus other resources, before deciding on anything.